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Academic year 2016-17 Even semester

15EE42 : “POWER GENERATION & ECONOMICS”


Prepared by
Vineeth Kumar P. K.
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
SDM Institute of Technology, Ujire, D. K, Karnataka, India
vineethkumarpk@gmail.com
vineethkumarpk@sdmit.in
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9746738675 (Kerala) and 9741346475 (Karnataka)
Module 4
Substations and Grounding

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Syllabus
• Substations:
Introduction to Substation equipment: Transformers, High
Voltage Fuses, High Voltage Circuit Breakers and Protective
Relaying, High Voltage Disconnect, Switches, Lightning
Arresters, High Voltage Insulators and Conductors, Voltage
Regulators, Storage Batteries, Reactors, Capacitors,
Measuring Instruments and power line carrier
communication equipment. Classification of substations –
indoor and outdoor, Selection of site for substation,
Busbar arrangement schemes and single line diagrams of
substations. Interconnection of power stations.
Introduction to gas insulated substation, Advantages and
economics of Gas insulated substation.
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Syllabus
• Grounding:
Introduction, Difference between grounded
and ungrounded system. System grounding –
ungrounded, Solid grounding, Resistance
grounding, Reactance grounding and resonant
grounding. Earthing transformer. Neutral
grounding and neutral grounding transformer.

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Typical AC Power System

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Typical AC Power System

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Typical AC Power System
• The function of electric power system is to
connect the power station to the consumers
load by means of inter connected system of
transmission & distribution network.
• Structure of power system becoming complex
depending upon the demand.
Generation

Primary
Power System Transmission transmission
Secondary
transmission
Primary
Distribution distribution
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distribution
Typical AC Power System
(i) Generating Station
• Electrical power is produced by 3phase
alternator connected in parallel
• Usual generation voltage is 11kV due to
economic consideration.
• High voltage transmission is recommended
because of the following reasons (i) save the
conductor material (ii) Improve the transmission
efficiency.
Step up transformer
• 11kv 132kV or 220kV

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Typical AC Power System
(ii) Primary transmission
• 22OkV or 132kV is transmitted by 3phase, 3
wire system to the outskirt of the city called it
as primary transmission.
(iii) Secondary transmission
Step down transformer
• 132 kV 33 kV
• 3phase, 3wire system is recommended

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Typical AC Power System
(iv) Primary distribution
Step down transformer
• 33kv 11kv
• 3phase, 3wire system is recommended
• Big/bulk consumer can directly access the
power
• Those demand may greater than 50kW.

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Typical AC Power System
(iv) Secondary distribution
• Electric power from the primary distribution line
(11kV) is delivered to distribution substation.
• Substation is located near to consumer premises
• Step down the voltage to 400V, 3phase, 4 wire
system
• Voltage between any 2 phases= 400V
• Voltage between any phase & neutral =230V

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Typical AC Power System
(iv) Secondary distribution
• It includes i) feeders ii) Distributors & iii)
Service mains.
• Loads are connected to distributors through
service mains.

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Introduction- Substations
• The electric power is produced at the generating
station is far away from the consumers.
• The electric power is delivered is to the
consumers through the large network of
transmission & distribution.
• At each stages it may necessary to change power
system characteristics such as voltage, power
factor, ac to dc etc.
• The assembly of apparatus used for changing
the necessary & desirable characteristics of
power system is called as Substations.
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Definition of substation
• The assembly of apparatus used to change some
characteristics (voltage, power factor, frequency, AC-DC
etc) of electric supply is called substation.
• A station in the power transmission system at which
electric power is transformed to a conveniently used
form.
• The substation station may consist of transformers,
switches, circuit breakers and other auxiliary
equipments.
• Its main function is to receive energy transmitted at high
voltage from the generating station, by either step-up or
step-down the voltage to a value appropriate for local
use and provide facilities for switching.
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Important Points to be considered for
substation layout
• It should locate at proper site
• It should provide safe and reliable
arrangement
• Good design and construction
• It should be easily operated & maintained
• It should involve minimum capital cost

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Types of substation/ classification
Substations

1.According to service requirement 2.According to the constructional features

Transformer substation Indoor substation


Switching substation
Power factor correction substation Outdoor substation
Frequency changer substation
converting substation Underground substation
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Industrial substation 16
Pole-mounted substation
Types of substation/ classification
1.According to service requirement
(i)
Transformer substation
• Changing the voltage level of electric supply
• Receive power of some voltage and deliver it
to other voltage
• Transformer be the main component
• Most of the substation are like ‘transformer
substation’
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Types of substation/ classification
1.According to service requirement
(ii) Switching substation
• Do not change the voltage level
• Incoming voltage=outgoing voltage
• Simply perform the switching operation of power lines
(iii) Power factor correction substation
• This substation locate at receiving end of transmission
line
• Commonly ‘synchronous condenser’ is used for power
factor
• Substation improve the system power factor

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Types of substation/ classification
1.According to service requirement
(iv)Converting substation
• Converting substation converting to AC power to
DC power
• Applications-Traction purpose, electroplating etc
(v) Frequency changer substation
• Those substation can change the supply
frequency
• Frequency change may require for industrial
utilities

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Types of substation/ classification
1.According to service requirement
(vi) Industrial substation
• Supply power to the individual industrial
consumers

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Types of substation/ classification
2.According to constructional features
(i) Indoor substation
• Voltage up to 11kV
• Substation equipment installed indoor because of
economic consideration
• These substation can put together & satisfy up to
66kV
(ii) Outdoor substation
• Voltage above 66kV
• Large number of equipments such as switches, CB etc
• It is not economical to install indoor, because large
space requirement
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Types of substation/ classification
2.According to constructional features
(iii) Underground substation
• Used in thickly populated area where no space is
available to construct open substation
(iv) Pole-mounted substation
• Type of outdoor substation
• It is installed over H-pole or 4 pole structure
• Cheapest form of substation
• 11kV or 33kV
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Transformer substations
• Change in voltage level of electrical supply
Types
1. Step up substation-generation voltage 11kV to high
voltage up to 220kV for reducing transmission
losses & economic considerations.
2. Primary grid substation-220kV to 66kV transmitted
through 3phase 3 wire system & Outdoor type
3. Secondary substation-voltage stepped up to 11kv
(66kv to 11kV) , outdoor type.
4. Distribution substation- Near to consumer locality,
11kV to 400V(3phase 4 wire system)
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Transformer substations- block
diagram

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Pole mounted substations
• It is a distribution substation placed over head pole
• Cheapest form of substation
• No building work is required
• Transformer & other equipments are mounted on the H Type
pole
• 11kV lines are connected to transformer & it will forms
(11kV/400V)
• Lighting arrester are installed at HT side to protect the
substation from lighting stroke.
• Transformer stepped down to 400V, 3phase, 4 wire system
• Voltage between any 2 lines=400V
• Voltage between a line and neutral=230V
• Oil circuit breaker is installed at LT side to automatically isolate
the transformer to consumer at the event of fault
•7/21/2017
Transformer capacity up to 200kVA
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Pole-Mounted substation layout

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Underground substation
• Suitable in thickly populated cities
• Price of land is costly
• Equipments are placed underground
• the size should be as minimum as possible
• Should be provide good ventilation
• Should be provision for excessive temperature
rise indication

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Layout of underground cable

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Typical Components of a Power Plant
Substation (Switchyard)

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A. BUSBAR
• Is a term we use for a main bar or conductor
carrying an electric current to which many
connection may be made.
• Buses are merely convenient means of
connecting switches and other equipment into
various arrangements.
• In the switchyard or substation, buses are open to
the air.
• Air, aluminium or copper conductors supported
on porcelain insulators, carry the electric energy
from point to point.
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A. BUSBAR

Busbars
(long heavy
tube type)

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B. DISCONNECTS
• The purpose of disconnects is to isolate
equipment.
• Disconnects are not used to interrupt circuits;
they are no-load devices.
• A typical use of disconnects is to isolate a
circuit breaker by installing one disconnect on
either side of the circuit breaker
• connect series with the breaker

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B. DISCONNECTS
Disconnect Switch
( moving contact rod (A) &
contacts with flexible
fingers (B) )

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C. CIRCUIT BREAKER
• Is used to interrupt circuits while current is
flowing through them.
• The making and breaking of contacts in a Oil type
circuit breaker are done under oil
• This oil serves to quench the arc when the circuit
is opened.
• Bulk oil circuit breaker is used when the voltage is
up to 66kV
• For higher voltage, SF6 or air blast circuit will be
used
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C. CIRCUIT BREAKER

Operating
Mechanism
Panel
Circuit Breakers
( Connected in a typical 3-
phase circuit )

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D. CURRENT TRANSFORMER
• The current transformer is connected directly
in series with the line.
• One current transformer can be used to
operate several instruments
• Current transformer are used with ammeters,
watt meters, power-factor meters, watt-hour
meters, compensators, protective and
regulating relays and the trip coil of circuit
breakers.

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D. Current Transformer

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E. VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
• Also know as potential transformer(PT)
• They are used with volt-meters, wattmeters,
watt-hour meters, power-factor meters,
frequency meters, synchroscopes and
synchronizing apparatus, protective and
regulating relays and the no-voltage and over-
voltage trip coils of automatic circuit breakers.

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F. EARTHING SWITCH
• Also known as ground disconnect
• It is intended to protect people working on the
grounded equipment.
• Reducing the voltage difference between the
equipment and its surroundings.
• Which used to connects the equipment to a
grid of electrical conductors buried in the
earth on the station property.

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G. SURGE ARRESTOR
• Devices used to provide the necessary path to
ground for surges.

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Bus bar arrangement in substation
• The choice of bus bar arrangement depends on
various factors such as system voltage, position of
substation, degree of reliability and cost.
• Important bus bar arrangements are
(i) Single bus bar system
(ii) Single bus bar system with
sectionalisation
(iii) Duplicate bus bar system

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Bus bar arrangement in substation
contd…
1.Single bus bar system
• It consists of single bus-bar.
• All the incoming and out going lines are connected to it.
• Low initial cost, less maintenance & simple operation
etc are the advantages.
• If repair is to be done on the bus bar or fault occur on
the bus there is a complete interruption of the supply be
the major drawback.
• This arrangement is not used for voltage exceeding
33kV.
• The indoor substation (11kV) usually use single bus bar
system.
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Bus bar arrangement in substation
contd…
Layout- single bus bar system

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Bus bar arrangement in substation
contd…
2.Single bus bar system with sectionalisation
• Single bus bar is divided into two sections
• Load is equally distributed in all the sections
• Any two sections of the bus bar are connected by circuit
breaker or isolator
• This arrangement is used for the voltage up to 33kV
Advantages:
• If fault occur at any sections of the bus that section can
isolate without affecting the supply from other sections.
• Repair/maintenance carried out by de-energizing particular
section without affecting complete shutdown
• It is easy to see that each bus section behaviors as a
separate bus-bar
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Bus bar arrangement in substation
contd…
Layout- single bus bar arrangement with sectionalisation

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Bus bar arrangement in substation
contd…
3.Duplicate bus bar system
• This system consists of two bus bars ie. (i)Main bus bar and
(ii)Spare bus bar
• Each bus bar having the capacity to take entire station load.
• Two buses are connected by using Bus-coupler
• Bus coupler consists of circuit breaker and isolator
• Normally incoming & outgoing lines are connected to the
main bus bar.
• If any fault occur the supply transfer from main bus to
spare bus without interruption.
• Suitable for When the voltage above 33kV.
• Commonly using bus bar arrangement

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Bus bar arrangement in substation
contd…
Layout-duplicate bus bar system

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Bus bar arrangement in substation
contd…
Layout-duplicate bus bar system

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Reactors and Capacitors in Substation
• Both capacitor and reactors are used for
power factor correction in the substation.
Reactors

Series Reactors Shunt Reactors

•When the capacitor bank is energized, the network is subjected to high voltage and
Inrush current
•Reactors damping the effects (reducing the inrush currents/switching currents)
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Reactors and Capacitors in Substation
1. Series reactors
• Reactors connected series with the line or
feeder.
• Uses are fault current deduction, load
balancing in parallel circuit & limiting the
inrush current of capacitor bank.

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Reactors and Capacitors in Substation
Types of series reactors
a)Current limiting reactor-Reduce the current level with respect
to the rating of equipment
b)Capacitor reactors-connected series with the capacitor bank
to reduce inrush current due capacitor bank, switching
operations etc.
c)Buffer reactors for arc furnace- set low electrode current and
long axial length
d)Duplex Reactors-two half coils wounded in opposite direction
for current limiting
e)Load flow control reactors- series connected on transmission
line up to 800kV
f)Filter reactors- used conjunction with capacitor bank, reduce
harmonic content.
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Reactors and Capacitors in Substation
Single phase reactor Current limiting reactor

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Reactors and Capacitors in Substation
Buffer reactor Load flow reactor

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Reactors and Capacitors in Substation

Filter Reactor

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Reactors and Capacitors in Substation
2.Shunt Reactor
• Used to compensate for capacitive VARs
generated by lightly loaded transmission line
or underground cable.
• It can directly connected to the system up to
115kV

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Reactors and Capacitors in Substation
Types of shunt reactors
a)Thyristor controlled shunt reactor
(i) Thyristor controlled Shunt Reactor (TCR)
(ii) Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC)
(iii) Thyristor switched Reactor (TSR)
(iv) Filter Reactor (FR)
b) HVDC reactor
c)Smoothing reactors- reduces ripple in dc system
d)Test lab reactors

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Interconnections of power station
• Connection of various generating station in parallel is
called interconnection of power stations or
interconnected grid system.
• Before explaining the details of interconnection of
power station ,We have to learn the concept of base
load and peak load.
Base load:-
• The unvarying load or fixed load which occurs almost
whole day on the plant is called base load.
• The power plant which are working as base load should
be capable of working continuously for long periods.
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Interconnections of power station
Peak load:-
• The various peak demands of the load over and above
base load of the power plant is called peak load.

• Thus by interconnection of various power stations of


different types, some station will supply base load
while some other stations will supply peak load.

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Interconnections of power station
• Thus the co-ordination of operation of
different power stations is essential which is
shown in the fig. below

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Interconnections of power station
• The power plant which are working as base load should be
capable of working continuously for long periods. It should
have low operating cost. Its repair should be economical and
speedy.
• The peak load power plants should be capable of quick start,
fast synchronization, quick taking of load and fast response to
load variations.
• The hydro power plant serves as base load or peak load
efficiency. They are normally employed as base load plants as
their capital cost is high. When water is not abundantly
available then the hydro power plant works as peak load.
• Nuclear power plants are also employed as base load
• Diesel, gas and pumped storage plants are used as peak load
plants.
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Advantages of Interconnections of
power station
(i) Exchange of peak loads :
• peak load of the power station can be exchanged
• If the load curve of a power station shows a peak demand that is
greater than the rated capacity of the plant
• Then the excess load can be shared by other stations interconnected
(ii) Use of older plants:
• The interconnected system makes it possible to use the older and less
efficient plants to carry peak loads of short durations.
• interconnected system gives a direct key to the use of obsolete
plants.
(iii) Ensures economical operation:
• It is because sharing of load among the stations is arranged in such a
way that more efficient stations work continuously throughout the
year at a high load factor and the less efficient plants work for peak
load hours only.
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Advantages of Interconnections of
power station
(iv) Increases diversity factor :
• The load curves of different interconnected stations are generally different
• The result is that the maximum demand on the system is much reduced as
compared to the sum of individual maximum demands on different stations.
• The diversity factor of the system is improved, thereby increasing the
effective capacity of the system.
(v) Reduces plant reserve capacity :
• Every power station is required to have a standby unit for emergencies.
However, when several power stations are connected in parallel, the reserve
capacity of the system is much reduced. This increases the efficiency of the
system.
(vi) Increases reliability of supply:
• The interconnected system increases the reliability of supply.
• If a major breakdown occurs in one station, continuity of supply can be
maintained by other healthy
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stations.
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Gas Insulated Substation
Introduction:
• A Gas Insulated Substation uses a superior
dielectric gas, SF6, at moderate pressure for
phase to phase & phase to ground insulation.
• The space between the conductor and the
enclosure is filled with SF6 gas under
moderate pressure.

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Gas Insulated Substation
Introduction:
• Compact and Multi component assembly.
• Enclosed in a ground metallic housing.
• SF6 gas is the primary insulating medium. SF6 is non
toxic, colour less, non inflammable & chemically stable.
• Preferred for voltage rating of 72.5 kV, 145 kV , 300 kV &
420 kV and above.
• Various equipment like circuit breaker, Bus bars,
Isolators, Load break switches, current transformers,
voltage transformers, earthing switches etc housed in
metal enclosed module filled with SF6 gas.
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Gas Insulated Substation
Need for Gas Insulated Substation:
• Non availability of sufficient space.
• Difficult climatic condition at site.
• Urban site ( High building)
• High altitudes.

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Gas Insulated Substation
Components of Gas Insulated Substation
• Bus bar
• Circuit breaker
• Disconnector
• Earthing switch
• Current transformer
• Voltage transformer
• Feeder disconnector
• Feeder earthing switch
• Lighting arrester
• Cable termination
• Control panel

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Gas Insulated Substation
Advantages:
• Occupies very less space compared to ordinary
substation.
• Most reliable compared to Air Insulated Substation.
• Maintenance free

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Gas Insulated Substation
Disadvantages:
• High cost
• Excessive damage in case of internal fault
• SF6 cause ozone layer depletion & global
warming.

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Site Selection Criteria for Substation
• Availability of land
• Away from crowded area
• Availability of skilled labors
• Cost of equipments
• Transportation facility

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Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)
Equipment in Substation
• For large power system power line carrier communication is
used for data transmission as well as protection of
transmission lines.
• PLCC can transmit the information at a fast rate (80 to 500kHz)
.
• The important Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)
Equipments are:
1. Transmitter & Receiver
2. Hybrids and Filters
3. Line tuners
4. Line traps
5. Power amplifier
6. Coupling capacitor
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Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)
Equipment in Substation
The important Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)
Equipments (Explanation):-
• Coupling capacitors:- Connects the carrier equipment to the
transmission line.
• Line trap unit:- Basically a parallel resonant circuit. Controls the
flow of carrier energy to the remote line terminals. Provides
low impedance path for the carrier signal.
• Transmitter & Receiver:- Communication through coaxial
cable.
• Hybrids & Filters:- Enables the connection of two or more
transmitters together on one coaxial cable without signal
distortion.
• Line Tuners:- To provide low impedance path to the power line
by forming series resonant circuit.
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Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)
Equipment in Substation

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Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)
Equipment in Substation

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Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)
Equipment in Substation
• Functions of PLCC are
- Station to station communication between
operating personal.
- Protection of transmission lines
- Ensure reliability

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Introduction- Grounding
Grounding or Earthing
(i) Connecting frame of electrical equipment ie, non
current carrying part to be connected to earth (soil).
(ii) Some electrical part of the system ie, neutral point of
star connected system, one conductor of secondary of
transformer to be connected to earth (soil).
• Case (i) & case (ii) are called as earthing or grounding.
• This connection to the earth may be through a
conductor or some other circuit element such as
circuit breaker, resistor, reactor etc.
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Advantages of earthing/grounding
• 2 principle advantages
(i) it provide protection to the power system

(ii) Earthing of electrical equipment ensure the


safety of persons handling the equipment.

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Classification of earthing or grounding
• 2 classification
a) Equipment grounding

b) System grounding

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Equipment grounding
• The process of connecting non-current carrying
metal parts (metalic enclosure) of electrical
equipments connected to earth such a way that
in case of insulation failure, the enclosure
effectively at earth potential is called Equipment
grounding.
• 3 Categories
(a) Ungrounded enclosure
(b) Enclosure connected to neutral wire
(c) Ground wire connected to enclosure

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System grounding
• The process of connecting some electrical part
of power system (neutral point of a star
connected system, one conductor of the
secondary transformer etc) to earth (soil) is
called system grounding.
• Ensure reliability and safety of power system
network.

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Ungrounded Neutral System
• In ungrounded system neutral is not
connected to the ground.
• The line conductors have capacitances
between one another and ground.
Normal condition
CR=Cy=CB=C
IR=Iy=IB=Vphase /Xc

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Ungrounded Neutral System

Delta connection Star connection

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Ungrounded Neutral System
Under single line to ground fault
• Capacitive fault current become thrice the
capcitive current under normal condition.
• Capacitve fault current=3*per phase
capacitive current under normal condition.
• The capacitive current in the two healthy
phases increases to squire root(3) times the
normal value

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Neutral grounding
• The process of connecting neutral point of 3
phase system either directly or through some
circuit elements(Resistance, reactance etc) is
called neutral grounding.
• Protection to personal and equipment.
• During the earth fault the current path is
completed through earthed neutral &
protective devices(fuse) operate to isolate the
faulty conductor from the rest of the system.

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Neutral grounding

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Neutral grounding
• One important feature of neutral grounding is that
potential difference between live conductor & ground
won’t exceed the phase voltage of the system.
Advantages
• High voltage due to arcing grounds are eliminated
• Over voltage due to lightning are discharged to earth
• Improved service reliability
• Operating and maintenance
• Protective relay can be used to provide protection
against earth fault.

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Methods of Neutral Grounding
1.Solid or effective grounding

2.Resistance grounding

3.Reactance grounding

4.Resonant grounding( Arc suppression coil


grounding)

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Methods of neutral grounding
1.Solid or effective grounding
• When a neutral point of a 3-phase system is
directly connected to earth (soil) through a wire
of neglible resistance & reactance is called solid
grounding or effective grounding.
• Neutral point is directly connected to the earth
through a wire.
• Neutral point is held at earth potential under all
conditions.
• The voltage of any of conductor to earth will not
exceed the normal phase voltage of the system
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Methods of neutral grounding
1.Solid or effective grounding

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Methods of neutral grounding
2.Resistance grounding
• When the neutral point of a 3 phase system (3phase
generator, 3 phase transformer etc) is connected to earth
through resistor is called resistance grounding.
• To limit the magnitude of earth fault current
• Neutral point of 3 phase system is connected to earth
through a resistor
• Value of resistance should be neither high nor low.
• The value of earthing resistance R is very low and the system
become similar to the solid grounding system.
• The value of earthing resistance R is very high the system
condition very similar to ungrounded neutral system.
• Value of R chosen such that the earth fault current is limited
to safe value
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Methods of neutral grounding
2.Resistance grounding

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Methods of neutral grounding
2.Resistance grounding
Advantages
• The fault current is small due to the presence of
earthing resistance. So the interference with
communication circuit is reduced.
• Improve the system stability.
Disadvantages
• System costlier than solid grounded system
• Large amount of energy produced during earth
fault. Sometimes it become difficult to dissipate
energy to the atmosphere.
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Methods of neutral grounding
3.Reactance grounding
• Reactance is introduced between neutral and
ground.
• Purpose of reactance is to limit the earth fault
current.
• This method is rarely using method
Drawbacks
• High transient voltage appear during fault
condition

7/21/2017 Dept. of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka, India 92


Methods of neutral grounding

3.Reactance grounding

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Methods of neutral grounding
4.Resonant grounding
• Capacitance is existing between each line and
earth.
• Connect an appropriate value of inductance
connected parallel with the capacitance of the
system.
• If L is so adjusted IL=Ic, as a result fault will be
zero.
• The value of L of arc suppression coil is such that
the fault current If exactly balances the capacitive
current Ic is called as resonant grounding.
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Methods of neutral grounding
4.Resonant grounding

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Methods of neutral grounding

Value of L for the resonant grounding

Advantages
•Completely effective in preventing any damage by
arcing ground
•Advantages of ungrounded neutral system
Disadvantages
•Inductance L require readjustment
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Voltage transformer Earthing
• A Single phase transformer is connected to neutral
and earth.
• A low resistor in series with a relay is connected
across the secondary of the voltage transformer.
• The voltage transformer provide high reactance in
the neutral earthing circuit.
• Operate virtually as an ungrounded neutral system.
• An earth fault on any phase produces a voltage
across the relay.
• This cause operation of protective relay( protective
device)
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Voltage transformer Earthing

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Voltage transformer Earthing
Advantages
• The transient over voltages on the system due to switching
and arcing grounds are reduced. Because voltage
transformer produces high reactance to earth path.
• This type of earthing has all advantages of ungrounded
neutral system.
• Arcing ground are eliminated.
Disadvantages
• High voltage build up & insulation will be overstressed.
Applications
• Generator equipments & Generator protection
Ie. Generator equipments which are directly connected to
step up power transformer.
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Neutral grounding transformer
• The neutral earthing transformer is used to
create a neutral for the delta side .
• Transformer creates additional impedance,
which would limit various imbalanced & fault
current.
• Neutral grounding transformer protects power
transformer & generators from damaging fault
current ( typically more than 50A).

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Neutral grounding transformer
• It is also called as earthing transformer.
• Earthing Transformer or grounding transformer is
the neutral grounding transformer.
• star connected on the primary and has an open
delta on secondary.
• Open Delta has two terminals.
• A resistor is connected across these two terminals.
• Earthing transformer can also be called a large
Potential transformer (Open delta PT).
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Neutral grounding transformer

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Neutral grounding transformer

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Neutral grounding transformer

Lay out Connection diagram

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Thanks for Listening

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