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# 3/22/2018 1.3.

## PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe

Archive Documentation

## Matrix or Vector Shape Functions Integration Points

Stiffness and Mass Equation 11–15, Equation 11–16, Equation 11– None
Matrices 17, and Equation 11–18
Stress Stiffness and Equation 11–16 and Equation 11–17 None
Damping Matrices
Pressure and Thermal Equation 11–15, Equation 11–16, and None
Load Vectors Equation 11–17
Element Temperature Linear thru thickness or across diameter, and along length
Nodal Temperature Constant across cross-section, linear along length
Pressure Internal and External: constant along length and around
circumference. Lateral: constant along length

## 1.3.1. Assumptions and Restrictions

The element is assumed to be a thin-walled pipe except as noted. The corrosion allowance is used
only in the stress evaluation, not in the matrix formulation.

## 1.3.2. Stiffness Matrix

The element stiffness matrix of PIPE16 is similar to that of a 3-D elastic beam, except that

(1–29)

(1–30)

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(1–31)

and,

(1–32)

where:

π = 3.141592653
Do = outside diameter (input as OD on R command)
Di = inside diameter = Do - 2tw
tw = wall thickness (input as TKWALL on R command)

(1–33)

where:

## E = Young's modulus (input as EX on MP command)

L = element length
k = alternate axial pipe stiffness (input as STIFF on RMORE command)

## 1.3.3. Mass Matrix

The element mass matrix of PIPE16 is the same as for a 3-D elastic beam, except total mass of the
element is assumed to be:

(1–34)

where:

## me = total mass of element

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## mw = alternate pipe wall mass (input as MWALL on RMORE command)

ρ = pipe wall density (input as DENS on MP command)
ρfl = internal fluid density (input as DENSFL on R command)

Do+ = Do + 2tin

## tin = insulation thickness (input as TKIN on RMORE command)

= alternate representation of the surface area of the outside of the pipe element (input as
AREAIN on RMORE command)

Also, the bending moments of inertia ( Equation 1–30) are used without the Cf term.
1.3.4. Gyroscopic Damping Matrix

## The element gyroscopic damping matrix is:

(1–35)

where:

Ω = rotation frequency about the positive x axis (input as SPIN on RMORE command)

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## G = shear modulus (input as GXY on MP command)

As = shear area ( = Aw/2.0)

(1–36)

where:

F1 = FA + FP
F7 = -FA + FP

F4 = F10 = 0.0

## P1 = parallel pressure component in element coordinate system (force/unit length)

P2, P3 = transverse pressure components in element coordinate system (force/unit length)

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The transverse pressures are assumed to act on the centerline, and not on the inner or outer
surfaces. The transverse pressures in the element coordinate system are computed by

(1–37)

where:

## [T] = conversion matrix

PX = transverse pressure acting in global Cartesian X direction) (input using face 2 on SFE
command)
PY = transverse pressure acting in global Cartesian Y direction) (input using face 3 on SFE
command)
PZ = transverse pressure acting in global Cartesian Z direction) (input using face 4 on SFE
command)

, the unrestrained axial strain caused by internal and external pressure effects, is needed to
compute the pressure part of the element load vector (see Figure 1.4: Thermal and Pressure Effects).
Figure 1.4: Thermal and Pressure Effects

## is computed using thick wall (Lame') effects:

(1–38)

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where:

## ν = Poisson's ratio (input as PRXY or NUXY on MP command)

Pi = internal pressure (input using face 1 on SFE command)
Po = external pressure (input using face 5 on SFE command)

An element thermal load vector is computed also, based on thick wall effects.

## 1.3.6. Stress Calculation

The output stresses, computed at the outside surface and illustrated in Figure 1.5: Elastic Pipe Direct
Stress Output and Figure 1.6: Elastic Pipe Shear Stress Output
, are calculated from the following
definitions:

(1–39)

(1–40)

(1–41)

(1–42)

(1–43)

where:

## σdir = direct stress (output as SDIR)

Fx = axial force

do = 2 ro

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## tc = corrosion allowance (input as TKCORR on RMORE command)

σbend = bending stress (output as SBEND)
Cσ = stress intensification factor, defined in Table 1.1: Stress Intensification Factors

## σtor = torsional shear stress (output as ST)

Mx = torsional moment
J = 2Ir
σh = hoop pressure stress at the outside surface of the pipe (output as SH)

te = tw - tc
= lateral force shear stress (output as SSF)

Average values of Pi and Po are reported as first and fifth items of the output quantities ELEMENT
PRESSURES. The outside surface is chosen as the bending stresses usually dominate over pressure
induced stresses.

## Figure 1.6: Elastic Pipe Shear Stress Output

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Stress intensification factors are given in Table 1.1: Stress Intensification Factors.
Table 1.1: Stress Intensification Factors

KEYOPT(2) Cσ
at node I at node J
0
1 1.0
2 1.0
3

Any entry in Table 1.1: Stress Intensification Factors either input as or computed to be less than 1.0 is
set to 1.0. The entries are:

## = stress intensification factor of end I of straight pipe (input as SIFI on R command)

= stress intensification factor of end J of straight pipe (input as SIFJ on R command)

σth (output as STH), which is in the postprocessing file, represents the stress due to the thermal
gradient thru the thickness. If the temperatures are given as nodal temperatures, σth = 0.0. But, if
the temperatures are input as element temperatures,

(1–44)

where:

## To = temperature at outside surface

Ta = temperature midway thru wall

Equation 1–44 is derived as a special case of Equation 2–8, Equation 2–9 and Equation 2–11 with y as
the hoop coordinate (h) and z as the radial coordinate (r). Specifically, these equations

## 2. are premultiplied by [D] and -1

3. have all motions set to zero, hence εx = εh = εr = γxh = γhr = γxr = 0.0

## This results in:

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(1–45)

or

(1–46)

and

(1–47)

(1–48)

(1–49)

where:

## A, B = sine and cosine functions at the appropriate angle

σx = axial stress on outside surface (output as SAXL)
σxh = hoop stress on outside surface (output as SXH)

The maximum and minimum principal stresses, as well as the stress intensity and the equivalent
stress, are based on the stresses at two extreme points on opposite sides of the bending axis, as
shown in Figure 1.7: Stress Point Locations
. If shear stresses due to lateral forces are greater
than the bending stresses, the two points of maximum shearing stresses due to those forces are
reported instead. The stresses are calculated from the typical Mohr's circle approach in
Figure 1.8: Mohr Circles.

The equivalent stress for Point 1 is based on the three principal stresses which are designated by
small circles in Figure 1.8: Mohr Circles
. Note that one of the small circles is at the origin. This
represents the radial stress on the outside of the pipe, which is equal to zero (unless Po ≠ 0.0).
Similarly, the points marked with an X represent the principal stresses associated with Point 2, and a
second equivalent stress is derived from them.

Next, the program selects the largest of the four maximum principal stresses (σ1, output as S1MX),
the smallest of the four minimum principal stresses (σ3, output as S3MN), the largest of the four
stress intensities (σI, output as SINTMX), and the largest of the four equivalent stresses (σe, output
as SEQVMX). Finally, these are also compared (and replaced as necessary) to the values at the right
positions around the circumference at each end. These four values are then printed out and put on
the postprocessing file.

## Figure 1.7: Stress Point Locations

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## Figure 1.8: Mohr Circles

Three additional items are put on the postdata file for use with certain code checking. These are:

(1–50)
(1–51)

(1–52)

where:

## MXI = moment about the x axis at node I, etc.

Archive Documentation

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