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M. Muhr, S. Pack, R. Schwarz, S. Jaufer

Calculation of Overhead Line Sags

Power Engineering

Abstract: The liberalisation of the energy market in Europe leads to change in operation of the transmission network. Diagnostic tools for the condition evaluation get more importance. Based on the changed stress and the large expansion of the network of the line components a considerable effort for condition evaluation and maintenance is necessary. In the centre of Europe the Austrian transmission line system at the level 230kV and 400kV has an important role for the energy exchange and was built up in 50’s to the70’s of the last century, therefore parts of the system are more than 40 years old. Based on this situation this paper focuses on the operation behaviour of ageing overhead lines with special regard to the sag calculation of span sections. The sag of a transmission line will increase by increasing conductor temperature caused by the electrical load and specific environmental conditions or additional rope forces (e.g. ice load). In addition, the permanent mechanical forces (everyday stress) elongate the conductor irreversible during its live time. Key Words: Overhead line, Aging, Sag, Calculation

INTRODUCTION

Overhead lines are the backbone in every electrical power transmission system. Because the consumers are not concentrated at the location of the generation it is not possible to use power plants with high output. For the connection between the power plants and the consumers integrated network consists of transmission line systems like overhead lines or power cable are in use. In the past the regional operators worked together, electric energy was generated

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and the grid operators have to save investments to make their transmission lines most economical. they use their lines near the nominal limits and the maintenance strategy has changed from a time based to a condition base strategy. the conductor elongates by the permanent mechanical forces (everyday stress) during its live time. In addition... .nearby the consumer and the network was used as back up. Based on this circumstance the load distribution is also different depending on the Table 1: Load distribution of different conductor types Area ratio Al/St 1:1 3:1 4:1 6:1 11:1 Al 22. HOME B IWK E A. Today by the liberalisation of the European energy marked the trading at the spot marked gives the power flow. For the usage of an overhead line. So the mechanical tension is not equal during mechanical stress in aluminium and steel. the sag of a transmission line will increase by the conductor temperature caused by the electrical load and specific environmental conditions or other conductor forces (e. depending of used wire materials. is depending on the distance between the fixed points and the tension in the conductor and can be specified by the funicular curve. galvanize steel wires used as support. Therefore. which is spanned between to points. Additionally to this irreversible elongation.9% construction and the strength of used materials as shown in Table 1. ELONGATION MECHANISM The sag curve of a conductor. Mostly high conduction aluminium as conductor and a high strength material as mechanical support (steel.. In addition.5% 45. For the common type ACSR overhead lines. This permanent stress leads to an irreversible elongation.5% 53.5% 46.1% St 77.3% 36. the ground clearance of the ropes is one of the important parameters. the cost pressure is increasing. Aluminium has a higher thermal expansion coefficient than the used steel.5% 53. The composite of this two material with different material properties leads to an average behaviour of wire. Additional the elastic and thermal elongation occurs.3% 76. The always presented wire tension is variable by the wire temperature and the additional load. aldrey) are used.5% 23.g.Z iii D E F .7% 65. So the transferred electrical power varies over the transmission lines. ice load). because a safety margin has to maintain over the whole expected useful life [7]. the different thermal expansion of the used material leads to a thermal influenced changing of the load and tension ratio.. In general. The lower elasticity module causes a lower tension in the aluminium than in the steel.

the maximum mechanical load and the temperature. The 400kV network is typical equipped with two or four conductors per phase and the 230kV network with one conductor per phase.. the steel core will carry the whole load and the aluminium has no mechanic load anymore. In Figure 1 some examples are shown. the measurement effort for the monitoring is very high and expensive. This temperature depends on the mechanical structure of Al/St 340/110mm² Al/St 685/85 mm² Knee temperature 80 100 120 Fig. the conductor tension. . For a new line. So it is easier to measure the sag and the conductor temperature in certain intervals to achieve the elongation of the overhead line conductor and the ground clearance [4]. Table 2 shows the technical data of the modelled overhead line types.. Influence parameters for this creeping are the mechanical structure. The in the calculation used model is based on a typical Austrian overhead line for the system voltage of 230kV and 400kV. AGING EFFECTS The low melting point of aluminium with a level of 660°C leads to a creeping of overhead lines [1] [2] [3] at the normal operating temperatures.Z iii D E F . the length between two overhead line rods is typical between 200 and 350m and depends on the geographic situation. The elongation of the conductor caused by thermal or aging effects has different effects on the sags of a line section.. Due to missing monitoring systems for overhead lines for most existing lines conductor temperatures or maximum loads are not available. HOME B IWK E A.Under this circumstance during 100% 90% 80% 70% load ratio 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -40 -20 0 20 40 Δϑ in K 60 Aluminium Steel increasing temperatures the aluminium is released and the steel core will get a higher mechanic load. This creeping is also temperature depending and will increase at higher temperatures. At a certain temperature called knee-temperature. OVERHEAD LINE MODEL In Austria. 1: Thermal behaviour of the load ratio the ACSR conductor..

.. The horizontal forces are in each span equal at this temperature and so the suspension insulators (T1. 2.Table 2: Conductor data and isolator data ACSR 340/110 ACSR 680/85 Al area 341. The initial state for the sag calculations is shown in figure 2. Symmetric rod distribution (free flat terrain without rivers. the conductor temperature will increase so the sag will increase too.5/2.94 10-05K-1 Isolator type 2 long rods 3 long rods Weight (tension/suspension) 130/60kg 240/180kg Total length (tension/suspension) 3..67 10-05K-1 1.2mm² 678.7/5m Two different rod arrangements for a flat terrain were calculated: 1. as shown in Figure 3.8mm² 85. The mechanical construction represents a typical Austrian overhead line of the 230kV network with an ACSR 340/110mm² conductor. Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 30 T1 T2 T3 25 AB1 20 height in m 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 1250 1500 T4 Fig.6mm² St area 108. The tension insulators (AB1 and AB2) will be linked depending on their own weight and the conductor forces.T4) hang perpendicular.95mm² Weight 1815kg/km 2564kg/km Modulus of elasticity 8400daN/mm² 6800daN/mm² E-modulus Al 6000daN/mm² 6000daN/mm² E-modulus St 20700daN/mm² 20700daN/mm² Coeff. .Z iii AB2 D E F ..85m 6. HOME B IWK E A.. 2: Initial state at 10°C conductor temperature During the load current. of linear expansion 1. CASE STUDY 230KV SYSTEM Overhead lines with symmetric and asymmetric rod distribution in a flat terrain are calculated in this case study.. roads or building) Asymmetric rod distribution (realistically situation in flat terrain with hindrances).

6m (see Figure 4). This system has now an inhomogeneous horizontal force distribution with is linked by the suspension insulators.435‰ was assumed which will accords an used period of 50 and 120 years. an elongation caused by the everyday stress of 0. the horizontal forces in the conductor will decrease (-16. T1 T2 T3 24 AB1 22 20 height in m 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 200 400 600 800 length in m 1000 1200 1400 T4 Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 Fig..Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 30 T1 T2 T3 25 AB1 20 height in m 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 1250 1500 T4 9.Z iii AB2 AB2 D E F . 3: Sag calculation at 80°C without elongation Caused by the temperature rise.5cm 9. .. 4: Sag calculation at 80°C with elongation (0.336‰ – 50years) HOME B IWK E A.336‰ and 0... According to the elongation. In this case study.47÷0. the sag increases in all spans about 0. Their deflections are insignificant and have small effect. A significant effect on the sag has only the deflection of the tension insulators.2%).5cm.5cm Fig. Additional the clamping points at the end of the tension insulator are lowered at 9.

. the tension insulators shows a deflection about 10cm.. .51m 0. the sags of the short spans are reduced and the longer spans will increase. all suspension insulates have now a significant deflection pointing to the span with the greatest distance between the mounting. Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 35 30 T2 25 height in m 20 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 1250 1500 T1 T3 AB2 13cm 0.. maximum 400m) is the basis for the calculations.In figure 5. 5: Initial state at 10°C conductor temperature Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 35 30 25 height in m AB1 20 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 0. In addition.36m 16cm T2 9. A heavy asymmetrical rod distribution (minimum 200m. 6: Sag calculation at 80°C without elongation with and without suspension insulator deflection The sag will increase unequal as shown in Figure 6 by rising conductor temperatures.Z iii D E F . With this deflection.5cm T1 18cm T3 AB2 T4 0. Similar to the symmetrical rod distribution.47m 1250 1500 T4 AB1 Fig. HOME B IWK E A..18m Fig. the initial case with asymmetric rod distribution with the same overhead line conductor is shown.

336‰ – 50years) In Figure 7.. the identical elongation is assumed as in the prior examples and the sag increases by elongation about 0. The suspension insulators are neglect able deflected.57m HOME B IWK E A. CASE STUDY 400KV SYSTEM A 400kV overhead line with an ACSR 685/85mm² conductor is modelled in this example..Z iii AB2 D E F . 8: Initial state at 10°C conductor temperature and sag calculation at 80°C without elongation The deflection in this model is higher than in the 230kV example with the longer and heavier tension insulators.61m 0. Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 35 T1 T2 30 AB1 25 height in m 20 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 T3 16cm Fig.Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 35 30 T2 25 height in m AB1 20 15 10 0..33m 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 1250 1500 0.78cm asymmetric depending on the span..78m T1 T3 AB2 T4 16cm 1250 1500 T4 Fig.69m 0. .26÷0. The rod distribution is the same as in the 230kV case. The temperature caused sag increase is now lower than in the previous case study (1.47m 0. 7: Sag calculation at 80°C with elongation (0.

.. Depending on the age... The sag is increasing asymmetric with rising the temperature and the suspension insulators deflect as shown in Figure 10.62m. with and without suspension insulator deflection HOME B IWK E A. 0. Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 45 40 T2 T3 35 T1 30 height in m AB1 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 1250 1500 AB2 10cm T3 T2 14cm 19cm 0. an elongation of 0.435‰ and 0. By the lower steel fraction. Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 45 40 35 T1 30 height in m AB1 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 0. 10: Sag calculation at 80°C without elongation. .331‰. the elongation sag increase is in a region from 0.14m AB2 T4 17cm 10cm 10cm Fig. the elongation is higher than at the ACSR 340/110mm² conductor.Z iii D E F .567‰ was assumed.78m).than 1. 50 and 120 years. According to an age of 20. The lower elastic modulus is the reason for this circumstance and compensates the higher coefficient of linear expansion of the ACSR 685/85mm² conductor.41m 0.36÷0.32m 0. 9: Initial state at 10°C conductor temperature An asymmetric rod distribution is shown in Figure 9.37m 1250 1500 T4 Fig.

The transmission capability is also reduced by the lower permissible conductor temperature [5] [6]. This capability limitation may cause negative effects on the power quality especially in the hot summer time.. This effect can be compensated by a reduction (approximate 28K) of the conductor steady-state temperature. In an asymmetrical rod distribution case the deflection of the suspension insulators is not negligible.62m 0.. Section: AB1 ↔ AB2 45 40 T2 T3 35 T1 30 height in m AB1 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 length in m 1000 1250 1500 0. The deflection of the suspension insulators is negligible in a symmetrical rod distributed flat overhead line. The results show.70m 0. The sag of the span with the largest distance between the rods will increase much more than in smaller spans. that the sag behaviour of the close-by spans is affected by the deflection of the tension insulators.36m 0. and has insignificant effects on the sag calculation. The safety distance will reduced by the elongation of the overhead conductors.The effect of the deflection of the suspension insulators is marginal lower than at the ACSR 340/110mm² but big enough to affect the sag calculation.50m 0. .76m AB2 T4 Fig. HOME B IWK E A. the sag will increase in magnitude of 26 to 78cm by aging elongation. sag calculations of two different overhead lines are presented.Z iii D E F .. 11: Sag calculation at 80°C with elongation (0.435‰ – 50years) With an aging depending elongation the sags increase from 36cm to 76cm depending on the span dimensions of the modelled overhead line. CONCLUSION In this paper. In this example..

S. page 105ff. Thomas. based on typical Austrian overhead lines of a 230kV and 400kV system voltage. Stephan Pack. Dr. Schwarz. techn. Austria.: +43/ (0)316/873-7408 Email: surname@HSPT. Predictor Equation and Evaluation Methods”.. Muhr. Europa Tel. Mosdorfer Weiz 16. “A Practical Method of Conductor Creep Determination”.-Ing.-Ass..SUMMARY In this case study.ac. IEEE 8 Nov 1993 M. Planung Berechnung Ausführung“. So depending on the system voltage and the object type. . References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] WG 05 Electra N°24.3 F. and the problem of measuring sag on live overhead lines”. The most important result of the calculations is that the deflection of the suspension insulators affects the sag in the case of an asymmetrical rod distribution. Electricity Distribution. “Sag increases resulting from conductor creep on medium-voltage transmission lines. Based on this circumstance.05 Electra N°75. Alterung von Komponenten der Stromkreise in Freileitungen. only defection of the tension insulator affects the result.Nefzger. 5te Auflage. Ass.Z iii D E F .TU-Graz. “Permanent Elongation of Conductors.. ISBN 3-540-42255-2 IEEE Std.: +43/ (0)316/873-7400 Fax. S206 H. Dr. Paris October 1972 WG 22. techn. U. Pack. Robert. a sag calculation was carried out. Dr.3. Pohlmann. S. Wiss. „Freileitungen. 12th International Conference on 17-21 May 1993 page(s):3. Univ. An aging depending sag increase is caused by the elongation of the overhead conductors due to the everyday stress.at HOME B IWK E A. Univ. With symmetrical distribution. Peking. Stefan Jaufer. Institute of High Voltage Engineering and System Management Graz University of Technology. 14th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering 2005. Paris March 1981 H. The reliability of an aged overhead line can be improved by sag verification with can be done by measurement or calculation. Inffeldgasse 18.20/1 . the minimum phase to earth clearance can be assured.. Kaintzyk.09. P. page 105ff. 738-1993. „IEEE standard for calculating the current-temperature relationship of bare overhead conductors“. Springer Verlag Berlin.-Prof.20/5 vol..-Prof. R. i-Tagung. Dipl. 1993 CIRED. techn. Kießling. a safety reserve for the phase to earth clearance must be considered for the planning and construction. Pohlmann.2004 Authors: Michael Muhr. Jaufer: Sag Calculation of Aged Overhead Lines. 8010 Graz.

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