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University of Agriculture Faisalabad

Sub-Campus Toba Tek Singh

Synopsis for M.Phil. Education

Title: Impact of Over-Crowded Class Rooms on Student learning in Government

Schools at primary level

Name of student: Kishwar Sultana

Registration No: 2016-ag-4521

A study will be carried out to impact the over-crowded class rooms that effect the student
learning in academia at primary level govt. schools of District Toba Tek Singh. The study
will be focused on the problems that are being faced by the students and the teachers in
overcrowded classes. For this purpose,15-20 government girl schools (2-3 classroom/ 50-
60 students) at the primary level in district Toba Tek Singh will be included in this study.
A questionnaire will be designed and surveyed in order to get the data regarding the
problems of over-crowding faced by students, how student can physiologically,
sociologically and psychologically deprived in heavy classes and to find out the teacher-
student interactions in this regard. The questions will be set in the questionnaire will be
based on the problems of overcrowding in the classrooms and the planning used by the
teachers to overcome this odd situation. The data will be given both quantitative and
qualitative treatment. Spearman correlation coefficient will be used to rank the problems
of overcrowded classes and the strategies used by the teachers to overcome these
problems. The teacher perspective regarding knowledge, attitude and skill will also be
impacted affecting the performance of the students. Some stressful conditions due to
overcrowded classroom like inadequate classroom space, noise making, lack of
individual attention, issues related to safety and health, minimal learner and teacher
interaction, disruptive behaviors, teachers experienced emotional and psychological
problems, increased workload and inadequate teaching time will also be addressed.

Addressing these indispensable tools will equip the students to be open minded and
creative, thus to achieve their respective goals. This study will be helpful in making
conclusions about how to tackle the situation of overcrowded classrooms and how to
adopt modern teaching aids other than teaching methods to overcome the situation.

University of Agriculture Faisalabad
Sub-Campus Toba Tek Singh

Synopsis for M.Phil. Education

I. Title: Impact Of Homework On Students Achievement At Primary Level

II. a) Date of admission 23-09-2016

b) Date of initiation After approval

c) Probable duration One Semester

III. Personnel

a) Name of the Student Kishwar Sultana

b) Registration No. 2016-ag-4521

c) Supervisory committee

i) Dr. Muhammad Azeem (Supervisor)

ii) Dr. Noor Muhammad (Member)

iii) Mr.Umair Mahmood (Member)

IV. Introduction

For the development of harmony and to exercise all human rights in the society,
education is an indispensable tool. It also played a vital role in the individual’s well-
being. It is also an instrument for endowing all mankind to adore their political,
economic and social rights. When number of students exceeds the optimal level and
causingproblemsin the teaching- learning process, that classroom is said to be
overcrowded.Out of total infrastructure of the school, the classroom is the
utmostsignificant area. The learnerspassmaximum time in the classrooms for getting
knowledge. The whole atmosphere of a classroom depicts the significances,
objectives, attitude and character development of the student. Student knowledge
performance can be enhanced when teachers take time to build a classroom climate in

such a way that they feel comfortable with their educators. But unfortunately, the
classrooms in our country are overcrowded.

The class room environment plays an important role for meaningful learning. It is
the nucleus of every education interface among the teacher and the students. The
teaching and learning process usually takes place in the classrooms (Oriere, 2007).
Oyesola (2007) reported thatnumber of classroom required in a school depends upon
the student’s population, teachers and other staff. Overcrowded classes have been
considered one of the most challenging problems facing students and teachers as well.
Overcrowded classrooms may create an obstacle in the students’ academic
achievement in secondary school education. These students achievements can
produce the best quality graduates who will serve te nation in a better way and can
play a pivotal role country’s economic and social development (Ali etal., 2009).
Educators, trainers, and researchers are the major contributors in achieving the
optimum academic performance of the students (Crosnoe et al., 2004). The parental
interest in achieving academic performance of the students leads to get primaryer
level of quality in academic success (Barnard, 2004; Shumox and Lomax, 2001).

In all over the world, students face many problems when endeavoring to learn in
an overcrowded classroom in secondary schools which include instructional,
management, assessment and discipline problems (Benbow et al, 2007). Amarat
(2011) also narrated that one of the most serious problems faced by teachers in
secondary schools is overcrowded classrooms. The students become frustrated,
despondent and disheartened in overcrowded classrooms. The students develop
negative attitude and behavior in the society. There is a direct influence of
overcrowded classrooms on found in their studies that overcrowded classrooms have
a direct impact on teaching and learning. Overcrowded classrooms have not only
affected learner performance but also put enormous stress on teachers (Oliver and
Lippman, 2007). Fin and Achilles (2007) contended that overcrowded classrooms
impacted negatively on teacher morale and enjoyment of their profession.
Overcrowded classrooms have created a scenario in which teachers face many
challenges in the classroom. In light of this, this study is sought to explore the

experiences of students and the teachers in overcrowded classrooms.This study will
also provide awareness about the key factors other than overcrowded classrooms
affecting the students’ academic achievement in secondary school education. Also, it
may aid teachers, parents, students, principals, educators and policy makers to
identify important contributors that directly or indirectly affect students’ academic
achievement in secondary schools.
Keeping in view the scenario as mentioned above a study will be planned with the
following hypothesis and objectives:
Objectives of the study

1 To investigate the effect of overcrowding classrooms influencing the students’

learning in primary schools
2 To examine the student teacher interaction in overcrowded classrooms
V. Review of Literature

Duncan (2005) observed that the teachers delivered their lectures and other events
related to class, managed in a limited infrastructure and the students have to study within
available circumstances as was provided by the teacher. The overcrowded classrooms
create problems for the students to engage the teacher one on one for constructive
discussion. On the other hand, in broad areas the student can get their own
educationevents and develophimself as self-made analyst/ researcher while engaging
himself on different activities.
Finn and Achilles (2007) studied student performance in overcrowded and reduced
sized classrooms and reported that the discipline was well maintained in reduced sized
classes as compared to overcrowded classes during two years of study.
Wang (2007) worked on class size and recommended that the educators faced least
problems in small sized class, covered all the contents of the course easily and close
contact with learners. All these parameters results towards better performance of the
students. The administration of schools also mentioned that small sized classrooms can
be maintained with quite ease and the relations with the students and their family
members can also be developed without any problem (Brophy, 2006).

Akhtar et al.(2012) observed that how teachers and the learners faced some
difficulties in oversized classes in govt. schools. The students of 9 th class were taken as
sample population. It was indicated that students and teachers were on the same page
regarding the size of classroom and quality of education in overcrowded classrooms. It
was felt that new infrastructure must be built in govt. schools to cope with problems of
overcrowded classroom. It was also recommended that the teachers must be made proper
schedule of teaching and other related events from the start of theyear keeping inview
the limitation of oversized classroom.
Parveen et al.(2012)worked on govt. schools of secondary level to observe the
difficulties faced by the educators in oversized classes in Peshawar. It was observed that
the quality of education cannot be achieved in overcrowded classrooms and the
educators experienced lot of problems like delivering a lecture, maintaining discipline
and assessment difficulties. It was recommended that the govt. should make concrete
policies regarding building of new infrastructure and provision of all other facilities in
Qaiser and Ishtiaq(2014)presented aftereffects of overcrowded classes on the
academic performance of the students. They observed that suitable atmosphere in the
classroom has positive effect on the overall performance of the learners studying in the
secondary schools. It was suggested that the classes should be well maintained and all
the required facilities must be provided for enhancing quality of education.
Peter (2014)examined different obstacles in oversized classes and observed that all the
educators were agreed on the assessment of problems of overcrowded classes. This
practice was useful in understanding the protocol of assessment of oversized classes
within the school premises. The teachers must be avoided from delivering only
theoretical knowledge to the students but also try to apply them within available
Muthusamy (2015) analyzed teacher’s views about the problems of overcrowded
classrooms. The teachers responded that there is painful condition in oversized
classroom like the space issue,security and health problems, student teacher
interaction,troublesome attitude, and increase in teaching time and maximum course
load. It was also observed that the administration did not provide any support like

organizing training workshops for the teachers, to make better policies for quality of
education, mobilization of resources and to help the teachers in the implementation of
rules for maintaining harmony in the classroom.
Asma and Saihi (2015) investigated the main problems that
hamper teacher-students interaction in overcrowded classes
particularly teaching-learning process and the methods that teacher
should use in those large size classes influencing teacher-students
interaction. The data were generated through questionnaires to (30)
student chosen randomly from different classes and to (8) teachers
who have also been chosen randomly. The main difficulties observed
in overcrowded classes were noise making, lack of individual attention
and classroom arrangement influencing interaction in the class. The
teacher-students interaction was also confirmed. It was felt that there
is need for the adoption of modern teaching aids, in addition to the
methods and techniques that should be applied while teaching those
Odeh et al. (2016) stated the significance of school environment for the students
of secondary schools that has marvelous impact on the quality of teachingstudents. This
suggests that schools that failto deliver the essential education services and generate a
favorable environment for teaching and learningmay hardly put in the best in their
students especially in the area of academic achievement. This situationhas been among
the reason for poor academic achievement of students in many schools in thestudy
area.They indicated that school environment, discipline and physical facilities have
importanteffect on academic achievement of secondary school students in Senatorial
District of BenueState. They recommended that suitableschool establishments should
permit to provide a favorable school atmosphere that has good climate foreffective
teaching and learning.
Petro(2016) studied the effects of overcrowded classrooms on teachers and
learners. Most of the parents make their decision on whether to send their kids to a
particular school on the potential number of learners in the classroom. All teacher
training institutions must to ascertain whether they offer suitable teacher training

programs that will enable student teachers to deal with the numerous demands related
with the teaching profession in overcrowded classrooms. It was shown that frequent
difficulties werefaced by student teachers, who were teaching in overcrowded
classrooms. The principles regarding support from lecturers, substantial observation and
the responsible engagement of teachers are proposed.
Iwuagwu(2016) depictedthe school environment, which includes the classroom,
school location, school facility, school climate and technology, etc, affecting students’
academic performance. It was indicated that students’ learning could be boosted by their
location within the school premises, the arrangement of their classroom, availability of
instructional facilities and fixtures. It is believed that a well-organized school will gear
up expected outcome of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic
freedom, effective teaching learning process and academic performance ofthe students.
Torupere(2016) observed the extent to which physical school environment influence
students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Bayelsa State. The different
hypotheses were formulated which was meant to assess the influence of aesthetic beauty
of the school, infrastructural facilities, school equipment and instructional materials and
school location on students’ academic performance. The sample used for this research
was 1,620students carefully selected through the use of multiple stages sampling
techniques in secondary schools in Bayelsa State. Two research instruments an
achievement test to measure student’s academic achievement and a set of questionnaire
to measure the sub independent variables of the study. The results revealed that:
aesthetic beauty of the school and infrastructural facilities significantly influence
students’ academic performance. Also, there is a significant influence of school
equipment and instructional materials and school location on students’ academic
performance. It was recommended that adequate school physical facilities should be
provided by the State Government, in all secondary schools in Bayelsa State. This will
help to engage the students in meaningful activities.

VI. Methodology

Present study will be carried ou “Impact of Over-Crowded Class Rooms on Student

learning in Government Schools at primary level” in district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab

province. Punjab is the largest province of Pakistan with respect to population and it has
primaryest literacy rate. Toba Tek Singh is located in central Punjab and occupies 3252
square kilometers. It is located between 30°33' to 31°2' degree north latitudes and 72°08'
to 72°48' degree longitudes. It became a separate district in 1982. According to the 1998
census of Pakistan the population was 905,580 of this, 720,601 were Muslim and 184,979
were non-Muslim, mainly Christian. According to the 2008 estimate the population had
risen to 1.39 million. Toba Tek Singh has a primary literacy rate counted amongst the top
10 cities of Pakistan. The district is administratively subdivided into four tehsils (Toba
Tek Singh, Pir Mahal, Kamalia, and Gojra).

This study is descriptive in nature and district Toba Tek Singh will be selected for the
population of study. Toba Tek Singh consist of four tehsil i.e. Kamalia, Gojra, Pir Mahal
and Toba Tek Singh

Population and sampling procedure

All male and female primary schools of tehsil Toba Tek Singh will be the population and
the sample will be drawn through

Research Design

Cross sectional research design will be used in this study.

Research Instrument

An interview schedule will be developed by the researchers personally. The researchers

will conduct survey from the concerned respondents by using this interview schedule for
data collection at primary school level.

Data collection Tool

Data will be collected through interview schedule through survey by the researcher

Data Analysis

The collected data will be analyzed by computer generated software SPSS (Statistical
packages for Social Sciences).

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Name of Student Kishwar Sultana


Supervisory committee

i) Dr. Muhammad Azeem (Supervisor)

ii) Dr. Noor Muhammad (Member)

iii) Mr.Umair Mahmood (Member)

Scrutiny Committee:

a) _____________ (Convener) _________________________

b) _____________ (Member) _________________________

c) _____________ (Member) _________________________

d) _____________ (Member) _________________________

Principal, Director,

UAF Sub-Campus, Graduate studies,

Toba Tek Singh. University of

Agriculture, Faisalabad