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Extraksi dan Pemurnian

1. What kind of developments in metallurgy have led to some of the greatest achievements of mankind
including space travel?

The evolution of metallurgical processes and reactors has grown today into full grown science and
technology. Metal making was up scaled over the years from backyard mini units to mega plants
handling millions of tons per year. Metallurgy has come a long way from the state of art during the
early days of Alchemy to the present-day technology intensive field expanding into a number of
areas such as process chemistry, process design, process technology, process economics, and, most
important of all, environmental metallurgy. Metallurgical processes are mostly steered by online
computer models, with sensors following the compositional and temperature changes in the reactor.
Metal making has attained the status of a high-technology field including the fields of automation
and robotics. What was carved out from chemistry, physics, and mechanical engineering during
earlier days has blossomed into a field that is imperative to the existence and survival of mankind.

2. What kind of the principle driving forces for technology development, changes in metallurgical
practice, and process improvement in recent times?

The principle driving forces for technology development, changes in metallurgical practice, and
process improvement in recent times stem from the need to
• Improve financial performance
• Respond to market supply/demand for products
• Adapt to changing sources of raw materials supply
• Address environmental issues, including
• Energy efficiency (directly related to the CO2 footprint)
• Hazardous emissions
• Discard materials
• Improve the occupational health and safety performance of the operations
3. Metallurgical operations typically involve one or more stages. Please explain!

Metallurgical operations typically involve one or more of the following stages:

 Separation
 Metal compound/solution formation
 Crude metal production
 Metal purification
 Product preparation
Each stage of the operation can be achieved by a single process or a group of processes having the
same process aim.
Metal production refers to the preparation of an impure or crude metal, which may be a saleable
product or may be further processed in the metal purification stage in which the final removal of
unwanted elements from impure metal is undertaken. Product preparation includes all processes
necessary to ensure that the products are in a form suitable for sale and marketing. The process
stages of any metallurgical operation follow directly from the definition of both the sources of the
raw materials and the products of the operation. Identification of these process stages provides the
framework for the initial development of process flow diagram and the aims define the purpose of
each stage of processing.

4. What kind of disciplines related to the mineral processing? Please explain.

5. Please tell the classification of metallurgical reactors.

 Gas/Solid Reactors
o Shaft furnaces
o Rotary kiln
o Fluidized beds
o Entrained flow reactors
o Moving and fixed grate reactors
 Liquid/Solid Reactors
o In situ leaching
o Heap leaching
o Percolation leaching
o Agitation leaching
o Crystallizers/Precipitation Reactors
o Electrochemical Production Reactors
o Ion Exchange Reactors
 Liquid Phase Reactors
o Gas/Liquid Reactors
 Bath Smelting Processes
 Bath Refining Processes
o Liquid/Liquid Reactions
 Multistep Reactors
o Blast Furnaces and Other Counter Current Reactors
o Reverberatory Furnaces
o Flash Smelting Processes
o Multistage Smelting Processes
o Solvent Extraction

6. How to approach the challenges in the complexities of metallurgical processes?

The complexities of metallurgical processes are such that it is desirable to develop a framework to
enable these problems to be approached and analyzed in a systematic way. There are many ways
this can be done. An example of one of these approaches is illustrated below

 Step 1: The Concept Design. This step requires the definition of the physical and chemical
characteristics of feed and products, the estimation of the potential values of all products and
by-products, an initial calculation of likely economic feasibility, and the establishment of the
“License to operate” criteria that must be met for a successful project.
 Step 2: Process Reactions Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria. The analysis starts by
establishing whether or not a process is thermodynamically possible, identifying the process
conditions under which the reactions will proceed and the enthalpy changes associated with the
 Step 3: Process Mass and Energy Balance. Estimating the material inputs/outputs to the process,
the temperatures of the process streams, and the overall energy requirements.
 Step 4: Transport Processes and Reaction Kinetics. This stage is focused identifying how fast
the processes can take place, examining the potential heat and mass transfer processes and
chemical reactions, the rate-limiting reaction mechanisms, and the key process variables.
 Step 5: Reactor Design. This involves the development or selection of an appropriate reactor
size and geometry; the choice of batch or continuous process and co- or countercurrent material
flows; identifying reagent/energy/maintenance requirements, the operability of the process, and
how it can be controlled; and specification of any ancillary plant and services required, such as
power, water, and transportation.
 Step 6: OH & S and Environment. Any industrial process should satisfy requirements for
occupational health and safety, and minimizing environmental impact.
 Step 7: Process Costs. Finally, having satisfied the technical and environmental requirements,
the economic viability of the process concept is addressed.

7. Draw a general flow sheet for metal extraction from ore.

8. Discuss the correctness of the following statements.