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The main parts of electrical power system are power station, transmission system and
distribution network. An electrical power station is a factory in which energy is converted
from one form to another form, electrical energy. When a large bulk of power is to be
transmitted over a long distance, it is economical to transmit it at a higher voltage than the
distribution voltage .The most suitable voltage for the transmission of power over a certain
distance to be chosen to give the best transmission efficiency, regulation and economy. A
transformer steps up the generation voltage to the transmission line voltage.

Power is received at the transmission (grid) substation where transformer steps down the high
voltage of transmission of medium voltage to supply the feeders at the required voltage of the
primary distribution network. Feeders are conductors which carry power from the
transmission substation to various distribution substations.

Power substation are classified into two groups-Transmission substation (Grid substation),
Distribution substation. A grid line connects all possible generation in a region.

Switching System:
An important function performed by a substation is switching, which is the connecting and
disconnecting of transmission lines or other components to and from the system. Switching
events may be "planned" or "unplanned".

A transmission line or other component may need to be de-energized for maintenance or for
new construction; for example, adding or removing a transmission line or a transformer.

To maintain reliability of supply, no company ever brings down its whole system for
maintenance. All work to be performed, from routine testing to adding entirely new
substations, must be done while keeping the whole system running.

Perhaps more importantly, a fault may develop in a transmission line or any other component.
Some examples of this: a line is hit by lightning and develops an arc, or a tower is blown
down by a high wind. The function of the substation is to isolate the faulted portion of the
system in the shortest possible time.

There are two main reasons: a fault tends to cause equipment damage; and it tends to
destabilize the whole system. For example, a transmission line left in a faulted condition will
eventually burn down, and similarly, a transformer left in a faulted condition will eventually
blow up. While these are happening, the power drain makes the system more unstable.
Disconnecting the faulted component, quickly, tends to minimize both of these problems.

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Location of KUET Sub-station:
The KUET sub-station is located behind the building of the department of Electrical and
Electronic Engineering.

It is an indoor type sub-station.

Incoming Feeder of the Sub-station:

The incoming feeder of the sub-station is 3-φ, 11 KV line from the Mirerdanga Sub-station. It
is said to be an express (or special) line considering the priority of non-interruption of the
power supply.

The incoming feeder continues the path to this substation through an isolator. There are three
isolators for three phases individually. There is a handle or arm on the bottom of the pole
buried besides the substation building. When it’s required to isolate the substation from the
feeding supply, the arm or handle is wagged. The isolator connects the feeder and the
substation physically in a closed condition.

Dropper Fuse:
After the isolator, the feeder voltage is passed through the dropper fuse. The dropper fuse is
an outdoor device. Actually, it’s a safety device. There are three fuses for three phases
individually employed to open the path between the feeder and substation when there is a
sense of faulty or excessive current. However, in a closed condition, its output is fed to the
indoor or main part of the sub-station.

High Tension Dual Breaker:

The output line of the dropper fuse is fed to the HT dual breaker. Its name consoles that it is a
device for dual system or operation. Actually two input feeder (two 3-φ supply) line can be
connected to its input part.

In this substation, one supply is fed to the HT Dual Breaker. Opportunity for feeding other
supply is not being utilized now. If there were two feeding supply connected to the Dual HT
Breaker, it would manage the auto-selection of the feeder line automatically on the basis of
availability of the power supply. As for example, let the feeder 1 is feeding to the substation
when the feeder 2 feeds or not. If the feeder fails to feed the supply due to load-shading or

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anything else and feeder 2 is ready to feed, then the HT Dual Breaker switches the connection
with the feeder 2 instead of feeder 1. Again, if feeder 2 fails and feeder 1 becomes ready by
this time, it selects automatically feeder 1 to feed the sub-station.

An arrangement of HT breaker with its mountains is of a shape as like as an almirah. It has

three parts, as if here are three drawers, in the front view. In the upper part, there is a
voltmeter (in KV) with a selecting knob used to choose the relative phase voltage desired to
measure. In the selecting knob, four modes are

1. Off
2. ST
3. RT
4. RS

In the middle part, there is a gear box mounted with some manual switches beyond a glass
protecting from unauthorized hands. The manual controlling switches are related to switch on
or off manually. It’s done when it’s necessary to isolate all the devices and loads of the sub-
stations. Once it’s switched off, it’s needed a 220 volt supply for switching it on. But, at this
time, this supply is not being provided to it. So, as an alternating process, a gear is rotated by
screwing it with an ironic arm. It charges the internal circuit to be ready for switching it on.
When it is felt to be charged fully, the green ‘Switch ON’ is pressed. The lower portion is
sealed with its skin material.

There is an array of two symmetrical Breaker of this type, as it’s a Dual HT Breaker. The two
bodies are seemed to stand beside each other. Anyway, the two inputs (input feeder) through
the HT Dual Breaker make a singe through of three phase supply to the HT Breaker, the next
device in the sub-station.

High Tension Breaker for Total Control:

It’s also a breaker. It’s the next door device of the dual breaker. If any or both of the supply
line is available, the dual breaker gives an input to this HT breaker.

Its physical appearance is same to the single body of Dual HT Breaker. In addition, there are
three ammeters mounted beside the voltmeter. Three ammeters are associated to measure the
current for three phases individually. Beside this there is an Over Current Relay (CKR-93T)
which can be set numerically. It works in three modes:

1. Normal mode (Operating now)

2. Backup mode
3. Instant mode

There are two bottoms. One is for ‘Test’ and another is for ‘Reset’. There are indicators
related to L1, L2, L3 and E. for all the cases, a numerical value is set as the threshold current
limit. The set values by the installing persons are as he following:

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Line specification Min Value (A) Adding Factor (A) Threshold Value(A)
L1 1 +1 2
L2 1 +1 2
L3 1 +1 2
E 0.2 +0.05+0.1 0.35
On the top of this, there are three indicators representing the presence of power in the system.

The middle and bottom sections are similar to those of the Dual HT Breaker according to
physical appearance, operation and maintenance.

It is used to control the total supply in the campus usually. When it’s felt to discrete the
campus from the supply line, this breaker’s pulling switch is handled.

Bus Bar:
It’s an 11kv bus bar. It provides the supply from the breaker to the transformers. This bus bar
is of solid bar type. It would be better to have a panel type bus bar system. But due to high
cost, it has been made of this type. Four tapppings are made to take lines to feed four
transformers described in the following parts.

There are four step-down (11Kv/440V) power transformers in the KUET campus to make the
voltage acceptable for normal use. They are being enlisted in the following part:

Considerations Transformer 1 Transformer 2 Transformer 3 Transformer 4

In the sub-station Beside the Behind the In the quarter
Location auditorium science building area (beside
building #3)
Type Indoor Outdoor Outdoor Outdoor
KVA Rating 320 KVA 315 KVA 220 KVA 315 KVA
Current Rating 16.8/462 A
Vector Group Y-YN 12
An arm provides Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
provision to isolate directly directly directly
Isolating Primary
the primary from
the supply
1. Rokeya hall 1. Auditorium 1. New computer Teachers’ and
2. Old academic 2. Boys’ centre staff quarter
buildings residential 2. New academic
3. Administrative halls buildings
building 3. Cafeteria & 3. New DSW
Area to distribute
canteen office
4. Mosque
5. Medical center
6. Water

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Main Circuit Breakers (MCB) mounted on transformer 1:
There are some mounted circuit breakers on the transformer situated in the sub-station room.
One is for Rokeya Hall; one is for EEE building and so on. Also there is a prime (or, main)
circuit breaker. This circuit breaker is to discrete the total load of this transformer.

Main Circuit Breakers for other transformers:

Other transformers don’t have mounted circuit breaker. But surely, it’s needed to have. In this
case, the circuit breakers are planted on the walls near to the transformers. The transformers
with their associated CBs are netted for security and accident.

Conservator mounted on the transformers:

This a meter mounted on the transformers to indicate the oil level, temperature etc.

Tapping mounted on the transformers:

This is a tapping which can be changed by screwing. It’s to change the ampere rating. When
it’s not required much current, by changing the tapping, the current rating is reduced.

Street Light Switches:

There is a switch board for all the street lights. This is a simple board with tumbler switches.
It handles simply 222 volt as like as a domestic board.

KUET sub-station is a rich substation as a small distributing substation. The former
arrangement used a single transformer (described as transformer 1 in this report) to handle the
full load of the campus. But anility of that transformer and ohmic loss in line to considerable
distant area demand to have a modified design of the substation in its new building. Hence
according to future plan to develop the campus, three new transformers have been employed.
ABB Company has secured the system with the HT Breakers. However, this substation is
working quite well to distribute electrical power in the campus.

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11 kV C.T. C.T. C.T.

(Express line)
HT dual 11 kV bus bar
HT breaker
breaker (Total control)
(11 kV)
11 kV P.T.
(Another option-
not in use)

Position: In the
Rating: 320 kVA

Inside the sub-station

Outside of the sub-station

Transformer Transformer Transformer

Position: In the Position: Beyond Position: Beyond
teachers & stuffs’ the Science Building the auditorium
quarter Rating: 315 kVA Rating: 315 kVA
Rating: 315 kVA

Rokeya hall
New computer centre Auditorium
Teachers & stuffs’ ME workshop
ME building Khanjahan Ali hall
quarter CE building
ECE building Rashid hall
KUET School EEE building
CSE building F.H. hall
Other buildings in IEM building Amar Ekushey hall
that area New DSW office Lalan Shah hall