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OUR LADY OF FATIMA UNIVERSITY

VALEZUELA CAMPUS
GRADUATE SCHOOL
TEACHING STRATEGIES IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION

PROBLEM –BASED METHOD & PROJECT BASED METHOD


IN LEARNING
(WEEK 14 & 15)

WRITTEN REPORT IN
TEACHING STRATEGIES IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION

SUBMITTED TO
Prof. LILIBETH BOBIAS RN RMT MAN PhD(c)

SUBMITTED BY
ERWIN M. ESCOBER

JANUARY, 2018
Education Process.

A systematic, sequential, planned course of action that parallels the nursing


process and consists of two interdependent operations, teaching and learning, which
form a continuous cycle to include assessment of the learned, establishment of the
teaching plan, implementation of teaching methods and tools and evaluation of the
learner, teacher and education program

Education.

An overall umbrella term used to describe the process, including the


components of teaching and instruction of producing observable or measurable
behavioral changes (knowledge, skills or attitude) in the learner through planned
educational activities

Teaching.

As a component of education process, it is a deliberate, intentional act of


communicating information to the learner in response to identical learning needs with
the objectives of producing learning to achieve desired behavioral outcomes.

Learning.

A conscious or unconscious permanent change in behavior as a result of a


lifelong dynamic process by which individuals acquire new knowledge, skills or attitudes
that can be measured and can occur at any time in any place due to exposure to
environmental stimuli.

A change in human disposition or capability that persists over a period of time


and that cannot be solely accounted for by growth

The mental activity by means of which knowledge, skills, attitudes, appreciations


and ideals are acquired resulting in modification of behavior

A form of adaptation, mode of adjustment & change in behavior as a result of


experience

 Compliance ~ individual’s desire to learn and to act on the learning


 Adherence ~ a commitment or attachment to a regimen
 Andragogy ~ the art and science of teaching adults
 Pedagogy ~ discipline concerned with helping children to learn
 Geragogy ~ process involved in stimulating and helping elders to learn
Attributes of Learning
Learning is...
 An experience that occurs inside the learner
 The discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas
 A consequence of experience
 A collaborative and cooperative process
 An evolutionary process that builds on past learning and experiences
 A process that is both intellectual and emotional

Assessment of a learner includes attending to the following 3 determinants

 Learning Needs – what the learner needs and wants to learn


 Readiness to learn – when the learner is receptive to learning
 Learning style – how the learner best learns

Teaching strategies
Approach

It is axiomatic, having the quality of a generally accepted principles or rule as a


basis for the whole process of teaching.

Method

It is procedural. It is a systematic plan to achieve a learning objective. It refers to


a series of related and progressive acts performed by the teacher and students to
achieve the objectives of the lesson.

Strategies

A teachers unique way of presenting a topic to the learner characterized by


adeptness in the performing the steps with utmost care to ensure the attainment of the
learning objective

Technique

It refers to the art style or manner of a teacher’s performance in following


a procedure.
Approach Methods Techniques Strategies
Discovery Lecture Recitation Synectic
(graded/Ungraded)
Conceptual Discussion: panel and Interview Journal writing
socialized classroom
discussion
Process Reporting Unit of Morrison Narratives
technique
Inquiry Demonstration Project Community resources
Unified Inductive Brainstorming Peer tutoring
Reflective Deductive Debate Micro teaching
cooperative Integrated Dramatization Independent study
Experiential
Direct Film showing Role playing Collection
Constructivist Self pacing Simulation Reading
Interest learning center Laboratory brain based strategies
Team teaching Problem solving
Research
Field study
Experimenting
Modular learning
Mastery learning

Criteria for Method Selection


 Objective to be pursue
 Subject to be taught
 Instructional equipment tools and materials
 The students ability
 The students interest
 Previous learning experience
 The kind of participation expected
 Context of the teaching situation
 Knowledge and ability of the teacher
 Safety precautions

PROBLEM BASED LEARNING METHOD


It is the ability to identify and solve problem by applying appropriate skills systematically.

Process of ongoing activity in which we take what we know to discover what we don’t
know

It involves overcoming obstacle by generating hypothesis testing those prediction and


arriving at satisfactory solution

SEVERAL STEPS IN PROBLEM BASED LEARNING

1. Identify problem
2. Identify plan
3. What might happen if
4. Work the strategies
5. Measure
A. Identify issue
B. Understand anyone’s interest
C. List of possible solutions
D. Evaluate the options
E. Select an option
F. Document the agreement
G. Monitor

OBSERVATION VS INFERENCE

Observation – senses Infer –mind


-factual& accurate -conclusion
2 types -prediction
Qualitative describe without using a -explanation of an observation
number
Quantitative with the use of numerical
data

Hypothesis –educated guess


Scientific method –organized way of figuring out

Steps in scientific methods


Question
Hypothesis
Experiment
Interpret data
Conclusion

In answering mathematical problem (before)


-what is asked
-what are given
-what operation to be use
-what is the number sentence
-solution
-answer

GUFSA METHODS (NOW)


 GIVEN
 UNKNOWN
 FORMULA
 SOLUTION
 ANSWER
Tips and techniques

1. Communicate
-identify the specific problem/difficulty and confusion
-don’t waste time working through problems that the students already
understand.
2. Encourage independence
-Teacher as facilitator
-providing minimal assistance
-model the problem solving process rather than just giving the answers
3. Be sensitive
-positive reinforcement
4. Encourage thoroughness and patience
–the process is more important than the answer.

Common problem encountered.

“EXPERT VS NOVICE PROBLEM SOLVER”

Advantages Disadvantages
 Development of long term  Potentially poorer performance
knowledge retention on test
 Use of diverse instruction  Student unpreparedness
 Continuous engagement  Teacher unpreparedness
 Development of transferable  Time consuming assessment
skills  Varying degrees of relevancy
 Improvement of team work and and applicability
interpersonal skills

Steps in designing problem based learning.

1) Identify an applicable real life problem


2) Determine the overarching purpose of the activity
3) Create and distribute helpful materials
4) Set goals and expectation for your students
5) Participate
6) Have the student present the ideas and findings
PROJECT BASED LEARNING METHOD

-techniques which the students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extensive
period of time to investigate to an authentic engaging and complex question ,problem
or challenge.

-medium of instruction introduced during 18th century into schools of architecture and
engineering

-dynamic classroom techniques in which students actively explore real world problems
and challenges and acquire deeper knowledge

-students learn how to take initiative and responsibility, build their confidence, solve
problems work in teams communicate ideas and manage themselves more effectively
hence it helps student to address standards

Benefits of project based learning

-decrease absenteeism
-increase cooperative learning skills
-improvement in student achievement

Essential project design elements

1) Key knowledge, understanding and success skills- focus on student learning goals
which includes standards based content and skills such as critical thinking
problem solving communication collaboration and team work.
2) Challenging problem or question- meaningful problem to solve
3) Sustained inquiry- student engage in a rigorous extended process of asking
question / finding resources/ applying information.
4) Authenticity- real world context task or tools , quality standards or impact
5) Student voice and choice – decision
6) Reflection- both students and teacher reflect on the learning and its
effectiveness
7) Critique and revision – give receive and use of feedback
8) Public product -explaining presenting displaying it to people beyond the
classroom.

Advantages Disadvantages
 Gives more personal investment  Students may not feel
into an activity encourage to finish the projects
 Deeper understanding of  Lack of interest
materials  accidentally assessing
 Helps develop creativity inappropriate content
responsibility self control
 Learn how to collaborate
 Learn how to communicate
 Self pace

Learning is a change in human disposition or capability that persist over a


period of time and cannot be solely accounted for by growth (Kozier ,et al,2008)

There is no perfect method in teaching in all learners in all setting.


Whatever the method chosen it will usually be most effective if used in
conjunction with other instructional techniques and tools to optimize teach (Susan
Bastable, 2003).