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AP Board Terms

Time Period and People/Places Vocab/Treaties/Books/Art

Key Topics

Unit 1 1450-1648 De Medici of Florence ● 1555 Peace of Augsburg--”​cuius regio, eius

Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci religio”
Protestant Michelangelo ● 1648 Treaty of Westphalia
Reformation Raphael ● Huguenots
Religious Wars Donatello ● Edict of Nantes
Exploration Giotto ● Navigational Tech: Compass, quadrant, sextant
Absolutism (West Petrarch
and East) Brunelleschi ● Mona Lisa, Virtuvian Man, Last Supper
Constitutionalism Baldassare Castiglione ● David, Sistine Chapel, Pieta
English Civil War Machiavelli ● School of Athens
1642-51 Christine de Pisan ● David (Bronze)
Pieter Bruegel ● Book of the City of Ladies
Jan Van Eyk ● Book of the Courtier
Artemisia Gentileschi ● The Prince
Guttenberg ● Utopia
Martin Luther ● 95 Theses and those Thieving, Murdering Hordes
English John Calvin ● Book of Common Prayer
Henry VIII (Tudor) ● Book of Sports
Sir Thomas More​ ● A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies
Mary Tudor
Elizabeth I (Tudor) ● Columbian Exchange
James I (Stuart) ● Mercantilism
Charles I (Stuart) ● Counter Reformation--Jesuits-- Loyola
Oliver Cromwell ● Baroque--Bernini, Peter Paul Rubens, Bach
Charles II (Stuart) ● Indulgences, Nepotism, Simony,
James II (Stuart) Pluralism--Council of Trent, Index of Prohibited
Spanish William of Orange Books
(Hanover) ● Bank of Amsterdam
Ferdinand and Isabella ● Dutch and British East India Companies
French Charles V ● Urban Elites--urban problems
Philip II ● La Querelle des Femmes--the Woman Question
Bartolome de las Casas ● Leisure Activities--carnival, Saint’s days
Columbus (but Italian)
Catherine de Medici Public humiliation:
Henry IV (of Navarre) ● Charivari, the Stocks, public whippings
[Bourbon] ● Witchcraft
Louis XIII [Bourbon]
Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Mazarin
Louis XIV [Bourbon] [r
1638-1715 Units 1-2)
Hapsburgs--Charles V,
Explorers: Prince Henry
the Navigator, Magellan,

Unit 2 1648-1815 Louis XIV (r1638-1715) ● Building of Versailles Palace

Absolutism Louis XVI & Marie ● War of Spanish Succession (101-1714)-Treaty of
Continues Antoinette Utrecht
Age of Napoleon ● War of Austrian Succession (1740-48)--Treaty of
Reason--Scientific Maximilien Robespierre Aix la Chapelle
Rev and Olympe de Gouges ● French Revolution 1789-1799
Enlightenment Louis XVIII ● Declaration of the the Rights of Man and Citizen
American ● Declaration of the the Rights of Woman and
Revolution Frederick the Great Citizen
French Revolution
Latin American Charles VI ● Napoleonic Wars 1800-1814
Revolution Maria Theresa ● Congress of Vienna (1815)--Balance of Power,
Industrial Revolution Joseph II Conservatism, Concert of Europe
● Battle of Azov--Black Sea Port
James I (Stuart) ● Great Northern War
English Charles I (Stuart) ● Building of St. Petersburg
Russian Oliver Cromwell ● Peter the Great’s Reforms of Boyars, Church,
French Charles II (Stuart) Military (Table of Ranks)
Austrian/Hapsburg James II (Stuart) ● Enlightened Absolutism--Frederick the Great,
William of Orange Catherine the Great and Joseph II
Prussian (Hanover) Wm and Mary ● Pugachev’s Rebellion
George I (r1714-1727) ● The Revolution of Heavenly Bodies
George II (r1727-1760) ● Principia
George III (r1760-1820) ● Leviathan
● Two Treatise on Government
Peter the Great ● The Wealth of Nations
(r1682-1725) ● The Spirit of Laws
Catherine the Great ● Candide
(r1762-1796) ● Social Contract
● Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Rembrandt ● SALONS
Jan Vermeer
Jacques Louis David ● Glorious Revolution--English Bill of Rights 1688
Jane Austen ●
● Agricultural Revolution: Jethro Tull’s Seed Drill
Copernicus ● James Hargreaves--Spinning Jenny
Galileo ● Bank of England; English Property Rights
Newton ● Overseas Products: Sugar, Tea, Silks, Tobacco,
Descartes Coffee
● Slavery
Hobbes ● Commercial Rivalries
Locke ● Urbanization, Child Labor, Social Impacts of
Smith Industrialization
Quesnay ● Romanticism: Jacques Louis David’s N ​ apoleon
Montesquieu Crossing the Alps
Voltaire ● Touissant L’Ouverture--Haitian Revolt
Mary Wollstonecraft SociaL new homes built with more privacy, consumer
goods: dishes, mirrors, prints, linens and new leisure:
taverns, coffeehouse, theaters, opera

Lower rate of births, more dedication to child rearing

Unit 3 1815-1914 Prince Clemens von ● Inventors and Inventions: England Leads: Crystal
Congress of Vienna Metternich Palace at the Great Exhibition of 1851
Revolutions of 1848 ● Govt support of canals, railroads, trade
Italian Unification Mazzini, Cavour, King ● Impact of Industry : new classes,
German Unification Victor Emmanuel II, commercialization of agriculture, urbanization,
MAIN Causes Garibaldi, Napoleon III bourgeois values--nuclear family, gender roles
World I Outbreak ● Factory Act of 1833--Sadler Committee
Romanticism, Kaiser Wilhelm I, Otto von ● Leisure: Parks, Sports, Museums, Theaters
Realism, Bismarck, Kaiser Wilhelm ● CONSUMERISM
Impressionism, II
Post-Impressionism, ● Irish Potato Famine, Russian Serfdom
Cubism ● Liberals (Jeremy Bentham), Suffrage (Chartists;
Charles Darwin Flora Tristan), Conservatives (Edmund Burke,
Herbert Spencer Metternich), Utopian Socialists (Robert Owen,
Henri de Saint-Simon), Marxists (Engels, August
Freud Bebel), Anarchists (Mikhail Bakunin, Georges
Einstein ● German Nationalists: Grimm Brothers
● Pan-Slavism
MANY artists and writers ● Anti-Semitism: Dreyfus Affair
listed in next column ● Zionist: Theodore Herzl
● German Confederation
● Zolleverein--trade network in Prussia
● Frederich List’s National System--early German
● Greek Independence
● Russian Movement Bloody Sunday 1905

● Romanticism + Nationalism=Unification
● Heart, Brain and Sword
● Blood and Iron

● New Imperialism--”The Sun Never Sets on the

British Empire”--England dominates India (its
Crown Jewel)--Sepoy Rebellion
● Berlin Conference--European Scramble for Africa
● China--Opium Wars, European Spheres of
Influence, Boxer Rebellion

● Bismarckian Alliance System--”Dropping the Pilot”

● 2nd Industrial Revolution--led by Germany

● Karl Marx--​Communist Manifesto 1848

● Balkan Crises; Moroccan crises
● Crimean War
● Advanced Weaponry-​Militarism​ (machine gun!)
● Medicine Advances--Louis Pasteur’s germ theory,
anesthesia, quinine
● Art: Van Gogh, Gaugin and Picasso’s ​primitivism
○ Romanticism:​ Goya ​(3rd of May), Caspar
David Friedrich, Turner, Delacroix (​Lady
Liberty Leading the People).
○ Romantic Composers​: Beethoven, Chopin,
○ Romantic Writers: William Wordsworh,
Lord Byron, Percy and Mary Shelly, Victor
Hugo (​Les Miserables)
○ Realism​: Charles Dickens, Leo Tolstoy
○ Irrational: Friedrich Nietzsche
○ Freud--dreams
○ Einstein--quantum mechanics-undermined
Newton’s physics--as well as Marie and
Pierre Curie’s work
○ Modern Art: Impressionism, Post
Impressionism, Cubism--idealized beauty
and patriotism:
■ Monet, Cezanne, Maitsse, Degas,
Picasso, Van Gogh
● Imperialism:​ Pan-German League and resistance
to Imperialism: INC, Zulu, Sepoy Mutiny, Boxer
Rebellion, Meiji Restoration
○ Lit: Jules Verne and Joseph Conrad
○ Charles Darwin--Herbert Spencer coins
Social Darwinism
Unit 4-1914- Kaiser Wilhelm II ● MILITARISM--Industry creates killing machines:
Present Woodrow Wilson machine gun, submarines, airplanes, siege guns,
WWI Georges Clemenceau tanks, poison gas
Russian Revolution Vittorio Orlando
1917 David Lloyd George ● Stalemate--trench warfare
WW2 Vladimir Lenin ● Armenian Genocide
2nd Wave Feminism Joseph Stalin ● Treaty of Versailles vs. Wilson’s 14 Points--new
Cold War nations: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Fall of Communism Francisco Franco Yugoslavia
European Union Benito Mussolini ● The League of Nations--Mandate Territories in
Modern European Adolf Hitler Middle East
Issues ● Soviet Union--Lenin and Stalin--Bloody Sunday
John Maynard Keynes (1905), Bolsheviks, New Economic Policy, Five
Neville Chamberlain Year Plans and Collective Farms--Ukrainian
Winston Churchill Holodomor
● THE GREAT DEPRESSION--debt, tariffs,
Enrico Fermi overproduction, depreciated currencies, disrupted
trade, speculation--1929 Stock Market Crash
Pastor Martin Niemoller ● Keynesianism in Britain--spend to stimulate!

Pope John Paull II ● Rise of Fascism--Spain, Germany, Italy--loads of

Franz Kafka ● Hyperinflation in Germany--Weimar Republic, Beer
Erich Maria Remarque Hall Putsch, ​Mein Kampf
Virginia Wolf ● Munich Conference​--APPEASEMENT
Simone de Beauvoir
● Women’s workforce involvement during the World
Margaret Thatcher Wars--second wave feminism after WW2; baby
Mary Robinson boom--government socialism--child care, subsidies
for larger families like in France; the pill
● RISE of CONSUMERISM post WW2, especially in
Western Europe
● COLD WAR: 2 Europe’s, Iron Curtain, Marshall
Plan, Truman Doctrine, NATO, Warsaw Pact,
United Nations, Iron Curtain: COMECON
● European Trade: European Coal and Steel
Community [France and Germany!!!]--Common
Market--European Union--​Maastricht Treaty​--THE
● Green Parties--called for less
● Civil Rights--Gay and Lesbians
● Immigration from former colonies--decolonization