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Antonov An-2 'Colt'

With an interest in gliding that dated ment to accommodate two The tail-
from his schooldays, Oleg Antonov was plane is strut braced and the robust
to become an established designer of wide-track tailwheel type landing gear
gliders and sailplanes During World War can be provided with low-pressure tyres
II he was concerned primarily with de floats or skis to cater for all surfaces
velopment and production of aircraft but Exceptional operating characteristics
worked also as a designer within the are provided by the wings the upper
Yakovlev organisation Post-war he wing includes electrically-actuated auto-
formed his own bureau to design and de- matic leading-edge slots trailing edge
velop a new do anything-go anywhere slotted flaps, and ailerons which can be
aeroplane resulting in the Antonov used conventionally for roll control but
An-2 'Colt' identified briefly as the can also be drooped collectively up to
SKh-1 (Selskokhozyaistvennyi 1 , or 20° to complement the flaps The lower
'agricultural economic-1) before the wing has only full-span slotted trailing
Antonov designation was applied It is a edge flaps Powerplant of the prototype
most appropriate designation, if for no consisted of a 567-kW (760-hp) Shvet-
other reason than the fact that the letters sov ASh-21 radial engine but later pro- of countries aligned with the East but Still an effective utility transport
An begin the word anachronism which duction aircraft from Antonov had a very few now remain in scheduled ser- more than 40 years after its
is how an observer in the 1990s must re 746-kW (1 000-hp) Shvetsov ASh-62IR vice there is no doubt that many of debut, the Antonov An-2 remains
gard this large biplane First flown in pro- engine these reliable aircraft are still used for in Polish production in numerous
totype form on 31 August 1947 it still Since 1960 production has been by passenger carrying among other routine forms, especially for the
continues in production although not by WSK PZL in Poland and the An 2 has tasks agricultural role.
Antonov in the USSR since the late also been built under licence in China as
1960s the Type 5 Transport Aeroplane Variants
A single-bay sesquiplane with a single and combined production from the three (Russian built) An-2P (Passazhirskii) basic general-
streamline interplane strut on each side above sources is estimated at 1 5 000 of An-2F: experimental artillery- purpose model for up to 1 2 passengers
and dual flying- and landing wire bracing which about 60 per cent have been built observation model of 1948 with glazed or 1240 kg (2 733 Ib) of freight
the An 2 is almost entirely of all metal in Poland fuselage mid-section, dorsal machine- An-2P (Protivopozharnyi) fire fighting
construction The exceptions are the An 2s are still used extensively, and gun position and twin vertical tail model of the An 2V developed in 1964
wings aft of the front spar andtailplane also in a variety of roles not included surfaces and able to uplift 1240 litres (271 Imp
which are fabric-covered The large among the above designations They An-2L: fire-fighting model equipped gal) of water in its floats
capacity fuselage is a semi-monocoque have served widely in a passenger trans for the carriage of chemicals in glass An-2S: agricultural model of the An-2
structure, providing a comfortable port capacity (carrying up to 12 adults containers under the wings and Passazhirskii with spray equipment
heated and ventilated crew compart and 2 children) with Aeroflot and airlines fuselage and long-stroke mam landing gear legs
An-2V: twin float model with shorter Antonov An-2s were supplied in sizeable
propeller blades numbers to client states of the Soviet Union,
An-2ZA: high-altitude meteorologica for use in a variety of utility duties. This
research model with an extra cockpit aircraft wears the colourful markings of the
forward of the fin for an observer to Cuban national airline.
watch ice growth

(Polish built)
An-2 Geofiz: geophysical survey
An-2M: twin float version of the
An-2T basically similar to the Russian
An-2P: passenger mode! with better
soundproofing than the Russian
version and fitted with an improved
An-2PK: five seat executive model
An-2P-Photo: special model
equipped for photogrammetnc
An-2PR: television relay model
An-2R: specialised agricultural model
introduced in 1964 with hermetic
sealing of the cockpit revised tail
surfaces of greater area a more
advanced propeller and a fibreglass
container for 1960 litres (421 Imp gal) of
chemicals or 1350kg (2 976lb) of Since 1960 the An-2 has been built in Poland
fertiliser dust by WSK-PZL, and this company has produced
An-2S: ambulance model with several new variants, many adapted to
fittings for six litters and medical agricultural needs. China also builds the type
attendants under licence.
An-2T: basic general-purpose model
An-2TD: paratroop model with tip-up
seats for 1 2
An-2TP: passenger/freight model
based on the An-2TD
Lala-1: experimental model of 1972,
with rear fuselage/empennage
replaced by twin booms and revised
tail allowing installation of a turbofan in
the stump fuselage as development for
the M 15 Belphegor agricultural aircraft

Antonov (WSK-PZL) An-2P
Type: general-purpose biplane
Powerplant: one 746-kW (1 000-hp)
Shvetsov ASh-62IR radial piston engine
Performance: maximum speed
258km/h (160mph) at 1750m (5 740ft),
economic cruising speed 185km/h
(115mph) service ceiling 4400m
(14425ft) range 901 km (560 miles)
with 500-kg (1 102-lb) payload at
optimum altitude Dimensions: span upper 18 18m height 4 0 0 m (13ft 116in) wing area
Weights: empty 3450kg (7,605lb), (59ft 7% in), lower 1 4 24m (46 ft upper 43 60m 2 (469 32sqft), lower
maximum take-off 5500kg ( 1 2 , 1 2 5 l b ) 8'/2in) length 1 2 74m ( 4 1 f t 9V2in), 280m 2 (301 4sqft)

Antonov An-3/4
Antonov An-4 is the design bureau The Antonov design office proposed The supplementary cabin in front of the An-4's otherwise standard
designation for the An-227, a variant of a turboprop version of the An-2 as a unit was designed to accommodate a geo physical observer.
the An-2 intended specifically for the new standard agricultural aeroplane for
role of high-altitude meterological use mainly m the USSR and the
research with a glazed position countries of Eastern Europe This
immediately in front of the tail fin for an model was the Soviet design bureau's
observer The ZA suffix stands for response to the development in Poland
Zondirovanie Atmosfery translatable of the WSK-PZL Mielec M-15
as air sampling' Belphegor agricultural aeroplane with a
The ASh-62IR engine has a TK turbofan engine The first plans for this
super-charger mounted on the turboprop-powered variant of the An-2
starboard side of the cowling This appeared in 1972, but the design
arrangement enables the An-4 to became concrete only in 1979, when
maintain power up to an altitude of there appeared illustrations clearly
1000 m (32 8 1 0 ft) The spinner of the revealing the existence of new An-3
An-2 standard model is deleted to aid prototypes The only difference from
engine cooling and the original ailerons the An-2 was the powerplant of one
have been replaced by an unslotted 701-kW (940-shp) Glushenkov TVD-
variety 10B turboprop
Antonov An-12 'Cub'
Developed simultaneously with the
An 1 0 the An-12'Cub'was a generally
similar transport for mil tary service with
the Soviet air force The major difference
was the provision of a comp etely new
rear fuselage which was more sharply
upswept to incorporate underfuselage
loading doors which when opened
allowed for the direct on loading of vehi
cles Also included was a gunner s posi
tion in the extreme tail position the gun
ner being s e a t e d j u s t below the
trailing edge of the rudder The An 1 2 be
came a standard freight and paratroop
transport n Soviet air force use Over
100 remained in service n 1989 for this
purpose plus a small number of An-12
'Cub-A' and 'Cub-B' electronic ntelli Balkan Bulgarian Airlines has
gence (Flint) and An-12 'Cub-C' elec four An-12 freighters in service.
tronic countermeasures aircraft The
Cub A has extra blade aerials the
Cub B has a variety of ventral radomes
while the Cub C has other radomes in
eluding one in place of the twin 23 mm
tail cannon of the Cub An 1 2 s have
been supplied also for service with the
air forces of countries such as Algeria
Bangladesh Egypt India Indonesia
Iraq Poland Sudan Syria and Yugo
In 1 9 6 5 a c v i l v e r s o n o f the An 1 2 was
demonstrated at the Pans Air Salon This
had a differing arrangement of underfu
selage doors which fold to perm t the
use of a detachable ramp for loading and
unloading Between the mam aft cargo
hold and the flight deck a pressurised
area was provided allowing for the
accommodation of 1 4 passengers
These mixed passenger/cargo An 1 2 s
began to enter service w t h Aeroflot in
February 1966 and these have the tail
gun pos tion of the military freighter de Antonov An-12 'Cub'
leted and enclosed by a smooth fairing
Since that time civil An 1 2 s have been
suppl ed for similar mixed passenger/
cargo serv ces with several airlines
Production ended n 1973 after some
850 An 1 2 s had been produced for evil
and military operators

Type, mixed passenger/cargo
Powerplant. four 2983 ekW (4 000
ehp) Ivchenko Al 20K turboprops
Performance- maximum cruising
speed 600km/h (373mph) normal
cruising speed 550km/h (342 mph) at
7620m (25 000ft) service ceiling
10200m (33465ft) range 3400km
(2 1 1 3 miles) with 10000 kg (22 046 b)
payload and one hour fuel reserves
Weights: norma take off 54000kg
( 1 1 9 0 5 0 l b ) maximum take off
61000kg (134482lb)
Dimensions span 38 00m (124ft
8m) length 33 1 0 m (108ft 7Am)
height 1 0 53m (34ft 6/2in) wing area
1 2 1 70m 2 (1 3 1 0 s q f t )

Several An-12s serve with civil

airlines, but most are in use with
military forces. Included in the
Soviet fleet are many configured
for electronic duties, such as
Antonov An-14/ -28
The Antonov An-14 'Clod' was de
signed in 1957 as a STOL (short take off
and land ng) freighter and feederl ner
with handling characteristics which
would enable it to be flown by mex
penenced pilots With its high aspect Antonov An-14 'Clod' of the East
ratio braced wing and twin tailfins it German air force
shows signs of msp ration from the
French Hurel Dubois transports of the
early 1950s the exper mental designs Dimensions: span 22 Om (72ft 3in)
which also led to the Brtish Shorts Sky length 1 1 36m (37ft 3 1 /2in) height
van and 330 463m (15ft 2/2in) wing area 39 72m2
The development of the An 14 was (422 8 sq ft)
protracted and t was not until 1965 that 604 kW (810 shp) TVD 850 turboprops
the type entered service Production ver the new v e r s i o n was stretched to Specification Antonov An-28
sions feature a very d fferent tail design accommodate up to 1 5 passengers and Antonov An-14 Type: STOL light transport
from the prototype and the planform of weighed 5600kg ( 1 2 500!b) fully loaded Type: STOL light transport Powerplant: two 715 kW (960 shp)
the wng and the arrangement of the A production prototype of the aircraft Powerplant: two 224 kW (300 hp) PZL built Glushenkov TVD 10V
high lift devices are also mod fied The was demonstrated n 1974 at which Ivchenko Al 14RF radial piston engines turboprops
nose was slightly lengthened and clam time the change n designation to An 28 Performance: cruising speed 1 7 0 Performance: max mum cruis ng
shell doors were fitted to the rear fuse was announced Production is by PZL n 180km/h (105 120mph) at 2000m speed 350 km/h (217 mph) econom cal
lage Poland and the aircraft is in serv ce with (6560ft) maximum range with six cru sing speed 300km/h (186mph)
If the evolution of the An 1 4 has been both civil and military users passengers or 570 kg (1 200 Ib) payload range with 20 passengers 510km (317
slow that of its turboprop development All variants of the An 14 and An 28 650km (400 miles) service ceiling miles)
the An-28 'Cash' has been even less share the same pod and boom fuselage 5000m (16400ft) take off run 100 Weights: empty 3500kg (7 716lb)
hurried It was announced in 1967 that a layout perm ttmg easy loading of cargo 1 1 0 m (330360ft) landing run 1 1 0 m maximum take off 6100kg ( 1 3 448Ib)
turboprop version of the type was under in the freight role The h gh wing carries (360ft) Dimensions: span 22 06m (72ft
development and the first prototype full span double slotted flaps and slats Weights: empty 2600kg (5 700Ib) 41/2 n) length 1 2 98m (42ft 7m) he ght
desgnated An-14M flew at K ev in ailerons being built into the outer flap normal take off 3450kg (7 600lb) 4 6m (15ft 1 in) w ng area 40 28m 2
September 1 9 6 9 Powered by two sectons maximum take off 3630 kg (8 000 Ib) (433 5sqft)

Antonov An-22
The Soviet Union has always been faced
with the difficult problem of transporting
cargo across its vast terr tones th s re
suits not only from the very long dis
tances involved but also from a wide
variety of terrain and the need to provide
a serv ce of this nature into areas where
I ttle or no surface routes exist A r trans
port has provided a solution to this prob
lem and explains why there has been
consderable development and produc
tion of heavy cargo and cargo/passenger
a rcraft in the USSR
Antonov s bureau was given the task
in early 1962 of orgmatmg the design of
an a rcraft wh ch would be able to carry
heavy or large loads over long ranges
and which would n addition be able to
operate from and nto a variety of unpre
pared fields The resulting Antonov
An-22 Ante! 'Cock' prototype was
flown for the first time on 27 February
1965 and was first seen by the Western
aerospace industry when exhibited at
the Pans Air Salon some four months
later Almost certainly th s aircraft was
the prototype and it was then sug
gested that in addition to being available
as a bulk cargo transporter it was able to
be made available in evil airliner form
with upper and lower deck cabins to
accommodate a total of 724 passengers
Two years later again at the Pans Salon
came the news that this latter proposal
had been abandoned each mam unit consists of three tw n for 28 or 29 passengers For several years the world's
A n t o n o v s design to meet the wheel levered suspens on units in tan An 22s have establ shed many pay largest aircraft, the An-22's giant
demand ng requ rements has resulted in dem so that on the ground the An 22 is load to height and speed with payload turboprops enable it to lift outsize
a very large all metal aircraft of high wing supported on no fewer than 1 4 wheels records and are able to a rhft the army s loads. Among the more
monoplane configuration the wing in Tyre pressures of these wheels are T 62 tank Serving both with Aeroflot and interesting applications is the
eluding wide span double slotted trail adjustable in flight or on the ground to the Soviet airforce the numbers remain transport of complete An-124
ing edge flaps The large capacity fuse provide optimum performance for any ing in servce in 1989 were estimated at wings carried 'piggy-back'.
lage includes an upswept rear section particular airfield surface It is reported 20 30 and 55 respectively
w th a large loading ramp door for direct that operation into and from water sod
onloadmg of veh cles and to provide den grass fields s possible
stabilty during such operatons retrac Powerplant of product on An 22s Specification with maximum fuel and 45000 kg
table jacks can be extended at a point comprises four Kuznetsov turboprop Type: long range heavy transport (99 208 ib) payload
adjacent to the loading ramp hinges engines each of which drives a pair of Powerplant: four 11186 kW (15 000 Weights: empty equipped 114000kg
Twin fins extend above and below the contra rotating four blade propellers shp) Kuznetsov NK 12MA turboprops (251 327 Ib) maximum take off
ta Iplane with the rudders likewise n Accommodation is provided for a crew Performance: maximum speed 250000kg (551 156lb)
two halves The landing gear is of the re of five or six and in common with many 740km/h (460 mph) cruising speed Dimensions: span 6440m ( 2 1 1 f t
tractable tricycle type but sdesgnedto Soviet transport aircraft there is a small 560 640 km/h (348 398 mph) range 3 1 /2in) length 57 80m (189ft 7/2in)
permit off runway operaton the steer cabin area at the forward end of the fuse 5000km (3 107 miles) with maximum height 12 53m (41ft 1/4in) wing area
able nose unit carres twin wheels but lage aft of the flight deck wth seating payload range 10950km (6 804 miles) 345m 2 (3 713 7sqft)
Antonov An-24
With the requirement for a turbine tyre pressures in flight or on the ground
engmed short-range civil transport to re to permit operation from a variety of dif-
place the piston engmed llyushm I! 1 4 in ferent surfaces The powerplant com
Aeroflot service the Antonov bureau in prises two Ivchenko Al 24A turboprop
mated in late 1957 the design of a 32 40 engines each driving a constant speed
seat aircraft which could be employed and fully feathering propeller
over short/medium range routes Its de Production aircraft began to enter ser
sign had to include the ability to operate vice with Aeroflot in 1962 for crew train-
from small unpaved airfields and also re ing and proving flights but it was not
quired that flight characteristics and until September 1963 that the first 50-
powerplant should be such that it could seat An-24Vs were used on the routes
be used between points with consider between Moscow Voronezh and Sara
able variations in altitude and/or temper tov Subsequent versions have included
ature It was not until just over two years the An-24V Srs II available with
later in April 1960 that the first of two standard 50 passenger accommodation
prototypes had flown the period be but also with alternative mixed passen-
tween the beginning of the design and ger/freight convertible cargo/passen-
completion of the first prototype had ger all freight or executive interiors the
been extended somewhat by a capacity An-24RV similar to the foregoing but
change to 44 seat accommodat on with a 900 kg (1 985 Ib) thrust auxiliary
Typically Antonov in its high wing turbojet installed in the starboard engine to provide fast reaction to newly re China's Xian Aircraft Company is
configuration the An-24 'Coke' is fit nacelle and used for remote field engine ported forest fires developing new and improved
ted with a wing having wide span Fow starting and operable also to improve Production of the An 24 series for civil versions of the An-24 under the
ler type trailing edge flaps these being take off or airborne performance the and military operators totalled some Y-7 designation.
double slotted outboard of the engine An-24T equipped as a specialised 1 100 and the type continues in produc
nacelles and single-slotted inboard The freighter with the standard rear cabin tion and under development in China as 8400m (27 560ft) range with
tail unit is conventional with the addition passenger door deleted and replaced by the Xian Y-7 maximum payload 550km (342 miles)
of a fairly large ventral fin on production an upward opening ventral freight door range with maximum fuel 2440km
aircraft and the fuselage is a semi twin ventral fins outboard of the freight Specification (1 491 miles)
monocoque structure introducing doorto replace the single ventral fin and Antonov An-24V Weights: empty 13300kg (29 321 Ib)
b o n d e d / w e l d e d c o n s t r u c t i o n The with cargo hoist and conveyor installed Type: short range transport maximum take off 21000kg (49 297 Ib)
hydrauhcally retractable tricycle type and the An-24RT as the An 24T but Powerplant: two 1902 ekW (2 550 Dimensions: span 29 20m (95ft
landing gear has twin wheels on each with aux hary turbojet installed Also ehp) Ivchenko Al 24A turboprops 9 1 / 2 in) length 2353m (77ft 2 1 /2in)
unit a steerable and fully castonng nose evaluated was an An-24P equipped to Performance: cruising speed height 8 3 2 m (27ft SVzin) wing area
unit and includes the means of adjusting airdrop parachute equipped firelighters 450km/h (280mph) service ceiling 74 98m2 (807 1 sq ft)

Antonov An-26, An-30 and An-32

Development of a military freighter part of the major geophysical effort to much larger Antonov An-12 and requires be balanced by additional tail area (in the
based on the Antonov An 24 airliner was locate mineral resources within the a propeller of greater diameter than the ventral fins) and the higher thrust line
logical especially in view of the in USSR Al 24 of the An 26 In order to avoid total has necessitated an increase in outer
creased performance available with the The third variation appeared in 1979 in redesign of the wing therefore in the wing chord resulting in a dog tooth lead-
addition of the auxiliary engine mtro the f o r m of the Antonov An-32 An 32 the engines have been relocated ng edge and inverted slots on the tail
duced on the An 24RV 'Cline' This was designed specifically to a position well above the wing The plane lead ng edge No auxiliary turbojet
As things turned out three variations to offer better performance in hot and propeller axes are thus above the widest is f tted and production for civil and mill
were developed on the theme of the high conditions and is powered by two point of the fuselage with the advantage tary operators began in 1980 The An 32
An-24 The first of these was the Anto- 3863-ekW (5 180 ehp) Ivchenko Al 20M that asymmetric control problems are is readily capable of operations from air
nov An-26 'Curl' which began to turboprops offering some 83 per cent less than if the engines had been moved fields as high as 4600m ( 1 5 000ft) and
enter service in 1970 and is distinguish more power than the Al 24s of the outwards rather than upwards How- has a maximum payload of 6000kg
able by its more powerful 2103 ekW An 26 The Al 20M is an uprated version ever the destabilising effect of the (13228lb)
(2 820 ehp) Ivchenko Al 24T turboprops of the turboprop which powered the larger cowlmgsand propellers has had to
and redesigned rear fuselage This latter
includes a large downward-hinged rear
ramp/door which can be slid forward
below the cabin floor to facilitate airdrop-
ping of freight or the direct loading of
cargo (up to 5 5 0 0 k g / 1 2 1 2 5 l b ) at
truckbed height Small vehicles can be
driven straight into the hold while other
loads can be handled by inbuilt powered
conveyors and winches A large bulged
observation window is fitted to the left
side of the fuselage just to the rear of
the flight deck for increased accuracy in
para dropping operations The An 26 is
in service as a light tactical transport (40
passengers orfreight) with Warsaw Pact
air arms and considerable efforts have
been made to export the type It would
appear to be a logical replacement for
the Lisunov Li 2 and llyushm II 1 4 The
Chinese are developing their own ver
sion known as the Xian Y-14.
The second variation is the Antonov
An-30 'Clank' which first flew in
1974 This is a specialised aerial survey
version of the An 26 with a raised flight
deck and an extensively glazed nose to-
gether with ventral ports for cameras
and other survey equipment It seems
likely that the An 30 s principal role is as

The An-26 is the standard

transport of the Soviet Union and
its client states. Shown is an East
German machine.
Antonov An-26
Type- short haul transport
Powerplant: two 2103 ekW (2 820
ehp) Ivchenko Al 24T turboprops
Performance (at normal take off
weight) cru s ng speed at 6000m
( 1 9 675ft) 435km/h (270mph) ntial
cl mb rate 480m (1 575ft) per m nute
service ce ling 8100m (26 575ft) range
w t h 4500 kg (9 920 Ib) payload 900km
(559 miles)
Weights: empty 15020kg (33 133lb)
normal take off 23000kg (50 706lb)
maximum take off 24000kg (52 9 1 1 Ib)
Dimensions, span 29 20m (95ft
9/2 n) length 23 80m (78ft 1 in) heght
8 575m (28ft 1 / 2 n) wing area
7498m 2 (807 1 s q f t )

Antonov An-32
Type short/med um range transport
Powerplanf two 3862 ekW (5 180
ehp) Ivchenko Al 20M turboprops
Performance: normal cru s ng speed
510km/h (317mph) service ceil ng
9500m (31 1 5 0 f t ) range with 6000 kg
( 1 3 228 Ib) payload 800km (497 miles)
Weight: maximum take off 26000kg
Dimensions- span 29 20m (95ft
9/2 n) length 2380m (78ft 1 n) height
8 575m (28ft 1 / 2 n) w n g a r e a
74 98m 2 (807 1 sq ft)

With an airframe similar to the

An-26, the An-32 is intended for
high performance operations

Antonov An-72/-74
F rst flyng on 22 December 1977 the vers on dent fied by observation Specification (2 020 miles)
An-72 was designed pr rK pally as a re blisters on fuselage sides and enlarged Antonov An-72A 'Coaler-C' Weights: max mum take off from
placement for the An 26 freighter and radar n bulged radome Able to be Type STOL transport 1800m (5905ft) runway 34500kg
the aircraft will form a basis for a sizeable fitted wth ether wheels or skis the Powerplant. two Lotarev D 36 (76060lb) maximum take off from
fam lyofvanantss milarto the earl erde An 74 also has ncreased fuel capac ty turbofans each rated at 63 74kN 1000m (3 280ft) runway 27500kg
sign Bearing a similarity to the Boeing and better nav gallon equipment ( 1 4 330lb) thrust to be replaced by (60625IW
Y C 1 4 the An 72 is a STOL freghter An-74 'Madcap': airborne early Lotarev D 436 turbofans of 73 6kN Dimensions: span 31 89m (104ft
wth many advanced features suited to warning version with redes gned tail ( 1 6 5 5 0 l b ) thrust 7/2in) length 2807m (92ft 1/4in)
the ma n role The high w ng mounts unit The swept forward fin has a large Performance: maximum speed at heght 8 65m (28ft 4/2in) wing area
two large D 36 turbofans above the wing rotodome mounted on top hous ng the 10000m (32 800ft) 705km/h 9862m 2 (1062sqft)
close to the fuselage keeping them free surveillance radar while the horzonta (438mph) servce ceiling 10700m
from foreign object damage These are tail surfaces have been moved to a ( 3 5 1 0 5 f t ) take off run 930m (3 050ft) This pre-production An-72 shows
set to be replaced by the more powerful conventional low set position The landing run 465m (1 525ft) range with the unusual engine arrangement,
Lotarev D 436 cabin conta ns operator stat ons and max mum payload 800 km (497 miles) chosen so that efflux blows back
Engine efflux is blown over the top assocated a on cs range wth maximum fuel 3250km across the large flaps
surface of the wing When the large
mult slotted flaps are deployed the jet
efflux is deflected downwards (the
Coanda effect) by st eking to the flap
surface thereby increasing lift enor
mously The An 72 is ta lored to opera
tions from unprepared fields featurng
multi wheel low pressure landing gear
and a rear load ng ramp The An 72 and
its derivatives are in service with both
Aeroflot and the Soviet air force Produc
tion at the Kharkov plant numbers about
20 per year

An-72 'Coaler-A': pre product on
a rcraft numbering two fly ng
prototypes one stat c test a rframe and
eight pre production mach nes
An-72A 'Coaler-C'- ma n product on
version wth increased fuselage length
and w ng span
An-72AT 'Coaler-C'. specialist
cargo carry ng version equ pped to
accommodate standard containers
An-72S 'Coaler-C': executive
version with three cabins separated by
bulkheads In the front are to let galley
and cloak facilities the central section
has work and rest areas while the rear
conta ns 24 armchairs Provis on for
cargo or vehicle carnage is made
An-74 'Coaler-B': arctic support
Antonov An-124
At the time of its first flight on 26 Decem aircraft appeared quickly The second air- Specification 16500km (10,250 miles)
her 1982, the An-124 was the largest craft, named Ruslan, appeared at the Type: heavy transport Weights: maximum take-off weight
a i r c r a f t in the world Antonov s ex 1985 Pans Air Salon The aircraft entered Powerplant: four Lotarev D-18T 405000kg (892,872 Ib) maximum fuel
penence with the huge turboprop An-22 service with Aeroflot in early 1986, and turbofans each rated at 229 5kN 230000kg (507,063Ib) maximum
gave it a head start when design began now serves principally on the Siberian (51,590 Ib) thrust payload 150000kg (330,693Ib)
on the new giant, as did knowledge of run, carrying outsize items to the oil and Performance: maximum cruising Dimensions: span 73 30m (240ft
the slightly smaller Lockheed C 5 mineral exploitation industries In 1987 speed 865km/h (537mph), approach 5 3 Ain), length 6 9 1 0 m (226ft SVzin),
Galaxy Indeed apart from its low-set the An-124 began service with the air speed 240km/h (149mph), take-off height 2078m (68ft 2Viin) wing area
tailplane, the An-124 is very similar to the force Production is reportedly eight to field length at maximum weight 628 Om 2 (6,760sqft)
Lockheed product ten aircraft peryear, and by 1989 over 25 3000m (9,850ft), landing run at max In service with both Aeroflot and
Four Lotarev D-18T turbofans power had been completed The An-124 was weight 800m (2,625ft), range with the Soviet air force, the An-124
the giant, slung in pods under the large assigned the NATO reporting name maximum payload 4500km (2,795 'Condor' is also available to
anhedralled wing Full span leading- 'Condor' miles), range with maximum fuel Western firms who wish to lease it.
edge slats and large flaps give the
An 124 impressive short field capability
while its 20 main wheels allow the type
to use rough fields Two nose-wheel
units each have a pair of wheels and
these can be retracted on the ground
allowing the aircraft to 'kneel' to assist
loading Like the Galaxy, the An-124 has
an upward-hingemg nose visor and rear
clamshell/ramp doors to allow front or
rear drive-on loading
Accommodation on the flight deck
caters for six crew (two pilots, two
engineers a navigator and a radio oper-
ator), and behind this is a rest area
Behind the wing on the upper deck is
accommodation for up to 88 passen-
gers The 36m ( 1 1 8 f t ) long mam cabin is
pressurised and has two electric cranes
in the roof, each lifting up to 20000kg
(44,100 Ib) Two winches are fitted, able
to pull loads through the cabin Control of
the aircraft is effected by a quadruple
redundant fly-by wire system
Following its first flight with Vladimir
Terski at the controls, the A n - 1 2 4
showed few problems, and production

Antonov An-225 Mriya

Currently the world s largest aircraft, the Outsize loads that cannot fit into the records in one flight from Kiev, at a maxi- Performance: (estimated) cruising
An-225 Mriya (dream) stemmed from capacious cabin (including Buran and En- mum take-off weight m e x c e s s of speed 800km/h (497 mph), take-off run
the need to transport large items for the ergiya components) are carried 'piggy- 500000kg (1,100,000 Ib) Only two have carrying Buran 2500m (8,200ft)
Soviet space programme Previously a back', the load supported on two mam been completed so far, and the first flew turning radius about nosewheels 50m
converted Myasishchev Mya-4 'Bison attachments above the centre section with Buran on 1 3 May 1989 This com (164ft)
bomber had been used to carry outsize These supports and other smaller ones bmation made a dramatic appearance in Weights: maximum take-off
items on its back, but this had a limited along the fuselage top are faired over the West for the first time a month later 600000kg (1,322 750lb) maximum
payload capacity, meaning many com- when not in use To avoid buffeting from at the Pans Air Salon payload (internal or external) 250000kg
ponents had to be disassembled or not the 'piggyback' load, the An 225 has (551 150lb)
carried at all twin vertical fins mounted on the end of Specification Dimensions: span 88 4m (290ft),
In mid-1985 Antonov was entrusted a large tailplane Type: heavy transport length 840m (275ft 7 in), height 1 8 1 m
with the design of a new aircraft able to The prototype made its first flight on Powerplant: six Lotarev D 1ST (59ft 4%m), tailplane span 32 65m
carry the Buran shuttle orbiter, large 21 December 1988, and in March 1989 turbofans, each rated at 229 5kN (107ft 1V2in) length of freight hold
components of the Energiya launch vehi- set up no fewer than 106 world and class (51 590Ib) thrust 43m (141 ft)
cles and other outsize items for con-
struction and mining industries Con-
struction of the An 1 2 4 provided the
basis for the new aircraft, Antonov using
many of the same components to keep
cost and development effort down
The fuselage and wings are similar to
the An-124, the cabin retaining the same
cross-sectional dimensions but with in-
creased length To save weight the rear
loading ramp is removed, but the An-225
retains the nose visor Standard An-124
wings are grafted on to a new centre
section, thereby increasing the span
while keeping the engine installations
the same An additional pair of D-36T
turbofans is fitted to the new centre sec-
tion, raising thrust to an amazing 1377kN
(309,540 Ib) In order to support the in-
creased weight, seven pairs of wheels
are fitted to each side as opposed to five
in the An-124

The world's largest aircraft, the

mighty s/x-eng/ned An-225 was
developed primarily as a
transport for the Soviet space
shuttle and rocket launcher