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Turkish Asuman Celen Pollard and David Pollard PORTSMOUTH PUBLIC LIBRARY 20 GALLIA ST. (OUTH, OHIO 45662, ‘TEACH YOURSELF BOOKS For UK odor quote: lose cant Mosc 9 Mien Fi, tngaon (Chen axte a1D- Toon: ea} ze oat Fa (ie Bhan fo0e reopen fem 40-300, Monday Satay, wth 224 how ease rowing sone, ado ere baokpo.o For USA. & Canis odor quar loo cont NTCComtanpeaty Pb 286 West Touhy Aor, Unsormeod, ena 648 1975, USA, ope! 017 679 8800, Fo a) 6 208 Loman a: uote sx stg og wh Bo wes ihe “i ofiangsages. cra, nobtes, sport, ae ober re cia Catatiing in Paseo ats ‘Rostaogun fs ob ia a ome Be ibary va of Congress Caaioy Cau tnbeon le Fit pened in UK S006 by Had Hane Pe, 28 EstonRod, London oes ‘bt pad in US 1996 by NeTEContarporary Publaing, 455 West Tuy ‘econo (Cheap), hos Bate 73 Us Copyright© 1996 Ded Potala Auman Gon Pond pen aptseenad Ho pat spain may te oped ona nay tm aby ay nears clostone or octane, ncaa iran teesen every kereas pbtcnst aman fetes ti {Gopynhtlzonang Agency Lind. Pures dee of sch hseneas foe Feprogesie sprout ay beabened tome Cpytar enn ‘non Cimino 3 Totonham Cou on, Landaa WP 1m US: is tesa No pat cts book maybe rpc, saad in ‘id tty ay ls trociencapotocayying or ebarc, without or pow on of Hirciconemporry hang Compa ‘Typo by Toot, Covent Prien Get Bn for Hoa & Sougton Eluctona a son of Heder Fenn, 350 Eton Ron London WW Boy oe & Win ey Faden, ovches, Inpiasionrumter 109 8 7 6 9 4 3 Yee ‘2nve! 2001 ze00 ‘tose “te90 197 44 QB 176 P Polfard, Asuman Celen — Turkish Shean | Invreduetion 1 Introduction to the Turkish language 6 ‘The alphabetand pronunciation 10 Pronunciation practive - survival guide u 1. Bkmek var m? Ze there any bread? 18 2 Angiliz misiniz? Are sou Bngtish? 2 8 Daha koymaysn,Iitfen! No mors please! 8 4 Saka yapiyorsunuz! You jokin? 59 15 Golcbektedintz mi? fave you bean vating long? . 6 Yarin erken laleweajam Ti! gt up early onerrow 80) 1 Yardim eder misiniz? Would you help me? 106 8 Nereye gidelim? Ne yapabilirie? ‘Where shall we ga? What son eto? 120 ‘9 Neler yapmayseviyorsunuz? What do you lie doing? 137 10. Ejer gegmezse, ile veririm "1/1 dove get better, IH give you some medicine 153 AI Sizee goksakin bir vermis! You said was. very que place! 167 12 Aradiigmie numara yanlistir ‘The munber you hav dialled isiscorrot 179 18 Ne oldugumu anlatirmasiniz? Could yeu tll me wht happened? 195 14 Gialdirme benit Dont make me leek! 205, 15 Burasinezaman ings edilmis? When was this place bil? 218 16 Fiyatlan bilseydim orada yemeedile If had hnown about the prices we wouldn't how eaten there ou Key to the exervises aT Appendix 254 ‘Turkish-English glossary 258 Index to grammar points 23 About the authors ‘Asuman Cle Polland was born in northern Turkey and spent hor chidhood in Lar, She spent many yours in Istanbul teaching bth English ond ‘Turkish aa 2 foreign language. Siow 1992 she has taught Turkish at the Centre for Byzartine and Olioman Studies at the University of Birmingham and al the Brashowse Language Cente, ‘David Pollard as bora in sorthern England and spent is childhood in the stalls othe cinema. Ate tanching Bngish ws a fers Tanguage in Switzerland, Bulgaria “and ‘Turkes, be bocane a computer analyst programmer. Since 1963 he as proéuced frvational acware and is now Aston Univesity’s computer- ‘sisted leaning specialist. Dedication For Vanessa, —— INTRODUCTION —— ‘Teoh Yourcuf Turkish i a complete eoorce for borinnen in akon tnd written Turkish, Te is suitable for those who wish to acquire small amount ofthe language to get the most out ofa visit ta Turkey It is also ideal for those vha require a deeper knowledge of the Jonguage in ord to commenicate effscvely in a range of everday situations. "The authars have focussed on Turkish ae spoken in Istanbul atthe turn of the 2Ist century. We assume no previous knowledge of fevign language learning and vod grammatyal terminolgy where pesibe. Whore such terms are ‘unavoidable, we explain them in plan ly English. Completing this hove will give you an intermediatelevel knowledge of both spoken ‘and written ‘rkish. You wil he able to communicate at level ‘oquivalent tothe Council of Surope's Wayslage guidelines, We have designed this book for selftuion and soit is wholly sl Contained. Iti, however, also ideal fr stady with a teacher. "There fare 16 carefully grade snd interlocking unit, Back unit introduces ‘new language structures fimly embeded in a funetional context. ‘This means you concentra on the Uses to which you ean put the language. We introduce the bricks and mortar of Turkish in small, digestible chunks as and when they aco estental to allow yeu to ‘communicate farther, Above all else, Teno Your Turkish uses language which s moaning Bach unit starts with an cpening dialague accompanied hy sinple comprehension questions aad notes abont the language or Turkish altar, Then a small number of language points are explained, wing plenty of examples b strate them, he exercises whic follow are fin sssential pert of each nn, Open-ended questions have been ‘voided 30 you donot need fodback from a teccher - you ean ‘omplete ail the exereises using jost the answer key. Bach unit ends ‘wth a seood, shorter dialogue which is inked to te apening one orally wo strongly rsommend that you us the companion casette containing the promandalion guide and all tue dialogues How best to learn using this book ‘Tum of the tes, pour a Taege drink ard ind a comfy chai. Tike plots of paper aad dra nee columns oa i. Inthe fist elumn, write flown thre reas for wanting to leara Turkish, Have a drink. En the ‘nie caiman vile throe tings in your life hb ight prevent you fom learning Tuekish, If your slas i empty now, g0 andrei In the last ealumn, now rite down the three ways in which you will tackle the items in the centre column. When you've completed this task, pn the pager on the wall samewhere prominent. ‘efor starting unit 1, read the Introduction tothe ‘Turkish langeaze Telells you whl there is instore when you loara Turkish. Donel try to memoree it~ once you've read it you can refer back to iti you need itl Now move on to the ection on the alphabet and [ratuncation; listen to the ‘phrase bvek? « few tenes, each time ‘aging alention ta a difarnt llter ‘Then go on to the frst unt. For each unit, you can choose whither ‘you ren the dialogue (Konugma fst or listen tit fist or do bot, guer, Whichever way yeu do it Isten Yo and read ib mumer of ‘mes. Dor worey if you do nol understand everything, Dot go crazy with the rend butin of the cassette player trying to each @ Single word ~ your understanding will improve as time goos on, “Likewise, don'try t lnm al the tems fa the weeabulary box off by Iheer te vorabulary box wil ail he there tomorrow Look things tapas you neo them and exped to look them up more than once in the fature, Having looked things up one, the next ime you read the Aialogue you vill remember roughly what's going on and might be ble fo work ot the meaning of unknown pieces of unguage fron the ‘ontext. In teal life, poop donot lear ists of vorabulary ~ they are ‘Siaply exposed to words over and over again in acontext which they Ten, and in he end (ith a Tile loking-up or asking) things stick, So~ expose yoursel, hen copy. Tal along withthe dialogues as you fetta know them and imitate what you ear, Don'be afraid ¢omake mistakes ~ the nore exaggerated your imitation of what you hes, the beter youl be doing. Relax and enjoy yourself, Aer checking your understanding of the dialogue by ansvoring ‘rv or four eteprehensin quvstions Sorular), st bac (rofl your glass if necessary} and read the language points (Diilgisi. Take tie language points slowly. If, after reating two ofthe points yu fel xyotve hind enoag, go baek to the diague arto a prosious ui, The ‘examples provided with these explanatsns are wel worth studing. ~ fon a seoond reading. You mig sup the explavation and iy 10 event wht the grammar pint was just Dy Inking a the examples, ‘The exercises (Ahghrmalae) are whew you have far and somes “thayro notes ~rler back Ua Ue longhage poke explanations or ‘rib the answers from the key if you must! Wherever possible, we've ‘made it necessary for you to understand the meaning ofthe Fangwage involved in one to complet the tasks set, So they’ go you thinking fnawers in the book, do so in ponei. Then sou have the option of subbing them out later ard testing your wits again in the fature When you have completed a eouple of ants, go back tothe exercises in earlier units its vry salsfyng to find them easir to d than the fie lime aroued. Tho exerdses are an sential pat ofthe book. “There is no tak associated with the closing dialarue of each wit (Konugma 2) Read it and listen to it more than once. This dialogue fonetimes rounds off the opening dnlarue, includes same of the Tanguage you've lenmed in the unit nd sometimes gives a gentle hin of what's come i the next unit Ag well asthe key tothe exereaes atthe back of the book, there ia a shart grammarrefarence (Append), a Turkish-Rreish elosary and fnindex to the grammar pints So- in language learning it there such a thing a gain withow pin? ‘The answer i yes, Ifyou putin the ef, Putting in effort nexd nat hho painfal. Aa mentioned shove, if you find something abit aiticul, ‘uct (noone vill know)! You lear elter when you are relaxed, 30 adjust your stuty oft your schedule snd ~ most importantly ~ your attention span. ‘Tw half heur sessions may be of more benefit han & solid hour's wl, Ifyou really want to got on, however, be systematic jn puting time aside and sing it. If your tango isto spend ur Tours & week on Turkish, kesp a log ofthe time you do spend and then reward youre for havirg achieved i Don't expect everthing to sick the Fist time you hear or road it~ ‘make one in every threo seins a revision sasion, loking buck at fearlier sections rar than pbughing aen, Finally, if you've never Jearaed a forcign language before, prepare ‘yours forthe thrill of che fist time you actually use what yeuve Tearned = when you undentand a sticet sign o a snippot of converation or mike yourself undorstood in a shop. How to supplement Teach Yourself Turkish ‘alleto Turkish poople. Listen, make mistakes, laugh, enjoy it. riling that, walsh Turkish tlvision, Tesi is reat fr pacing langage in context. You can watch an stin film in any language ‘and always underseand whet going wal The Tanguay you hese While watehing s invaluable exposure, Ifyou do not live in Turkey, too ifyou ean aoweae Turkich satelite without breaking the bank. TE hot, borrow vides from Turkish friends, Watch shit relaxing; you fan even leave the television on in the the background when yu're ‘ling something else. I all rubs of. ‘Teach Yourself Turkish does exist in « vacuum; ts not the only ‘exthok for learning Turkish. If you are a really serious leamer, start Uo work your way thraugh a differnt textbook during one of {your revision sesions, once you have gab part way theough Teach Yourself Turkish, Although the Twrkish-Bagiak glossary at the bosk of tho book fontzing all the words within this book, we suggest you buy a Aitienary. A good one forthe desktop is te Langenscheidt Standard. “Take time to faniliariee yourelf with is abbreviations, and ifyou are ever unsure about the correct meaning ofa word, lok it up bth ‘waye 20 that you will beable, for example, t spat Uhe dilfcence between the down’ with which you stall pillows and the ‘down! ‘whieh i the oppsit of ‘up ‘When planning a trip to Turkey, a phraso book may be a handy omynion to Teach Yourself Turkish, Beng Rona's BRC Ploase Boot (BBC, 1965) is concise, usable and even readable! Keep it in ‘your pocket and dip into i ding quiet moments Barly on in yourstodies find something real to read such as Turkish magivines, mies or newsjapers, Ifyou have acoos to the internet, spend a few moments searching for items in Turkish ~ you may turn ‘up anything from collestions of Turkish pocmns to the Iie stay of aU Co tour of Ista ‘As any language is best understood within its context, s0 is a good ‘knowledge of Turkish inextricably linked with a. knowledge of the ‘untries in whith ts spoken, To complement Teach Yourself Turkish, ‘ve recommend any form af wading about Turkish yoople and places, OF numerous guide books, we enjoyed The Rough Guide by Rosie Aylife, Mare Dubin and John Gavithrop (Rough Cuides, 994). Cure Shock! Murkey by Arm Bayraktarofla (Kuperard, 1996) is an ‘outstanding introduction to modem ‘Tvrkish culture. Jeremy Seals travel hoole A Prof the Hewrt (Picador, 1095) i alan an entertcining read with much insight Life after this book ‘One: you have completed this book, you willbe able vo communicate in a variety of everyday situations and have a sound knowledge of the major grammar points of Turkish. But what then? Like feack Yousef Turkish, most textbooks are aimed at beginners, so they ‘may note of interest to you. You might try Book Three of Tirbge Orenivorus, ctherwise.Sanown as Trkisch Abo, by Mehmet Hergirmen and Norettin Keg (Hagin, 1990). It is designed far Classroom use rather than slfatudy bu! i at roughly tho right evel. AAs a grammar relerencs, we recommend G. L. Lew Grammar (Oxted, 197) wich is very irapple with grammatical tars. Meurhil ‘eal Turkish withthe aid ofa dictionary. Your most revarding course of actin may be to enrol in an intermediate or advanced rourse in Turkish. Details are available ‘om the CILT (Centre fr Infrmation on Language Touching and Researeh) in London or Ankara University’s TOMER (Turkish "Teaching Centr) which has branches throughout Turkey. INTRODUCTION — TO THE sa TURKISH LANGUAGE Why Jearn Turkish? ‘Learn modern Turkish and yy will be abe to communicate with inhabitants of Turkey; ‘sew anlion jooplefndinous to Northern Cyprus, Bulgaria Romania and other parts ofthe Balk; © aes mili nembers of recently founded Turkish communities in Australia, Boum, Britain, Germang, Holand and other western ‘suntie, ‘You wills be ale tot byin Turkish with over 109 milion speakers of closely related Turkle languages which are spoken in the areas shaded black in the map bela. Features of Turkish ‘Weharo some goa news and some had now for you. The bad news i all roated to the fact that. Turkish is simply iffret from western Buropran langues. Let’ look at the hd news fist © Turkish uses Yoel harmny’—a feature unknown to Raglih| spaakers. © Whore English uss a sopacale word, Turkish often adds an ending to.an existing word, ‘©. The word order appears a {© Turkish vocabulary is mostly unreate to wester languages, ‘The gond neve is more important. It tells you that orce you adjust to the tae thae Turkish does things differen, ti a very regular and logieal language: ‘© Noms do not hve diferent genders jou do not have to remember whether a things masculine oF feminine like you din French oF German. © Turkish gramnac is very glar—learn a role ad there are usually ne exceptions. ‘© Oavo you know alittle voedbulary anda few roles about vorbulary buding then ruessing atthe meanings of new words isapioee of abe "Tho way in which Turkish werka is asoately fascinating. The more you kaw, the more you are surprised by is simplicity. Agglutination ‘Where English uses a numberof words, Turkish often ses only one For example, the phrase you will beable to come, is the single word gelebileceksin ‘Where English ads meaning othe verb came by placing other words in font of i, Turkish adds meaning to the verb gel by tagging en igs orto it: gel (un) -ebil (le able o),-eek (ui), sin ou). ‘he technical word for this way of doing things is agelutination, hich means ‘sticking bits together’. Turkish is an agelatinaling Tanguage, Vowel harmony ‘When you agglsinate in Turkish, mos of the endings usually have to ‘thyme, or harmonise, with the word you're adding them to, In order ta be able to aye like this the endings have a number of diferent forms, "Thote are two types of ending ending which contain the leltere They have two posible. farms, For example, the ending le esn be either le o a, © Tending whieh cata ie letter L Ty have our possible Jom, Fr sample, the ending -iyor ean bo -iyer, ayor, yor ce-uyor. ‘The knack lies in knowing which of the tw, or four, forms to use ‘Tis ack He explained fo Unit 1 and la the grunmar rebrence (Appendix) on page 254 Word order ‘Thebasic ord oder in Turkish is the woman the bok read. ‘he sub Jeet (the person or thing pcforming ths ation) comes first, the ver ‘Qheaetion word comes at te ond, andthe object (the person or hing having tho efi dame toi) sornee in Seboen. So the baie ord i ‘subjet~abjet~ ver. For example: adn kitaby oud, irally Themen the boo ed. ‘Word order is dseribed jx more detail in tho grammar reference (Append) on page 255, Forno, itis enough (0 be avvare that you reed Lo doa hitof juggling a work out she English equivalent of any- ‘hig in Turkish, Vocabulary building Guessing the meanings of words is gud fun. Gazete means news apr, and gazateci means journalist Bski means old, and eskict teens ragrand-bone mar Question: IF denis menns sex, what's the Turkish word for sailor? (Mie aaswer sin the hey on yige 247) wi THE ALPHABET es AND PRONUNCIATION ‘The bad newe: There aze fw extra lotions which Bgl dows not have, © Afew of the ltrs which English has stand for lilferent sounds "Turkish, ‘© Where you pee the stress in word ie different rom English ‘The god news: ‘© You pronouns Turkish ip exactly the same way as you spell it (© Hach Turkish letter stand fora single sound. The alphabet Here isthe Turkish alphabet: ‘Aa, Bb, Ce, Gs, Dd, Be, Fr, Ge, Cit, Hh, Ty, li, Jj, Kk, Ll, Mm, Na, (0p, Oo, Pp, He Se, $4, 7, Uu, Ob, We, Yy, Za 1 Whieh Bogs letters are missing? 2 Which letters doss Turkish have which English doas nol? 8 How many vowels aro there? ‘Theanawers are inthe keyn page 247 Vowels Al of the Turkish vowels are ‘abort. That is, you proncusco the ‘Turkish w a3 fe novthern Enelish sugper, nol a in super. You will 10 — hotce Turks making mistakes when they pil? English because th ake all thai vowels short Tho sare happens in reverse ~ Trkish Yowelsare often made too long hy ‘Bengedieesh’ speakers! Hero are some notes on how ia pronounce each vowel. Bear in mind ‘heabore eomments aboat vowel length. We have the following vowel in Bnglish A. a as the in-cat pronounced by a aorthern Eeglish person; or ‘the win exp pronounced by a Londoner or Australian He aatheeinge 1 i asthe init ° vu © asthe o inbox. asthe winpull We dort have these one: 1. 1s the incousn or the erin but, 0 & 8 the German 6 or ar the eu inthe French word deus, or a8 the in Bie © asthe Gorman dor asthe in the French word For those of you who know ne French or German, dis a sound hal Say btwoon the Haglish o and the Engi w Note the diference between Lar i with a dat and Yor: without a dt, In Bnglich we do zt always pronounce every vowel, For example, we lp not aronounce thee an the an of the nish word bale. Turkesh is lifereat— you alwaye pronounce all the eters no matter what theit ttn, So you pronounce the Turkish werd bale as buh Consonants ‘Most ofthe Turkish consonants sound thesame a they doin English, ‘You pronounce thre of them differently © © asthejinJokn J jas the) inthe French won Jocgues, fas thes i Vv snund halfway between the English w and ‘hore ao also thrve consonants which wedon't have in English © ¢ asthoch inchild. pleasure 1” 4 esthesh inshow. bie thislettarhas no snd! ‘The letter i is called yomugak g, which means soft g. TC always ‘cones afier a vowel and turns that vowel into Tong sound. You right chink oft as doubling the vowel before it Thus, think o sag as toe or think of Sie ae Ble There are no worde bop with In oglish we do nol always pronounce some consinants. Examples of hia the hl the earl ef words or al the end of words, Turkish i diferent = you always prosounee all Ue letters, Accent Accents aro dificult to got right in any language ~ even your on! It is uniely that you could imitate many Raglishsecents well without specialist training or extensive exposure tothe acant. You should not worry tno much abou sequiing the perfet Turkish awrent. An acoent god ena toe understand will do for mst pen ple Tlowever, when pronouncing worls, dant be afraid of imitating ‘Turkish accents you hear ~ you will net mako a fd of yoursel! and no one will think you are making fun ofthe language. Relax and vos! Stress ‘When listening to Turkish you may not always notice where aword is vena, atoaaon are very Hight in rk ‘Asa crude rate of thumb, you stress the fast syllable of word Exceptions to this rule are given in the grammar reference (Append on page 26. Rhythm Won w lets t aomecons speak, ee dont ust Hitan to the worda to ‘unierstand the meaning: we also Isten to the mhythm, Turkish ‘hythm is diffrent from Hglish rhythm, re If Tok has not mastered Kalish rhythm, wo find it ifieal to understand them when they speak Kosh. ‘This eau happen exen though they pronounce cach sylable of each word eorty. Our ears ‘expect the English rhythm, and we have fo concentrate in order to ‘st te spoeeh which has’ gt it, Similar problems ecar in reverse ito use our English ryt when we speak Turkish, ‘Question: How ean you got che rythm? Answer Liston, isn, ison ant copy, cops, copy hythm is not something which is easy to et right by conscious flor You ned expaaure toi Myo cannot xpd tm in He com hy of Turkish spoaters, you can gain exposure hy listening time end ‘ain tothe audio cassetie which accompanies this bok. Play iti the background when you're net realy listening to it, Irespective of Whether oF not you understind the words, you will stil bear the Fiythm. Better stl, use sutlite tlovisimn or videos recorded by ‘Turkish rend in the same wa. Soot PRONUNCIATION — _ PRACTICE - a SURVIVAL GUIDE [Ey A wel as intoducing you vo Turkish pronunciation, his seton will fire you 9 kickstart in survival words and phrases, Listen tothe 75 ‘tem belo while Tooking a hew thoy are spat. Repeat. the werd alped a8 you lear them, please hank you hallo goadiye how are you? Pou fine understand Ton’ understand ‘ain slowly ‘whe dos itmean? Engtish what is tn Turkish? tee Shopping dag para wus pha var yok pul Jeton Directions erode? mo so ts Jag ktometre? Travelling hho zaman? hang otobiis? ike how mach (money)? heap ‘expensive there i some there ft any stamp token for ue ine public telephone pricelist il Tench sehen? gt righ, straight on how many hitometres? when? vehich bus? fist, last fiche here Tavaat to got outff ‘one person ‘one night he sneak st ‘devamit st Tahvalts dail Times valet powane toga iskele et water enstop water Drookfst included inate our dey nh cation ogo larer Yyterday ‘aay tomorrow lite ‘alot ree four foe hundred ‘housed ‘nln bitin taiee past office ‘chemise tus station Li fey stop ‘ocer's shop 16 Trouble Anda ely! usa cesident doktor doctor ok ayint ‘Shane on yon! se this to ra tranded sane Ulsan the sbovewords a mantra times, each ine cncontrting arnt eter Py partiaar tention + thoters 6 6,6..13,0, 50nd w $ howhe word etree # thot that you prnounes every later every war Sie 1 —— EKMEK VAR MI? —— Inthis unit you will learn how to xchange pretinge nad farewell Sskefor gods in shops sek simple questions and make simple statements Konugma (Dialogue) Kaen ison holiday. She goes into the lel grow’ to buy some food ‘uinake breakfast. She's oon to use tbe Turkish she's learned, Karen Merkaba, Baldcal Glinaydin efendim. Karen Blemek varmi? Baldkal Var. Karen Bir deck ltfn. (points ata sausage) Bu ne? Salam mi? oaldkal_ (the grocer rte) Salam del sucuk Karen Guzd mi? alckal Cole guzel, Karen Yur gram sucuklatfen, Bakkal Tabi efendim, ‘Karen Yegil zeyln vara? Bakkal Yogi ayn yok. Siyah var, Karen Poli Iki yz gram latfen. inaycin frauen ‘et moming ‘Sorular (Questions) "Min te dintoguc and answer the allowing questions with var o yok. 1 Phnek var me “Salam var mi? “4 Yow zeytin vars? A Bigot zeytin var mi? Mi answers arn page 247) Notlar (Notes) ite goes a tong way teaversaton, although ronasylabig, is quite natural. You ean wile «Jong way in Turkey using the words var, yok, ne und mil tut! Turkey it is quite polite w say ao simply by using body ge. To do Wis, raise your eyebrows and give a single tating how you dont need the words i or is in the sentence Salam il, sucuk To new learner this muy feel incomplete, litle ike Turean, ou Jaze tis, hovever, quite normal in Turkish, oma El —— Dilbilgisi (Language points) —— 1 Greetings and farewells mayan oud morning fi akgamlar (ond evening ase rom late ‘Mternoon oxeaeds} rmerhaba, Ill dam helo “The easiest of these to learn is merhab, which you ea use at ans’ time of day. oad day spond exening (goodnight Hogg alin bye bye ‘The easiest and safest of those is hosea Kalin, which you ean use at 2 Plurals ‘Making them Words which namo dhinge hoc, ides, poople oy placa) are elle ‘ours. In English, we make nouns plural hy adding an~s on the en. In Turkish, you ud either ler or lar instead. sin sginler aksam alsamlar eee sgeceler televizyon {elevizyontar Question: How éo you desde whether t add Jer or Jar toa word? Anover: Choose which one rhymes host vith the last vowel in thal word. “er harmonizes best with, , 8, & Ine harmonises best with, 0, a ‘Tis is one of the rules of vowel harmony. ‘The -ler ending is an “ety ending Usingthem ‘Turkish sometimes uses plural forms where English uses singular forms, for example: day ‘vi ginler good day ipunslart ood lucht ‘Aller times, Turkish uses a singular form where Bnglish wes a lull This occurs when thew ie a number before the noun, for foams ‘i gin to dye lig bilet thre tckats “ye gram ne hundred grammes 9 Mi? mi? mu? or mii? ‘You car turn sinple statement into s question by adding ms, mi, hus or mito the cad af the statement. Thve are four versions ofthe ome wor ‘uation: How do yu decide which version ta use? Aoswer Choose whieh one rhymes best with the lat vowel in the ‘yor before it Inthe flowing examples, the to rhyningletoes ses shown ine. skorts mi? Ashe) Soouish? Paris mi? (Mei Paviet Istanbul ma? ‘Dein stanbult Wirk ma? (she) Turkish Th ave example ar quite sesightforwond av the tro vols “which sed Co rye are exsaty the sme Soncines, however the “Tut vowel of the preeding werd may not bef, 4, & or u but may be $8 berm swe cases you sre the for which sound the cert. Poxample Homa m:? Rome? Hien mi? Mor Tolerizyon mut Television? Std ma? Driver? a ih Hk yok mt let hoes Pr ths explo can tha Persea ear smi comes ater, a ani comes aller, @ smu comes aller w, 0 smibcomes ater 8 ‘This ia one of tho rule of vowel hartony, The ward ending. Do not try to lr the rules of vowel harmony by heart, Whenever you hear or read Turkish you will emo aeross them and. you will fone ta know which endings Uo use instinctively. Meanwhile, as 2 Doganer and afrcignor there is lille to worry about, for even if you do aot always barmonise sour vowels eorrety, i wil not affect the setual meaning of what yow arc saying! Bveryore makes mistakes, ‘They are an inlogral and inportant pat of earning. an type 4 Adjectives Aajostives are words which deseribe what things are like, Here are same examples in Turkish: giizel ive, beautiful J) order to make a simple statement negatin 1 place deffil after Se whe Bebo oan wich you vishormko negative ee ee Balan doz. Isat ela. ae ke oval dee. The wether not a ge HUB? can be geod oto any statement to ask ir or ent igi otal cs ; : at uouk gach defi mi? Tsp aus ins, eitt oy Seve Mrhlers deat ni? That Parks sna cng olay ensy est-ce pas? in French, § Var and yok " Counting up to ten You will oe these words Kegel. Yar mems tere sore ee, ME oe Toe cea clarence os tite eae = Problem var. ‘theres problem. th Gay ar mi? Bikeweny et te ert four bee foe alt, se edi ‘soe ‘eld eight dokwe ine 8 Pleasantries [In Turkish there are set pleasantries for most oeasions, Lear a few seh phrages nd you might get thraagh the day saying lle lee! Here are three to get you goings Press wu me ‘Ayo oun | 0 sonsana who ating ras jt iehasatng Eizo saat [10 soneono wo has made yar meal fala gaia!” |i someone woreng Por intrest ppeite, intro eoGlik mouse, heallh te your bord, sail keday gelsin means may it come asy. For now, don't worry about bang able ‘tb teanalate these phrases dretly inteEalish. —— Aligtirmalar (Exercises) —— ‘The key to these exercises ison page 27 1 Reorder the sentences below to fora a meaningful dialogs, (@) ~Biravar mi? (6) —Buyurun, iki gg ira (@) —Ikigige len G@) ~lyiakgamlar efndim. (@ —Mersaba, (f) ~"Tegldcirter, @ —Var 2 Filin he gupsin the sentences below using mt, ms, mt or mi. (@) fstanbul__? 4) Biusalam,degit__ (©) Boakgam_—_— @ sin (e) Tork (P) Kugadas gizel__? (@) Dor G) Buodaby —__? 8 Laie at the ptotograph ofthe fast-fond stand and say whether ‘thestatementsare dogru rue or yanlg (fal). (e) Bira var (6) Viski var. (©) Steak meseubat var. (d) Souk meyrubat var. (e Yemek yor ek egrutat aoa) tate ott ‘osle savage ‘ete meat vomek “os 4 Tho fllowing dialoguo kes place at a hotel reception. Flin the (@), Deniz beyzz mi? fos wg epson een (0, ok Arian me ones fo (Pars gtk ma? = Lyi akgamiar efendim. i) Bog oda var mu? ert Tk era (i) Bapurn {Complete this ble which indicates how and when yo can ae re ie Megara cee (eek ~ iki gece ... evet var. Pasaport latin, ae et eee Tune of day: Baka @ gawon—[ 7 x = seuhr Deyeren nar 1 ore at Detrnumers cme ag poe (ena e eater ate, oa =e ro ee ee eae a Siecer snts = 5 Pot these numbers in th eoroet oder fekin ox dart ii Gg ng bir ged alts dokue 6 Make the flowing nouns plural by adding ether er or la. (2) gnabtar @) Ifonda fe) ual fa) sucuk le) gece Dis @ Turk Gi) televagon lnangan iasimanivonan pola polconan ‘7 Answer the following questions wih evetorasentene containing “ogi. The frst one has heen dene or you. (o) Antartika steam? Shea fil (6) Istanbul bayok ma? 9) There are eight Turkish adjectives hidien ia this square. Onebas boon found for sou Er e. 2lollelol-laLel flaelableer [gle lelelelelelel slelelslolel= Fetelslelats g —— Konusma2 (Dialogue 2) —— ‘Karen is still atthe groves. Garon Yan hte st lotto, Maldeal Buyuran Birkigik kutu sit Karen Built taz mi, uaun dla ni Wiakeal Taze dey Karen, Tiled Karen Baldkal Karen Balled Karen, Baikal Karen Baal ‘Taze sit yok mut Malo ‘Taman, Basha? ‘Yl, ogekknler Hepsi ne dae? este bi ira Boyurun, ‘Tegeklirtr, yi gnler. 1 ger fend Youn fa ‘anam OK Me” we Boga fer tro tian aa me ‘yg te) ‘atu "boxcar, 29 ‘peng te fest, wear now much? tan mia noe Bin mausine ‘monies Ti a ot fre atures curaney) 2 — inGiLiz misiniz? —- In this unit you will learn how to address people request and give personal details © oun 1 two ho Turkich for am, are and is - Konusma ‘Alan has spent maay previous holidays in Turkey. This year he i on finer ervsing inthe Mediterranean, The ship has decked in Turkey forthe frst time, and ashe disembarks a Turkish official cheeks his sspor. Memur iyi ginte. Aan Iyiginler memur bey ‘Memue Ah! Turkgenis gk i. | Alan Sap olan. Memur 3iliyetinz no? Alan mu? Alan (raises his eyebrows and tas) Haye ‘Memur lngilizmisini? Alan vet Memur Gol ize, Pasaportunus ttf, Alan hands oer his passport) Buyuran. ‘Memur ‘Tegekkrler. Adm ne? urjoe way of prompting somes Tn hisdiloge it nea ero Mr bcicn alo weango oot re ha ean for ou? ‘Alan Alan Hil, ‘Memur ‘Tamm. (otamp passport end returns i) Hop geld ‘Alan Ha hulduk, ft goer! ‘Memur ly’ gunier fendimt ‘hina Gam ‘panportne "your Assspot Sa ram. fy "nansty ‘Ror gelainis ome ryt” yor hatonaty Net buau poy ob hoe Sorular [Now answer the following questions aboct the dakgue. 1 Alon Ingiliz ni? 2 Nemur Tirkma? 2 Adin 6? 4 ‘Torkgeni gok iyi mi? (The answerer on page 247.) Notlar ‘Ws easy to impress Because Alan raid a few words of Torkish, the immigration officer Wa impressed, This a omnmon reation La Tors who speak Title Parish, Sizand sen Like number other languages, Turkish has two words for you. Siz i weed when talking to mero than one person or addresting a single person with whom you are being formal. Sen is used when talking to 2 lose frend ova child, Tin doubt about which t use, play eae and Buyurunt Buyurun is a ord you bear all the time in Turkey. Its a mult a Dilbilgisi 1 Addressing people omsone providing yu with a sorvon may addreae ya in one ofthe Jolloving ways Deyetonai Sir Ihammefenai Medan ‘fenctin ‘itor Sir or Madan or both ‘Tho Turish oquivalnts of Mr, Mrs or Miss are Bey and Hamum, You je ther with th fist name ratbor than withthe surmame. Thus, or | phn and Lucile Sith the flowing are eouivalents ohn Bey Mr Sith velle Frama, Mrs Smith You can also use Bey and Hamm after someone's jo tte, Tiss a fulerly Turkish way of addressing pple whieh ean be hondy jamongs other things, altrocting the alention of bus divers ina lite way when iis your top, soforbey! “drive Inemur bey ‘affcer doktor bey. doctor ‘You can use the ward memur for any publi official, including pass- Forres or pcnen, Cal tem men bey hy ar utally 3) and you should get onthe ght side of them from the stat! 2 You, he, she... ‘hwo words aro called personal pronouns. ured oe we sz yeu onlar tmey Renember to vse six as the singular yu in forma situations 3 The verb to be ‘Action words such as go, stor be are calle verbs, Am, are andi are al dierent parts ofthe Bngish verb Be. ‘The endings ‘The Turkish oguivalents ofthe different parts ofthe verb te are the endings -im,-sn, siz -sniz and ler Tlere are same examples: ‘Shaul Pina shears] Tuningiam tam eisn | azingiite wo we Eigish Srningtesin —yovaroengich_ | suingasine you are gts oi Fa sengish | enaringlen) the ‘You should note that there is no ending on the o form, Note also that | the cle ending i chown in brackots. This ie because yor usually | leave it out, | I Vowel harmony Alot these endings (oxcge the they farm) behave exactly ikem, mi, | ‘mu and mii (se page 21. That is, thay have for diffrent versions Aang they follow the rules of type vowel harmon: sam comes ater “im oomes ater ye ‘tm comes efter, 0 “im comes efter ‘The they form has only vo different veesions because it follows the re of ype vowel harmony: 4,6, 0,3 Here is a tablewith examples ofall endings inal ther versions: ae bon. | soktetorin [rinkim imam | mennunam | soko [Tine [Amon | memnun fie. | sete [Tone | almane | mennunz fe | sokretorsnz|Tinkstinde | Aimansine | mennunsumus fn | sotenterter [Tomo | Almonte) | rnermnuntar Porsonel pronours Uuolly you don't nocd to ute poreonsl pronouns (bem, vem, et. ‘Wiss nltizim is evengh ta eay Fam English, and liz wil do for Aeisfngtsh However, you dove to use onlae when you say they. ‘The osual way to say they are Turkish is onlar Tir. When you ase {i personal pronoun oniar, youdon' need io use the ending ler Questions with tobe ‘Tum Ingtizsinie jon are Bayt in a qston, fallow tee tes step Example Toko the statement Tras para the fo be ending rom th neun or adjective Ina sine Putin rontot toceding. | iaiz nisin? How are some more examples: nash [Question (am Beco ze! mine? Youre bine. Kor mdin? Irsaiticst Zormu? azine, Haziemiyz? ‘gsr ‘Agicmisinz? Ona Ti, ‘Onlar Tork ma? Note that you insert a ‘ont why, ‘between mi and im or iz. Bead on to find ites Ax Kesping vowels apart onsen 6 vol H bindokuzyiiz 1900 ‘Tauris rule in Turki that yon donot pt tw vows nest ae one lyon 009000 th i wor Te rnin | ht 26 Yeu plas endings on wo rd vel sn the Peete ieee § — oda ena ee amar ciouant betwen th, ‘The word miyim in Ingilz miyim?is made from mi and im coming Acgeer, The resulting miim is net allowed, s0 you put a -y Ibebwoon to make miyim. This makes the word more pronoanceuble. ‘The -y- aes a8 a buffer which stops the twa vovels clashing. Letters ‘cert like this are call buffer consonants. Later you wil discover Uat the letter snes also aed a8 buffer consonant. ‘Sometimes, bovever, you will actually see to vowels next to exch ‘llr, This occurs in small nuenler of words which ‘Turkish ar ‘oped fomother languages. Maalesef is sucha word (see page 28). 5 Counting beyond ten ye 109 bin 44000 milyon 1,000,000 salva 1,000,00c00 yirmi 0 tur 0 Jake 0 aa, 0 alms oo yetmis 0 feksen 80 doksan 9 ‘fir a yarn 05, bir buguk 18 ie bugle 25 ‘Te form more nurabers, just put the ones yon know together, for example: Eas 6 Bu, suando ‘Whore English hs two wor for this and het, Turkish hs thes. bu ‘his su ‘ha referrng to somelhingrclatively neath) : thet ietorsng ie something farthor svg) [Beasly whore yu dre the ine between bu and gu or betwen gu ‘and o is unclear. However something held in yourhand i dfaitly ‘ha, tablo onthe other seo the room i lost otal rferred toting anda ic on th orton eerily 7 Question words rere area few iva words far aking questions im? ‘who? ne tohat? ered? toler hnevamant tote dex wa dine) sil? hoot ag tane? how many? nekadar? ras mc ierally wha eden) 8 -imand-iniz ‘When put onthe end of noun, the ending -im ean mean my an sini ‘en mean your, Thay fallow the -typo vows harmony, For example Ceketiniz sivah. Your jacket iach Wat's your name? This is your Bouse, ‘Your mil ool My jackets nice. My name ie A This is my passport My hairdressers good, When these endings ave aided to words which end in a vowel, you add only sm or uz. ‘Tirkgem my Terkish Beblacie your Banke Notebow this i another way in which Turkish avoids vowel clashes {simply leaves out ono ofthe vowels! 9 a andthe |p Turlsh, for mos: ofthe tam you do nat use the equivalent of our Words @ and the. This may mako Turkish sound a bi lke a pigeon Thnuage at est, but youll sun get used wo che fact that oten these wots are simply nit nozessary and so aren’ sod! Kaleo yest The penis green Kalen var. There isa pen Mase bayok. The ee. ‘Hoever, yo wil sometimes ee the word birused to mena, example bir katem. This ise pen Tir hatem war ‘ere ea nen Alistirmalar ‘we key to these exercises ison page 247 1 Mate the following questions and answers, (o) 0 Hollandsh ma? Adm Bernt Dore sii ‘yim Asuman. Hays, doltorum. Heya, saglanm kasa, Hague, Taek Var, ama teae del ‘Tork. Gizel ama pata ip tow many wag parson tees ‘Shon Fill inthe gps below vith personel pronouns f@) —__Almansin 6) ——guzolin (e) Ingle id) _—memnunuz (e) kati Mateh the allowing adjectives tothe opposites. (@) iyi @ agk (0) ign Gi) buyak fe) apa Gi tena (a) pahal Gy) lay fe) tor vee ‘eapok cise ona bad ak en owe ‘chap Using one tem from each ofthe three columes below, make four sentences, (a) Bon ‘an sin (0) sz ‘memnun sine {o) Son profesér ue (Siz szisyen im Which enoein the following groupe of words ar the odd oes ot? (a) gay, halve, ayransalep (b)ayean, ira, sarap, cin (6) Gg, onal, bes, dohuz, onyedi,yrmibie (a) alya,Polonya, Balgaristan, Tokyo (6) pois tarst, memur, uate fayran aed yoghucarnk grap wine hep stotssmoine cant Potnya’ Pena ae Mako sentences about yourself by sling one of the alter: rates in brackets below. ‘The answer Key trovides sample feenee Toone ofthe ators a a ie (a) Sagi (sa/ernig’ {b) vim kui, (0) Arabam (ordferesiesto. (a) ye Casey (0) ‘Nrkgem tsiziol. (9) sim Glsingfnoeyl ear 1g won es Mog rete Simba sec born ine adk a this lst of woe telephone nombers. Who would ya be ‘elephoning if ou called he fllowing nuers? eee Snape es 2020 eke ee Binoanane se 881095 Goorin 2 E00. (Sins GSES? Ben ns E808 Sebo a8) mst 908 Sith STE? ea eb Feioiesetone ganar! seh fae Seip seroma rEsNesz rasta. ‘es Doin 880777 Nag ms foe eraoe fiean oe ron asia Teo m Ponting feast i {ni nic rowngh rue = Femccavomes Ses naps eteee 2 (e) yisllibes (8) espizelitoluz, eeksends, str det (©) altiytzaltmsog tus str sir @) bagyzelitokuz, fark, soksengedi ©) yusyirmibir UD. besycalizny, yotmighi,dokaonbir eae 8 Would you address the fllowing people with som or wiz? ‘ey acts (rvs = “nenetn oes eres © poses cog 1 karan Be eee Rae ao eee, Mestek: SoS ae ee savin a8 Fa | get toe oyaet shorshine doy Eagan, young 9 There ro ten Turkish numbers hidden inthis square. One has ‘yen found for yo Pe asec ert Denti Mic Papas nama Mies [cesar sh) Zlsls|elelel sla =k -EEES =als|-lsl= elel=lelelal=|s ep Konusma 2 10 Lack at the completed hotel registration form opposte then PP Wie i cach cas wi yo pa. ‘Whilst in Kugadasy Alon an fellow travller, Margeret, walk into a - Kebape (hebod rataurant), Margaret also knows a few words of “Tsk a [se Se os om ao pn ns {yi akgamlar, Buyrun, ‘Mera. Bos yer var? Var. Buyurun (haus them to table) (sitting) Sa olvn, Adana kebap var mi? Maalesaé Adana lap yo Nevar? ‘Dane var, Iskender var, kate var, pli ve ones kebap itn, Bir der. urns to Margaret) Buyorun aaa. Margaret Aya, Garson Hhtdiner Alen Aycan var mi? Garson Vac Thi tane ni? Margaret Eve, i tane Garson Taam, Ti diner kebap, 2 ayran, Teele ederim, ‘rson water ate masa ‘dana kebap poy oted pile cieken ‘nncemest lay Mecano ‘ainortatep gntetomt cor vane he ro inne istendorkebop"doorhebabon "ore mo ics) Treader anemone KEBAP LAHMACUN ve TATLI SALONU ___ DAHA KOYMAYIN, LUTFEN! In this unit you will learn how to + onder a mead + lullsomecne whet todo give simple diroaions Konugma ‘Niland Ayga enter a restaurant “Garson Boysen, AML Sh kigiebir masa tien, “Garson Bumasa eas? “AVG 1yi doi. Kogede. Karan (indivate «table in the eendre ofthe room) Su masa bog mu? “Girvon Bos. Buyurun efendin. “Tiny wall over to the table, sit down, and the waiter brings « mens, son. Bnyurun. Mond. ‘ese eerim, Once souk bir sige beyas garap ve mze Ine. “Aiprson Tabi efentim. Sarap bay nd, Rigi ma? All Bis, Ksten “A inut later the waiter rors with thewine and a large tray fll tars SL te ev tre cay ree tery eee eg Garson iste gkiiz ve mezeler. Maalesefgarap biraz sia V) Notlar Aypa — Buzvarmi? {Garson Buz var eendim, turns fo young asistnt water) Mehmet | The mezo way Pee eae Tage nen ont e eis MMS sci tee des Wd tent a wc pariaie far re senna ae he se Pe Sane ng ears TAZ nh a Here oa al, hatte Sa | Ns my fen i od proos kad fe oe eee | Shows what you wan’ and send the rest hack Asef ward for deg Garson Tabi hammefendi, Afiyet olsun, hiss given below. eet ae nS ‘Aven Sorue Aostaurant languege | ibtetcring pnrases may provousefl ia retaurants. For now, dst afer aly eo Worry beat Beir exc meanings ase one “getir bring ‘fl Yeter. ‘That's enough. (oye, cance frum mon Bakr masonz! Weer! erally Wand you took) {jee nincomer Bed spy era pe) Heo The bit i a Si 2s ——_ peers ‘na Select gne yout - aK feretarodenn natyou Kaden pen PM" | RE vero, Pine vegetarian coe tay Fatcan ‘sane Elsie yemelen var? What fo have you got oan faye" mat sath neat? Tce ar ioe aad es sowaciognaion a ota Sima anis “arent Jer thts ona Word order ieee eee eee Tithe disigue above you wil have noticed that Turkish ass a differ Been eae fit word order to English. Note how the verb comes at the end of a i Dy osiene, te xxmpl bur gor Trl ring Ciring me co) daha koymayin literally nore don’t put ont any mor Sorular Yo shoul note how word which tls you more about another word fone befereit. Inthe example below, white tells you more about the Wine and ex ells you mare about the bottle ef wine oifuk bir gge beynz sarap literally nd « ote hite wine Answer the fllesng questions about the dialogue. 1 Sap lormz mi? 2 Goi spa nee nit (cold bot of white wine) 4 Salata Jarman mi? ‘irkish word order is somethieg you will quickly got used to (rbanineees ua esac Meanwhile rad senteneos right lo the end before trying to find tn nish equivalent. When speaking, onthe other hand, do nt worry ‘oo much about getting things in th eareet order, as mest ofthe tine ‘Rementing wil not be ald, Don'tcomet Dan at! Sats Dont ast &i ————— Dilbilgisi Don't smile! eee formal nogative commands, ad -in oF -inie tothe informal 1 Commands ative, for example: tar “Gelman! ‘Jus as there are two ways of saying ym (sen aad siz) in ‘Turkish, ‘there are als vo ways oflling people wha to ~one formal, on =, {hese formal nogctive commends, you mast insert s buffer -y- to Hire the fasta way: 70 vowels clashing Gat Comet Koy! a -de, -e and-den al! Smite “Turkish the noun ending le moans af, on or in. The ending -© ‘Tomake a formal command, add -in tothe end of the familiar form: aie coin ton meer from. Gelint le indicates theres no i ‘movenent to or from Koren seine thee fapent P vement tomers —: om indicates there's ‘he-in ending wes type rowel harmony (Seepage 254), ovement yom ‘Thur is alo a very formal form of eammand, which you wil ee on stming se snd oil etces os evden re are sone expe: “Tuestni end ls wes ype owe! arn Bishi ocr, Siete able ln git Goto the grower’. Don't! abla git. Ga fromthe bank tthe grocer: ‘To all peoplo not to do things, add ame to the end of an informal | — jth endings fallow e-ype veel harmony. —«@ ‘You can translate -de as on, af oF in, depending on the context. Por uza giy. Wear the white bose example cullan. Use on. an ieeruasale ‘allan. Use thecar. pag Meet tee eye Wc m, ‘Kogede masa var. ‘There ie a table in the corner. Beret aaah ees us tein Rng to tl abut pce items, ikewie in 5 sor Jou use the ending ie deca jets a specfe item. [In Turkish its importante be able ta apo the dzet object Ca ver, Endings and personal prounouns ce ae ‘en ald tho endings 4, de, ¢ and ~den onto pervoral pronouns. ee are ome examples: ‘These commands do have doe objects Tiere yar va mi? Is thercany money on you? Kadi opt epee st sen Prommcto au ‘lemi Hakan'a ver! Give the pento akon. rmasaya Koy. Put them on the tae. Masadan lahveyi all Take the eofe from thetable 0 yersonal pronoun is the direct abject of a verb, you give ian “Question: Whet are the things that ar to be ised, given or taken? Misia beenuse personal pronouns stand for specific things ‘Answer: The wamnan, the gen and the oe, “Those theee things are the direct object ofthe commands, They are the things upm ‘which the actions (ising, giving and taking) are lable of porsonal pronoans with ther different endings: cared ot wa * “e “den vont bana | bende | aenden 4. The equivalent of the soni [sane | sende | sendon jou ona | ora | arn In Unit 2 you learned hw, i some simple senonces, Tokish des ‘0: distinguish between ead te, Tn the ease ofthe direst cj of ee zo | ado | adn Seb however Tari dee maha’ tne jem fw | sito, | stn Far direct ojos, the Turkish oqivalent of the is the ending Gad a own endsin vw The equivalent of is either bi iene ei on amcs Masada balom al. Tobe pon rm the ble |S etal Take the pe from the tble ght expeet ben plu he ending eto make bene, However, Have o coffe. ae Brie to,se ps tho endings sama ar oad ndings Uo, you need a -- between the o and isin a tna cog Uh fr onsnanlt, Pe oa fame Forte onde ding yr weer lone wits ae the -de and -den endings, even though there would be no vowel clash E mo ‘hitehen witout it Mita git Gate the hitch! Dea a 6 Pr ins sae ae sausage! Namnes of actual places (for example, Tokyo, the Amazon, Pakistan} or “Sokaiga bak! Lookat the street? ros ir exe Ae, Snsn, Pl re ced rope es PE i cate Jn Tuk hn you old eniog to proper soma, you pot on AMM i Goto par Aneto bee th end: Foren kc: Why ees the kin park rot bene ‘Tarkiyede ‘Tare Pe este caer ir so a istanbur'dan izmir’ ‘From Istanbul to lzmir, _The dictionary form of verbs Turkish, you give informal commands ly using the shortest fonn of verb. The shortest form is called the stem, When an English ver jn a dedionary, it appears asthe tem, somelimos with in fit, The dictionary fom of Turkish verbs is th stom plus the igmek, This dictionary frm is ealled the tafnitve. 7 Consonant changes aoa. ‘When you add the endings -de orden to nouns, sometimes the din ‘these endings becomes t. For example mata seth ata mach Fs ica anna ake tip dolapta ia the cupboard Le " Set eoepentics saat beste at five o'clock ‘i sokakta “inthe road bak oak! bakmak — to lok = a te iv Seat Sp en We do the wads mag, dla, bey kak and rafhve |, aeartnt ala aear up prbeceeo=h eendey tice: of ig drink or smoke! igmek to drink or smake ‘Answer: Thy all end in a‘whispery”fanvoiced) ensonant (5, ‘cand 0. Thed in the ending bozomas tin over tobe whisnery tan ‘Thisis similar o vowel harmony, but with consonants ye ut yemek — tocit parket parks Darkcetmek 10 par fa car) jp endng-mek flows c-ype vowel haraony. koe Wiaich ont for nouns which end in k sd fave a vowel before the k. ‘When you rive them an enting which begine with (ori) vowel, you change the ko. For example: Alistirmalar ey to these exereises is on page 248, | Reonler the sentences overel to forma meaninglil dialogue Portsmouth Public Library (0) —Boreknasil? (0), Dire. palates tava, midye tava, kalamar. (©) —Steak meze ne var? (@®) —Taman efendin, (©) —Gak gil () —DBir bro ve bie kalomar, borek Assy {ill in tho gaps inthe sentences bebe with the endings given in rackets. Make the changes requied for vowel or consonant ‘barmeny, al inere butler leters apostrophes where neces. fo} Bu tren Paris____mi? en} 1b) Ben___ paravar (de) ©) Cock tur var de) 1) Gainey durmeyal do) ‘e) Restoraa ——orkengitme. -€ O) Pansiyen—_—_ pla git. len) 4g) Tamir ce) “h), Masa es! a 4) Verboa Ie} 4) Bu kartsiz—_— mi? (don) ‘dumak osop ‘psa mony even ea pal Sock Dansiyen she gust ruse Match the commands to the situations where you would mast kel aee hen thom la), Balan, abn! (2) Sign on a payphone. (@), Bana bale (i) Child speaking to mother. le) Tike glint Gi)_Doetorspealing to patient, la) Jton sm! i) Sign ona garage door. le) Park etmeyin! (@) Garp slerspoaking to tourist VP Sigaraigmeyint (i) Tourist boar poster ‘amok orow{hartoison) Jeon token ‘Look at this pidure of Al Bey and Gal Hamm, then answer the avestions (0) Kac kisi var? () Sarap nerede? (o) edi neredo? (@) Raftane var? {o)esimae kin var? () Beale muy mu? oi ene “Match these questions and answers, (a) Nast? A (@) Neleador? {atantatdayem. {e) Nezaman? Hemen. (a) Nerodesini? Gale gel, (e) Okim? Bir sey yok (P) Sumasadane vor? (vi) Bir, Stuéy tis town plan, then snswer the questians below. Whi place will you be looking. at if you follow ther dieetions? (o) Boklaldan meydana sgt. Meydanda din, Plajda saga don. bake Soi () Baklaldan meydons fit. Meydanda saga ‘a, Camiden sola don. Sola hak, (©) Pansiyondan saga git. Saga din, Meydana gi. Meydanda dz gl. Pajda sola don Sola ae la Pansiyendan saga git. Soga din, Meydana gil. Meydand saa da, Sola bak, 4e) Toksinladan sola gt Sola don Meydana gt, Meydanda de st Conide aol din. Sol bal | (a) Adanatdan Konslya kg kilometre? (hy alene, Kerstan ne kadar weak? (0) Samsualden Adana'ys ag kloel? (i) Samsun, Haiae'den radar wk? (0) Hekigohi,KarsYan kag Klomete? Imeydan tom ornilagesaire emt mesa. cl tot fae sage {nok rn Isnt" rotsrnt Peary ak toranay ‘Plas each of these onsanants in one of the to golumns (rece “or anvoiewd Ivlow. Tt may help you to decide 2 yom make the “ods which Uno lotters send for whilst fling the side of your Motel these se phrases to the situations whore you would use hem, (2) Afiyetelsunt (8) Bayan. le) Hlnizesogitel a) Hos bul fe) Kola gest {To someone eating their lunch. G@ To somene studying hard. Gi) To somesne who's just weleomed you Gp) Tothe let who hssodeod your dinner. (G1 To the yerson to whom youve pain thesalt . ‘Adin's apple. When you make a yoiewd sound, you wil fest ios. When you make an unvoiced sound dere will be no -viration.) beedfghikimnap regtvyz Referring to the distance chart below, answer the flowing ‘questions ving the figures in al, 6587 anigehir wat | 1002 | as18 355) soo | sss | anos Konya us | 91 | 50 | 7m | ow Samaun you've completed this exerese, ry saying the pire whist “feslng your Adam's apple Can you fel the difrence betmeen "the voit and unvoiced sounds? 11 Lok at hese signs. Why arc thro apastrophes bafre the anil ‘len endings none sign be not on the oer? | Lookat this stret sign, then answer the questions below. (a) Which words have an-eending? (6) What does the sign mean? ing on yet may, ad FE fone texte ‘aaa notte Sn tora “ty Toop epee pe papi at ‘Mime Boe ies! a Konusma 2 Aland Ayea hove reached the dessert ourse of their restaurant meal Sali Santen sie Pete reed ase SAKA YAPIYORSUNUZ! — ‘Alt Ben daa rap istiyorum ‘Ayga aha igh igme! Bir kahve ig. ‘Ali Amacai, sjede daha sarap var ‘Aven (towaiter Bakar masini! Garson Buyarun. ‘Ayga Iki lave lten, Garson Seer mi, gekorsie mi? ‘Ayga Bana birsae, ve esime bir ykerl, ‘All Vehesap isten. Garson Hemen efendim,Afietolsual Konusma ‘tsi, a Sede who has boon working in lr fora couple uns just gone into a carpet shop there. He wants a carpet, Hoes not want fostay tao lat, Boyurun, Oturan, ‘aan standing, looking tthe carpets (offering ecigarete)liyor musunse? (dul) Tegekdr deri, Sigarakilanmyyorun, ‘Gok iy. Ben de birakenak istvorun, Cay? (cut) Peek deri, Kilimlere bakimak istyorum, Tabi eendim. Buyurva,otarun, gt emai standing, looking at the ergot. Do you speak Rnglich? Bengt Inglis delim, lovogliy Satictlsvesisinis! Valls, Isvegge bilmiyorum. Gok. iyi Tarkge onvgiyorsunu, Bengt Sof olan. Acclom var. lsime giyorum, he following questions about the dnlogu, sara kullaayor mu? Satier Taman abi. Kin mi, halt mv istivorsuns? ge bilror mu? Bongt Kien, fine renk kim istivor? Sabet Hangirenk? (holas up a reg) Bu mai lim gok sol etka ira istigor? Bengt Give Ama ben yi itiyorum. Saber (pulls out @ green rug) Bu molif nasil? Key is on page 248). Soest lpia, Coe cect ot tek i lee ‘hesdkanen ts rng ala and Se nal von ee. = ‘king prices for such items ae carpets and leather goots, Sits, tiie pibed yo etic atnioey sacs cue saree fe fo oe etn a ai : Boost Ala Saka nyse, Ye tr? arabia foo tas cies oce perme rere ee re enree lia Ts A i bt te er ey or ao es ines oa tame cote oes eatin “Bengt is offered a cgareti, he rofuaes hy saying tegekkir In this situation, han yo i taken to mean no thank you shat sor Coenen teat sehen oat in to mean hank Si a So a ed to misunderstanding ad vey hung gn Tevet "inh ratonliy) ala” ty (acto) sinner table‘To accept a fer, use Ktfen. seis age lipped neha? tere Sredortmonnn, EE "Soe E Sea cio ‘ie ‘oe ‘ter Ter now envtsiner joa aig @ alesman sys bende, meaning me The wos de and da ee oe erin reona mn oe oar a. De nat oat hem wi the endings anda ac eet Ss ion cnt She” nancy 2” oop Dilbilgisi 1 The-iyor present tense What's happening ‘To may what is happening right now, yo use the «yor presen ens. ‘Tomake this fom you tae the fllowing steps: ‘Action Example “Tale the som ofa verb ie ‘Ada-tyor to he ond igor ‘sane retevat part of ne vero 29.6, | kayorum Although not sity correc, forthe mement you ul think af iyor 18 an equivalent of the Rngish ending ng. "Thus, you might Kray translate igiyoram as follows: fc -iyor am dink “ine Ta. ereare some nore examples: English Verostom | ing | amare, ee. Tan coming ‘el yor im jouare acing et ye sun Shearing sr “yor ‘weare wing az “yer an you are buying al syor | -sunuz thoy are runing tos aver “tr Note that -iyor tas four farms because i fllows ype vowel harmony Notethat -um, sun, uz and lr ll harmonise with Une in iver. Granmar banks call this tense the present continuo tens, ‘What's not happening ‘The negative forms of Turkish verbs always have-me- after th verb age | Hers are some negative forme ofthe yor prosont noo verb stem | not_| ing | am, aro, ot. teaming oot [=m | yor | am netscting | sat | im | yor | “am woicrving | ste | am | yor noigoing | gt lam | yor | az netsmiing | git | am | dyor | “sunue mnotcunning | hog | am | ayor | he vores by removing thee from -me-, happening? -iyor begins with a vows, and -me ends in one, you avoid Eeliyorsunuz into a question, fll these steps: Example guyana ‘akayor moja? sjor musun? salvo mu? onyor muyue? ultyor mane? mi alyorsunuz gelor sunuz (elvor musunuz? ere are somo negative questions: “Regmsyerar my? ‘Stress ‘Wher saying the positive form ofa ver all pats fr syllables) of the ‘wor’ have an equal stress. In the negative, you sense the else ‘msdiately blore the-me. In the tale belo, thestressedsplables aren capitals. Positive ‘gel=1=yor=un ‘our yor~ um Negative GEL-miyoram_ TUR mu yorum al-1-yor AL—miyor -Bie-ie=I—yor 5 FL mi—yor ‘Waraing! When speaking, using this sos is just as important as suing the negative ending, 2 Using the -iyor present tense ‘You use the present coninunus nse for oe me ein | ae Sone lemon enna Pha = Paes brtoymi wren. rig i Serteinm [sist anaimin| aonponaiec thee ain sean. |euaksam sir. | moma tc ovening ‘Negative statement ‘Question es ‘bakmiyoram “bakrsyor mayan? aeoyoron _ermiyor musi? senior geliyor mu? vowel clashes vomoret varmijer muyur? have ¥en how Turkish avoids vowel clashes by using the butler inborn _guimiyos masini? ‘When making the present continous form of cogruyorat another way by removing one sta ofthe verb buglamak is bagla. When forming the present his verb, putting basla tether with-iyor eauses a clash of Mo avoid thio clash you knot the a ff bala, to stort Tim starting. » re to other verbs with simitar problems ‘towait Youre waiting. toeat He's eating, Biv lor tho yreomtconttnocs em the ome of he ‘eri: are not fellowed by a vowel, but ate flowed by =m. In Tim no tating. Wor not ioating “Ho's nt eating. the idea that something owns someshing else, you place a ending on che thing dob, the possessing, In Rng, eae or fem af you isyour and of dob is Job's. “Turkish, che posestor ending isin, (or -nin after « noun ending 4 owel) Here are seme example Singular kan ‘ho git amenin motors rusian the aroctors fimmarin thems malar The possessed ending -for -si English, in the phrase eh doctor’ house, we ony ad an ending on the possosine ~ tho doctor In Turkish you alzo pst on ending on the ‘thing whichis possessed ~ the hovse, ‘The possesset ending is 4, (or si afar the noun ending in a vow, Forexample: doktorun ‘he doctor's honae Jazlarin anaest the girs moter firmanin midi the frm’ director fatholeunus babast (he footballer father ‘The word su isan exeuption. Its possese ending is -yu rather than -su(presumably because sasu would srund a bit daft), For exemple: {Su Alvin suyul ‘That's Als water! ssessives and personal pronouns possessor ending fam dd the possessor ending in to personal pronouns: my mine your Fynars (informal) his ourfoure your youre (formal) Theirs le hov ben and biz are slightly odd ~ their ending is -im rather nin, Note also the buffer -n-i ontn, Noun ending in a vowet Taynane [benim anaem my rothor yourtiome —|soninansen—yourmotor Jonun annesi hisherits manor ju met the -im snd ina endings in Unit 2(page 8), Hen a soun has a possessed ending, you can usualy leave out the nal pronoune,Hewever it io probably best you dat Leave out ‘avoid confusion between hs and thar Saying what you've got th equivalent of oe got «daughter, in Turkish you say There ny danger, Here are soe example: ‘Kiam var. Toe got o daughter Arabaa var, You've gota car —o dani banyosu var mi? Hos the room gat bath? Daguimuz yok Wehaven got shower Ribritiniz yok mu? Hlaen't you gota match? AT) Tg Onlneim arabes yoke ‘hey havent et ar 7 Ai and-siz dit ‘The endings i onde mean with nd without. balkeonta vith balony | Y sckorsi toto sugar, sugar free ee site ‘eth mile i yok without oi, fat free Kurgunsuz ‘You've already con words cmstrcte sing hots ening: vwaun Smiei {ong lierally wih ong if) ets tet meat [Noichow i ulloes iype vowel haemoes These words ending in i sd ta ov stir Go woe de ve temele th none persona pronoun, fr ‘You can adi oato the namo of county to giveth nationality Kanada Canada Kanadalt Canadian Bir kilo domatesistiyorum, I wants kilo of tomatoes. Gin chin Galt Chinese Seni istiyorum, Tiuant ou. Trak sre Teak Iraq an louse it with he inf owe, fr exam: Notethat nat llnatonalits are forme! in this way, Here are some Gitmekistiyorun, Tanto go. ceptions Seni girmekistiyorum. Tonto ser yor. “Jeponys anon Japon Poe eee Alighrmatar oposite ee Kftbuda Ce cn incabst Read this posteard from Istabul, Fil in the gaps using he words revel? toh national where from? Usted ere gegvor gidiyorum ighrum istigorum ouuruyerum jaayoru “Tuld mening sentences taking one item fom each of he Sevgili Kate, a Sana Istanbul’dan__ (a). Simeh Bogaz'én i Kaen iepn roe bir lokantada _(b)__ ve kahve __(c)_. Deniz 2 fate — oe ate ohnivacgee (6 Cee ime | Sere Yarin lzmir'e _(e)__. Orada bir hafta kalmak | istiyorum. Eles'e de gitmek _ (f)__. “cask iopoy(anincamon)—plgimek Ww bala wo ntasyen" muse Sevgiere, | “Loot at the town plan of Istanbul below and thn answer the iS (a) Cumhuriyet Caddesi Galatasaray Bamamna gor mu? (0) fang yo Taksin’den yard hastanesinn givor? (e). Hang yol yok Pasajdan Taksne gor? (d) Cumhuriyet Caddesi Divan OtelPnden angi meydara idiyor? 2 The sentences below desribe a typical day for Pnae. They axe, ‘owever, jumbled up. Phoe them inthe correct oder |a) Aksam yomei sior. 1b). Saat yolideaheals yapgor (2) Opleden sonra kutiphanede ders glgyor. @) Pinar erken kallayer, ve dug yaoryr. (©). Saat bee eve diniyr. G, Sentence ‘)_ Sant onkide buede sand yr, 4d) Saat sckiale Narmara Universtesinegidior (©) Sabah derslerine iriver. ning yopmek ase @ shower Su hour ‘dem esson Sh boo ate ook ‘ers calm to stu (ora —-yatnh ogo bd fodown ‘caan) andi “Sana gion Some nero ‘Srvesite ttiphane tay Simek font ogo nt rath tony Afnmox “toronto un sigan yen stot, von Wyardin ais hastane ‘hasta neoye ihe Wf one item trom each of the | i) Pinar, Didextintoyrsi ni? () Sygemin erkl torn hi? ‘anseanne grander ‘otis eho) ‘anno motor {@) Bu eetrann agent tate (b) Finandyarin vot Helsib, (©) Buedann agian ingiizeo. (@) Isanbutun ‘3 ‘a (6) Kime tuvelet eb, (0) Amecatiann yomoker san. ‘esto cto “a ay ‘ating fone vee coos ‘Study the family tre bobw and then answer the questions 280 2 (6) Ensinyinbubas im? (6) idem Kinin eg? (0). Rien kikardog ki? (@)_ Necltn bayikbabss kim? (0 Pinan kuzoni kim! 4) Timurua kag gocugu var? 4@)_ Aygo, Nigia'in anneannesi mi? 1G) Siloymeatin lag hazenl woe? aaah Aaya aun rab on foun gran | Referring to the family tree shove, rad the illowing passage sad answer the question, gin Timu’on dom gin. Timur atm yapinda, Ba alga nui ailesi l0ks bie resiaranagidiyor. min gitmek itiyor, aca hasta, Bsi ve couldangidiyrlar. Saleyman evde kalyor, gant sol Hig, Annesirestoranagidiyor ana babast exe kalyor ve " gorufa balayor, Timur da restorana gidyor tabi. Restorana tan a hii iiyor? bovine ‘aha alas own opie gad” beta hasta i yepnda yoorcld oni Balak folk ater atin wha "nen ime 1200, tvecane tom acy Mat th colours to the appropriate nouns yas Gi) Kahvorongi (i) em Gy msi 9 There are ten Turkish items! of fod or drink hidden in thie “quare: Ones boon and er $0, 5 ays [oye lk ale im ae F pucesaa JOK BEKLEDINIZ MI? — rfe[kfayyfula| ‘efale||k|1|m|e [lolo}s|o)ulz elite ‘efsfula}s|o) tla] plalt[i|:[elala} unit you wit leam now to Konusma 2 itroductions and be introduced ut the past cia ani oes cia abcaabw a Garis ROR ah inthe and the salesman is sil gong on. Bengt Yirmibsy mityon. Saber Olmaz. Bolan, biz ipl killer yimibeymilyona aor ‘Bengt Yirmiait 0 zaman ‘Satie Oiu2, Baha vous satmnyorua Bengt Otus da go. Bn san fiyatnz mo? Saber Pip etivor musun? Bonet fotemigorom. Sati Figsz, yirmisekiy niyo. Bengt Tamat. Yiemisekie iyi, Satir Old eendim. Kiln stn flnaz 1 sro on Bayete th, Ymibeg yore orton tie "pice fg ofa VAT noo Agee winout a ccopt ean nticase itt OK to soto ma Konusma 4» American engineer working on a new project in Turkey. He Ankara, taken tai to his hoe), and after freshening entering the hotel bar. Here he meets his Turkish cient Tey, whom he knows, and Mafit Hey whom he has not et Hes a little late. “Ted! Nessim? Tegel ederim. Chk iyiyim, Ya si? “Togekiir ederim, ‘Ted, Mint Beyi tammyyorsunuz, del mi? Ted Bey, Dla Bey, Memmi oldum. Ben de ok memnus oldum Must Bey, Nase? “Tegel eri. Hog geldin, ‘Hos boul og Kali. Afdersini, Gok beens mit Onemii defi. Buyurun oturen. ‘Yoleulle nai? 18 Tea (Cok ivy. Gabuk gos. Film seyrettim, radyo dike dim, birwe da wjudun, ‘Mifit Bey Nereden geiyorsunu:? Miamiden mi? Ted. Miamden gliyorum ana, ugagum Frankfurt dur Kerim Bey Orada go teklediniz mi? Tea (ok beblemodik, Bie sat fala, ‘The waiter aves, Garson Buyurun Bester. Kerim Bey Ne giyoraz! Sarap m, ra mi? ‘Mifit Bey Ben to bir ala istiyorum, ‘Tea Benin iin de sala Late, Kerim Bey. Teltmi, dutlo mi? Tea ‘Tok, Hien, Kerim Bey. do iter) ii te, ir dable ral, ve geez. Garson Hemen eferin. siz? ane you?ctpivaso) gabe _quich gun TSnimak Tolowsomeons tobe Syremtk toate ‘nausea ‘yeti ated remmun oldum pecs is mast dried isened Sruorty! ona hay) Spada. tant ef fala obo to Shak "ore ff lalaim iwasiae Samat os (Mlodersniz cory, oneysome argu sss felleiniem? "fv ou toon” ada tone alin? you at? komedi we nt at ‘nom peta {aru ors ‘nom dei ver mies nm gin ms ‘peak Jouney fsrais a sora (al nov ae 7 Rowwas...?— debotalaahrgoraia Iya 000 (eee nbiosiny ons nts el spar ‘succpoct Sorular ‘Yang mu, dogeu mu? 1 Ted geg kali 2 Ted, Kerim Beyi tamyor ama Mast Beyi tanto. 8 Tedin cag alimag dala flan Almanyatda den, 44 Masi allel llanmiyor. (The answers ar on page 248), —% ? Tesekhiir ederim! the most common response to how are you? is simply There is no need to say fine or Tn well as we doin mixed with water. Ordora rale rather than an imported Syn wll impress a Turkish host, you insert» y betweot iyi and the ending -d in order to mnciation. ‘This is despite The Tact that there is no cash of infec ‘Tes says radye dled you would transite iba F listened rac, However, the word radyo docs nol have the +i ending isthe Turkish oquvalont ef he "This because to fistn to the ‘is. asel phrase in English ~it does no actually mean a specific ‘In Turkish, you ony use te 4 ending when you are referring objec AS far as the Turks are concerned, Ted was te rao, mi? how this question appears twice in Uh dialogue. The est cae ito ask fave you been waiting ong? The second time, ‘Bey asks Did you wait long? Turkish bas no equivalent of the eve been tease, 50 you se the pat nse instead {in this book you will digaver that, in some specific cases, ‘ses a present fense where we uie have dove in Knglish. Jan example of this in the dialoguo: you would translate geliyorsunuz? ns here have you come from? Dilbilgisi 1 The past tense The past form of fo be ‘Youcon spot the past tense by an ending which includes, Here is ‘the past form ofthe verb tobe, ‘Present Past ~zanginim Vaio) “anginal (wash) Dis 8p 2 OO oem Zenginsin zongnalin aint [golem iz 2ongin zonginah edi? \irein mit 2zonginlz zonginl ‘sales? engine ‘enbainke ‘imosk ri? aor = Salads? aged mi? eon Pesan elaine. boomer? ‘or zenginleral ‘Ifyou put thooeandinga on a word which ends ina vane, ad ayes seit ext lyiydim, ‘Twas good. Sate Hear ison ou ay ae nly wing th word dei dh he ove igs Por pad Math dil, 1a bay: ‘Souk da ont cold ne delle Phooey The past formot verbs Toke the snl pat tee verb ou ae he allowing ep Teton Tiana ] Talo te somal os Fe opastoe he va 06m be how the mi? cones fer the porsonal endings. Compare this with He questen forms of ho yor present tense described on pase 2 Here is eae oddity: tal past twelve is simply yarum. ‘Yarimea gel. Come at half past twee ‘Turkish does not have an oquivalent of the English tense have done 4 Tnstea, you often use the pas tense, fr example: Compound nouns ig ate igtin ma ‘Have youve ra rabet |Bhfish you can describe a noun using anther noun or example, 2 Using the past tense Translating have done ‘Tarkdyeye gtanedio. hase bon to Pury satdeich, mountain bike, ber garden). When you uso to ‘Yemefiniz bitivdinie mi? Have you finished your meat? ns tater like this, the resis called a eampound roun. In some cascs you use the Turkish yor vonse to translate the Turki, when you make compound nouns, the second noun takes netsh ave cae Lense. This is explained an page 159. Dnssstod ending 4 or, Rorexample: en vemos ane fac. Ppa ‘Note that Turks sometimes use the past tense where English uses the: ; eee ‘or eaft) present tense. In conversation you are likely to hear the following: jp Pe a a ite ap hapat oes [penn fue : a cqisim inte | as Eo ‘ean, (iment, | et i cack serene | eoacamm, a, Geli team com, Voor tes) 3 Tolling the time Taling the time by the hour and halPear is easy. You will ear the times in botween in a later unit. Sant kag? What the time? Csaat ug. Three oeoek “ually The ime ites) Saat kagtat Atwhat time? “Saat dgte. ‘Atthreeoelock. = Kag sant? How many hows? “Ue saat, ‘hwo hours. Sant dért bugule, sha past for, ort bugukte At half past fur. Diet buguleenat. ow and half hours. tg 5 Verbs which need-i, -e and-den Lak at these sextenees: ‘Melek arabays wird. Mee aw the car, ‘Melek arabayt ald, ‘Meo bought io the car. Melek arabays sind, ‘Meok drove the car. ‘The car is the thing which was found, bought and driven, Tei the objet of the verbs. As you might expect, it has the direct objec, ‘ending iin thisease 2. [Nowlook at these sentences: ‘Melek arabaya balkt Mel lok the car ‘Meck noe wih theca ‘Meck pt noe car. 1m thes sentencs tho car sagan th oj ofthe ers, However, i doesnot havo the diet objet ending i, but ha fo ending in this ae} nated Question Why? never: Because some vers ncadng akimak, ape olmak sn inmost nee ete taking the" eng en ft sina. [Nook at chet sentenes Melek arabadan bnkt, Aci got fd up with the er. Molokcorabodan indi,’ Me gu ut theca ‘Melek arabadan nfret ett Mee ated teeny. Jn tho sentences the cris again th objet ofthe vr, Hower, i thas te fom endng en Gn this case -aan insted, Quon: Why? Answer Bosse some vr incdng bukmak, inmek and nefret ne, om heir bjt ting thee ening In the glossary atthe end his nk, ers which init on thir jets taking the- or-demendinas appear ke his biamek Ge) fnnek (lem Assume that al ehers we the ening For means fr, forte sake of or boas of. igi rofers to 1 personal pronoun, give the pronoun a possester For example: ey forme, jor my sake “Seninigin aldum, Though for yo, ‘onun ign forhimther, because of that, thar’ why “bunun gin because ofthis, this why. in refer to «noun, sou donot give Ube noun ae ending. Foe ‘Bu bira Ahmet gin, ‘This bar is for Almet. Bebekigin hediye dim. I bought a present forthe baby. p alternative way of saying for is ta use the ending -e, Here are examples: “Bubira Ahmet’. “This bers for Anat. Bebeie edie adm. Though a present for the baby, ‘Bana bie bir. ‘Abeer for me Bog bin liraya. or fivethousand li. Question words an ald various endings or the word igin onto question words rh as neo kim, Here are some examples ofthe resulting meaning i fate fae foe ee en [tn [amy [om "aon he ies fe lena hii \j wham) | ch wnem, | gonanomt | (wtostom) ‘thot 1 ao 12 could probably have guessed the memnings of most of these zations. Note, awever, all the allaratve ways of asking why? 8 Word order ‘You place the words mi and de (meaning also) dirostly aftr the sword they reer to, ‘Stuy these sanéences with mi: Bana bia getiriyor musun? Ave you getting me a beer? Bana mu bira getiriyorsun? Au he person you're gelling boar fr? Bana bira mi getiriyorsun? It baer that you've getting me? [Now study these sentences with de: Bana dabirbira getivin, Bring a ber forme, too. “neaning a6 vll a8 for ny frend Bana bir bira da yetivin. Bring me a bora wel, “caning 95 Well as somefon) any necessary changes to thespellingsafthe words oO ) rk kabwoss ) domates (0) Hilton (a) stobus {otofeat muni durak stop ‘making mahi, paras fore som Fill inthe gaps vith possessive endings, and remensber to make a) David___ isi got. ‘Benim yom bit {o)_Inlanda__ bagkenti Dablin, (a) Aligelmiyor Anne hasta (e)_Sizin araba___ calipyer mu? rm Aligtirmalar ‘Thekey to these exercises ion page 248, 1 Mateh these questions and answers () Adin ac? © Yann. (0) Neogrenivorsunut |) Dolewrgzbin ira, fe) Kaga? Gi) Elektr. GW) Meslesinis ne? Ge) Gtney Aiea, (eo) Nereis? () Konya'la, (D) Neredeoturuyorsunus? (a) Tarkee. 1p Saat kag (si) idem Bbrikgibasoga, th) Bu ki igin? (il) Hakan‘, 1) ara kinds? (i) Ofrenmek ign, W) Gavetesiniye okuyorsunuz? x) Benin gin, 2 Fill inthe gaps below using words fom the Histin onder to make incaningful compound nouns. Add er alter endings where noes sary. The frst one has bien done for you. forba dorak kaset kahve makine otel Dele in ana algae towne All tho alternatives Tisted below are geemmatically cove, it ‘which ones are sppropriate Jor the given situation? One ar mare ‘nay be suitable. (e) You want t tell somone you understand what they are telling yon, (@ Anhyeum. ii) Anladms Gi) Bilyorun, ‘Your boss has just old you tht hor husband is very il ). Ozrdlerim. A shoploopar shows youa drest, You don't ike @ Seemiyoram. (i) Guiza deg Gi) Sovmeim. (@) A shopceoper has jst asked hgh price foc an objet. ) What isthe expound noun? Colepara, ) Which word is the direct cbjoot of the verb? i) Cok pata ‘Which letters are hufer consonants? ii)” Paal gel ) Translate thosign into English, (©) You are late fora meeting, What do you say? G Tasin "ee sa atu boe ernie, ‘ter pate of abt i) Gear diterian, (9) Yow og pat nmeane no istandigin your my ‘many eompownd nouns ea you find an this museum tekel? Gh ira, (Gi) Afedersni fendi, 5 Math the dors with thei ations, (a) Arsimot (Amora kegs ®) Sane Gi) coke ok fener papas ©) Kristof Kalomb (ii denied bate Wd) The Beatles Ge) komtaist bir plitikaases ©) Bitanite (©) pap maze grubuyea © Mladic yg tenn (snl bir naematigya “Answer the following questions using the siqures shown in ‘racko's. Te fist one has boen done alreny. a) Ssat kage kallayor? (8.00) ‘Saat sekint, (0) Ebspres otis ne zaman geliyor? (7.30) “{) Axara’ kag saat? (1.00) {) Pim saat kage bashyor? 00) ie) Sidi saat kag? (12.80), TILT) ATINIZ Eq (2 Bilmnekadar uzun? 2.00) 1G) Toole nat ag? 3.00) 9 Hxamine this diagram and then answer the question, (0) Hakan Kimi seviyer? | | (i). Hakan'kim seviyo?” a= (©) Nigam see Nig Lime agi? & \ (©) Nilgintden kin nofet diya? e ~ (0) Yusutkinden nofetedior? 10 Match these questions and answers © Nicinathyorn? &) Nedentapegorsun? i) © Ngeukimctnt Gi) @ Nokincenyatye? GO @ Nempiaget © Nyetamenrmadm:? (3) © Nelenomtatint Ga tonight ae et by spa Toke (et) we alr tenons ene Konugma 2 ‘A couple of hour fter, Tod and Mafitare in the hatel restaxrant. “Keri is phoning ie wife, Sem, to say bel be late, Sema Alo? Rakin Neh lis, Nevede anyoroun? Thin otlinden, Gog kaldim,bliyorum, ama gokkomuslu ‘Taman, Ne zaman gelieesun? ‘Tam bilmiyorum. Bir sat lan sonea, ‘Gok ietiniz mi? Aira th. “ra otelde zak. Talsie bi, Lien, _ Yok yok, sarhog dil. A igkim. "Fel Ted nas! Yorgun ama i haar un bize ote yemest icin glyor mu? Sormiaim.Gelecek gai, "S6r, Unutma, Bend slam slo ‘Tamam, Had, hoyga kal | Fogg ka Yyergun tnd Yu” sry , Posrotnd on Sindy Minton tweet» Salyer inept, seek ge oleae br lon pearly tale oot oy Slam syle 29h olsove(conating) had” WI OF angi lokantayagidiyorsurnz? Biliiserun. Cenk billy Ama iyi bi yore gideco “Taman, onde gelecetin, Dani aratayla alacak sun? Arabaglagitmeyecetiz abam boztk (zaman nerede bulusac? Cenk ve Hansa saat sede logan bulugacafx Sana ph spt rae st = YARIN ERKEN - KALKACAGIM ~~ Bee Uh Calder dang Mia vr 3? Onan atm, Grogek us Inthis unit you will learn how to © alk about the future fake supgestions (© any where things are in colatin to exch other %-—— Konusma imoyoceie mewantcoms Steger nersinde? weroabouts nate bus ator? Meir cade set verve ato? tae Us Caadest | Uu Avonve ek ‘anigma aver Sara isan Phish languago teacher working inthe town of Bur Berkant is one ef her Turkish caleagues. They mod in Ch eer {hlangunge cha whore iy were oo eo Chale ote) Yayoi? Bevkant a go ne yaorsun? tae Thin Stn tonto Sarah ilvigram, Nn eras? ee eo oe Jeske wertgo «Sieh ese Bevkant ki rkadola lokanaya gidjor, Bin gene Sanh ssh ederim, hae Gt yates nl nna ig erken elsain, Stat seat drs rer Beskant Fark ene, Hat, gl bis, ‘Sarah Biyori, Bain dei BBerkant Had. Yarn bon de ren kalienpum, Sabah ren beni de rin nary megs alo Sarah “Ardea kimir? Berkant Cel ve Han. Ce tans Hons un Alan ar dag. Torped tal yawe Og dt gn Barta al yar Palka ye gos Hos big skantve arkadaslar bu akgom ne vapour? nia gmek stelyor” Ea Notiar ‘Saying no [kis dificult to turn down a Turkish offer. Saying mig usually thoy as meaning gon, talk me into i, I yon really mean no you tan (ry saying valla r emsinim (sur), They may wove Had W Turkish equivalent of tho ver ob. | igecoksiniz Wing 000k has two forme Cocel end -acal) ai Fallows harmony, Here are same examples: Tul come ‘This is another word you will ear used almost a ten as buyarun you wl ll ‘Mamsans come on oF go on oe alright then. When in Turkey try ko) he will drive Ings ally ortheaumber ac mes you ber iin day! too ell write ‘yon sill ay Thefuture hey will wait Note how the speakers in this dialogue switeh between sine the afuturo verb aogative, nil -me- antothe stom ofthe verb: precint continuous tome with falsre ateualng and the ra future tense wich oontains the ending -ecele, Oen the tw Negative interchangeable gotmeyocotin saimayacaiain ‘Stuffed’ taxis Dolmuslar are shared taxis. They run along sot mutes and enn fixed fares but donot follow timetable. etore soli of, they wait ‘uni they are Fl (heneethuir aame which means suff or pack), ‘then deop off and pick up passengers along the way. & ———— bil 1 The future Statements ‘You can spot a fituro Lense by the presence of seek. To make tho Satur, fllow thee steps: gelecok siz 00 to second word with Rs question form. | golacekmisiniz? Hlre ave some examples: |Quostion eakasak mm? bakacazyn seceksin streck isin? ‘eecek polecek mi? ‘veecesiz vorock miyiz? ‘teceaiz oak mii? ‘ojacalae ogacaldr mi? nformal suggestions IA -sene or -senize tothe stem of verb to get the equivalent ef hy don’ you ‘ste torm English Golseniza! Do comet Baksamzal Wy dont you lookt ‘Asaniza! Come on, owt ‘Note that the they form differs fom all heres ry pttng might at heen rather tan in the male Tiere ave some negative examples Macaeatmgmt Hint freccaaet iat, ena ren Rt Wenocctme tna Soret, tet, Nermaectirm” Hota Ores ‘You can use the verb olmak asthe fatne farm oft Be, var or yok. Por example: ‘Present ‘uty, byinisine Bugin Hakan bara. Busia Ankara cay, Yann Ankara’ otc, asa doen. Masta imayacaken2 -rtadagianm brs, skadssanim buraa aca, Yeni arab vat, Yeni aisha oscac. suyoi. Su olrayacat, soigge Phrases could be friendly suggestions or an expression of patience depending on your tne of voce. [ort ite means with, Yu cn shoton tothe ending le. For ioile ; Go with ny rahe. 1m going by erly with ear 1 oant eth Dene, jn ite shortened ning flow the ype vo! aren. Tse he worden some ples whero we ue ond Egle, For ole: ile Didem getiyorlar. Pinar ont idem ar coming aiailoPrtnim atunmda, Betwon the bak and te asf. a you use le with prcnal pronouns, dh pronuts ned the stir ending exit forthe thy fen For eeu el. Come wit me, jeninle benim aramuzda, Between you and me. lagitsene. Why dont you go with her Stay with ts inle olmak istiyorum, Int tobe with you. la gelecek. Hell come with ther. leand i Question: What’ thediferencebetwoon the andl endings? Answer: You only useli to make adjecives, Examples are sla and ‘meyveli. You ise le are onal other occasions Note that; (© i falows i4ype wel harmony and ha fr viata ku anda © Ae follows ype vowel harmony and has two variants; le and Ja 4 Onto, on top of, off CHresann uatii\ at (op ‘masamin dst the table's top ‘masimin istine onto the fable sting wstinden ‘masonin Ustiimde on fop of the tate ‘masaniniitiindon off the able [Note the bulfar-- afer dist = Bis kedi mason astiine One cats jumping onto the table, allyor. ‘See pigo 129 forthe rule about when ta vse -y~ and when to use-n- as. balfer consonant, ‘edi masanin Ustimde One cats sitting on tp Jotunayor. ofthe uke, Obiirkedi masanm tstinden Another eat jumping off “athyor. the tlie Prepositions of place ors on fop of snd bend tall us where something is n relation things. They are propositions of place, ‘The ‘Turkish valent of on dop of i ison its top. ‘The Turkish equivalent of itis ais back, alte fllowing Turkish nouns: Dottom front bak side middle Joka tho eame worda when you use than with possessive and de ceding: under Sninde in front of arlainda ‘behind este -in ortasmda Jn the mide of re are somo example senteners with de, -e and en endings table Put tin the mide of th Ine front ofthe grocers hop, In front of me Behind th car. ‘or bathe back ofthe car, Rohind yas Come beside me, He's sitting next tome, Behind wiat? Beside whom? “Arabanm arkasida, Arkamzda, ere are some more prepositions of plas: Pastthe hour ‘Noun Proposition of place [Turish Litera ranstation English ry inveior | -niginde ‘naiso ‘Sentibee gecior. | Five ispassing ono ocock | its ve post one 5 Saatiod on ges. | Tenispassng too cok, | itsten pas tos, aa Died geyelegoeior*| A quarter ispaaaing tau | HS auctor rat bast our taal | Alp vir gear | roomy passing ai snvenyypast se arg niki yimbeg | Twontyfv01S passing woo | is ante iia aia 0990", past wah. PYPain kargianda. Opposite the post office. ; Otel ile pla arasinds. Between the haa andthe bench, Note the -i ending (the direct object ending) on the hour's number Kutunun diginda ms, [Note also how the tin drt changes to to help prenanciation,) iginde mi {eit outside orinside the bun? ; Otelimizinetrafinda cok Thera aw a lavaF bars arma Ata bar var. aut hotel ‘Aramizda bir gey yok. ‘Thr’ thin igo) [Tawa Enh Kimin tarafindasinaz? Whose se aresou on? Seat be bey tata, ‘Avivo ono Seaton bee gee Athec past ono. 6 Telling the time accurat EE sd me “Hire, you use the word kala instead of war, and goge instend of Tothe hour _ eslvor ‘Turkish Literal transtation English Siatbire Bey wr, | Threare the fo om o'aoe its ve tans uate on vr. | Thoroaro fen to hee otek | an a ts Dardegeviekver, | Toreisa quaneriofou, | tea quater ‘ya yee var—_| Tereare monty oat ts sens Cie yim var.| Meroar went to to wow. | ts ents {oma [Note th - ending an the heurs nusuber Alistirmalar ‘The hey to these exereises son page 249, 11 Look at this petar of «each seene, then answer the questions 4a) Gunes xem xovama iene ni? 1b). Gazote kita altnda mi? 6). Mesrubatlor gemaiveninaltmda ro? ‘a Kitap, ova le kremin arasinda mu? 42) Top, kalenin yan mi? {inc oi em ig) Top nepin arkasinda? thy Bra elena mt 1) Krom aeyin yamnda’ |i) Kitapnelrin arasnda? = Meriaba Ali GeSen hafta) Hay, Kaedoginin yatind neredevdin? eal, "Taildeydim, him? Ama sen yeni tatile (ii) vet, een ay Fethiye'ye stmedin mi? siti, iv) Yine Fethiye, ‘Mateh the falling questions and answers. a) Kinin? (Benim deg 0) Kinlekonsuyorum? Gi) BelsiAvrupe'ya (0) Meydamia nexcsinds? ity _Ankaratyim, (a) Neveisini? (iv) Hegkelin| (0) Newso? () Mature. (fh Nevin inindet (si) Gokismn var (@) Nese gidivorse? (si) Oresinda, Gh) Netengetmean? (si) Barkadan, 19) Nereden geliyorsun? is) Oto “bok aye eye ste erp” Europe ‘Ue rect, ina ‘gineg sn wae ete anata nea top) a Simao “ve peel Sldk Gos spots 2 The following dinagwe takes plac: betwoen two neghbeors, Fill in the gapstusing the porase onthe right. age ‘lmur isa busy businesswoman. She ie narried to Fikret, Study her diary (on page 102) for next weok, hen decide whether the statements made sbout her are true or fae (a) Pasartesi saat on buéultatoplant ola, () Sah yediyi on gese Ankarsdan ince, (e)_ Perjembe ig gtmeyerek cinkd eyinin dum gia, (a) Cumartesisactsokize oye kala tiyalzadaolacak, (©) Phar annesininevin able emedine sider. Portsmouth Public Library Fe BE Pikret in degumacinie “ashen V2ind Gonartes: *¢inbiletier: al) 15 Translate the following into Turkih (a) Ws tenpast three. (6) Attwentyfce tone. (e) Ata quarter post tecloe. () Bsa quarter to four. @) Ata quarter past midnight (Des fie tsi. © Abfivepast eeen i). Wsa quarter pst eleven. Hes teny fee post tele. D) Actweaty past to 6 Hore is next Sunday's viewing guide fora Turkish satelite tele: sion chan. Study it then answer the questins bela. (a) Kag ln oynayacsk? (6) Kg ant mba olacle? {e)_ Sabah saat sokis eon araada gocuk programlan var mi? (Gq) “Torba saatkagta baslayacal?| EUROSHOW ~ 19 Kasim Pazar ‘Spee Atkadaslar Zoe ‘Bugs Buany Sinem “Dinocola” kon ‘Ta Sinema “Hayal Kus” ‘Tiek Sinem “Delier Almanye' da Sinema "Kadi Janda” Mag Ont GGalatasaay ~ Ankargict Habester ‘Casas Yarra Aim An Sinema “Krzsl toy” ‘Miuazzer Abies Kons ‘Shana “Hadley” ‘Tah Riyal (e) “Tera” saat aga bite? (A. Kay saat spor slacak? (Tusk sinemasy saat aga baghyor? (0h) Hoberter saat kagla baslayaea? (0) “Mag Ono saat kata baslayacak? ‘kado5 ta ‘or row “nose cose {Cais Vantaa Adm Aim Ikon tho fp or op char" documanayprgraren orbs ag tage eat ro ‘wou tog est mpecnse yal inagnaton fat suet ‘dol nea eazy ya ‘nom aan "woman bmek to camo oar end onarna ray tee ‘ois ‘nneOn_eromato programme pe 7 Boland once? @ o © @ © o w w o o ® Yovag soe soul ‘Dah yavag arab ‘sire, har alga ders ‘abgacsim, Oa ko vereeetim, (Cok elevizyon sxyrotmeyeceim. ‘oardosinle kava cetmeyeuosin. (Govuldurinia daha sk oymyacaga. cut gg almaya agi, CCoculdann énnde Kat emeyecogim, Digleini er aie firelasscan Daha een ove dincookim, ‘Sigaray brakacajm, daughter Gonea are writing Uber New Years resol tions, Which of che fling were written by no, and wiih by Tatretmek le awcar Limok tae ‘yon ga cme wave feglamale lo vermele fo lso ig @ a © @ ‘Match the suggestions tthe recipients. ‘Toachid refusing ordinner. ‘T omwone pring on. “i ‘Tosomene treading on yur bel, (i) ‘Tosomene watchieg you strate. Gv) ‘Tosomne who sas theyre used.) ‘Tosameone whos aging bind. (7) Tooomeane whosays thir (i) ‘eign Aca sens, Dilla etsnize, Susana, ‘Sikayo etsenize ‘Yardim else, Yalsan. ‘Yenone, 9 Fill in the gaps in the text below using i or le endings ‘ube the corret typ of vowel harmony. Kandeyin_(a)__Londra’da tat yapacaipe. Ugak_(6)_ idee Kardesinin. Landra_(e) bir arkadaq var Onan._(d)__beraber araba_(e\_Tngiltr’'vigeaeeotz,Ingllah Java Fatmir If abnayaece Bisin_(@)~ lei sir Place the words below in the comect ener, beginning with ‘parartesi osarted cuma gagamba azar cumertost sab pergembe Konusma 2 fara is waiting at the bus station. Barkant and Cank sive, Iie 0, and she has been waiting sinee 8 o'eock eo Rertant Bela mnt Salam Sarah. Sila, Ne aber? iil. Nerodasinie? Gee gldinie. ‘A@fodorsin. Hansa i yleuluklar dedi, Onun isin eee nla, Fans golmeyook mi? Buakgam emer. Irken yatyor. al Neden? Yar Paunubkaleyegldeoe. ren kale Fark elmoz. Yom biz deerken kallyorvsl Biiyorum, Ama Tans go yoru, ai, dol belo Hadi eredesin:? wera have you pla to goicann out ‘been? tien nner am jou?) yan wetgoad gt! Iylylestar bon voy ‘tin oe nc to ‘rma twa Daun ein has why(oaty fy Fraime "be teat gow ed ‘reac 7 YARDIM EDER MiSiNiz? In this unit you will learn how to © make requests State intention and wilingness © all stories and jokes Konugma ‘amide Hanum is an elder lady from Ankara. who has been visiting tlatves in Trabzon. ARor her visit, ae hae taken a stall rand the city centre, It snow tine for her to catch her plane back to Ankara. Shei lst, so she asks a young man fe help. amide Hamm Pardon Kosura lakmayin, Litfon past oder smisiniz acaba? ‘Tabi eendim, git, istiyorum. Orava giden [Naalesef yl teyze Dolmas var mu acaba? ‘Var. Dura Taisin'e yal, PPeki yevrum, Trabvon'da yaaneyom, Yale ga {err minis aba? ‘Tabi ipl gidn. Bu yohun sonuadan sae din, ‘Meydaza kadar gidin, Tek Hava Yellarrnmn ‘ofisnden sola sapn. Oran Gazi Paya Cade Ondan sonra. tanbul HevaYollarinn fisine Jadar gidin, Oradan aaj spin Braz ‘leride dari oreonksni, (Golem weak? Bayags ura, ‘Yariyere kag dakika ser acaba? Bilmem. Denimigin on daa. ‘Pek tekraranbtie miei? okan eyze sine golrim, yu gostorse. Gok tegelereryaveurn, Bir ey deg Ganlamatagirmsin ace? “Tabi, tas. Sagohun yaeram, rae hore hartace F {air misina? wets youcsy? agin ary 1 amido Hine gol er sarugor 2 Dolmug dura stanbal Hava Yolarinn ofisine yak. 8 Gong erkck iki kere yuu anlar, 4 Tlamide Hamm gong rkeginteyzs (ho anewors ro on page 240.) = 107 Notlar ‘Yavrum and teyze Like abi and abla, chose firms of adazuss area exon way of how: ing friendliness to strangers. To uso either of these terms, however. there has t9 In a recognisable age difference between the speakers ‘Kexp an ear open for them when you are next in Turkey, Acaba ‘This word mens J wonder oF By any chance. It makes a request more ‘pole. HamideTiamm cant stop saying i —— Dilbilgisi 1 The-r present tense ‘There are two present tense in Turkish, You use them fr diferent purposes, You hae already learned the -iyor tense. There isalso the ‘present tenes, You form it ike this ‘tion Exampb 1 [Example 2 Tike the stemaf he web, oo ose ed, -ror-er. ole fgsgor ‘edhe relevent partof to vers tobe. | gli | pepsin Tenember: i follows -type vowel harmony and -er fllows e-ype ‘vowel harmony Question: How do you know whether te add -r, iron -er? Angier: Verb sioms ending ina. vowel just tle -r. For stems ending in aeonsonant: © ost with ano slab tl 04; © thoce with en syllable ending in-ror take sir © those with more than ote syllable taker, ore are some examples ending in vowels Gen) sylerim tens beldersin o) tapr (biz) Walirlans (sia) colcursmiz ‘onlar) isterler lore ae some one-syllable examples with er Gon) egerim, tutarsm: eder nears fekersinie ogarlar “Here are someone sya examples with ir (ben) (oon) © (onlar) _ Here ae some multi-ylsble examples wither (en) inanerim (sen) otras o) Kutta wi otururs (sia) Sigrenirsiniz (ontar) Konugurar | You should note that grammar bucks call his tense the simple present orthe norst tense, 2 Negative forms of the-r present tense ‘You can spot a negative + present tans by the presence of-mez or “maz, You make the negative form like this: ta ‘Question imaz min? bimezmisin? goemer mi? bulmaz my? ‘kumae misn? Istemesr mi? ‘You should nite hovr the bem and biz forms donot have se whe ‘they are statements, but they do have one when they ae questions 3 Using the-r present tense ‘You use ther present tense in the flossing eases ee resin Takingponizes Sem denaima atin | rey an ace ‘einayavewnngte | You akan ‘ie serovar [range rane mon osonerig teasing someone | omagrmenct | wtyouapante cor? ‘someting ctomasematinn —|cayhorraire? | woasyou no crn icrsashas | Taoteun conan ‘aol orm “teagan? wing aatecertes | gota tae gar. | heen toa 110 — imple | Example 2 femcinapty | on ot oteon eel Jaccringenindarsig Sve atmduerr. | ner toons oS geime | gale i ne ‘dd-z (encoptforthe Fand we forms, | goime | gotrez eseting anna | sk akpagerm. | fotan goto the beet ‘Add te relevant part ofthe ver te. | golmam | geimazsin [event lon me eres: Hore aro some examples ofthe or prosent used to express sncertainty an hope: ‘Yapar herhalde, ‘Shot probably doit. ‘Umarim, gitmensinis hope you ton go, Thope you're not going ‘Santmim, sevmezler, Teuppos hey wo like reckon they don't it. ‘Belli yardim ederler Maybe they hel ‘Maybe they're ping. 4 -en adjectives ‘Beamine the fllewing: Hogan adam the running man, the man who's rani istanbuPa giden trea te ftanbut train, he train soing to fstenbud Viyana’dan gelen tren the Vienna tain, ‘he train coming from Vienne ‘masnda oturan gocuk ‘thecal sting a the tale, the child who's siting atthe table Giten kavdin kim? Who's the soma wha’ sling ‘he italicised Turkish words are adjetives made from verbs. This is, Ate you make them: ation Example Take the stam ofthe ver, te how -en uses e-type vowel harmon. oct in ‘You can usally translate the -on ending into Baglish as sng. For exanple: Masada oturan erkek yalagikh. he man (wo is sitting at ‘the fable is handsome, Rramin Konugan bebo var. My daughter’ got a talking doll ‘You should note that you can only ust -en adjectives to describe the subject ofa seolence (he ane performing the atin). ‘You ean tee -en djocives without a noun, In this eae they act Ike ‘mune themselres and the mean te. one, For example: ‘Masada oturan gizeldi. The one siting atthe fable eas prety ik golenler Smithler olacake. The first ones whe comewill bo the Sous, 0 kogede sigara igenler Tie. ‘Te smoker iterally the smoking ‘ones) in the corner are Turkish ‘Orada bireigonler Ingiliz, Those ber dhinkers iteally bor inking one) are Batis ‘ole how you can make th -en adjectives phural by adding er. Granmar books ell an-en adjective the sujet participle ofa ver. © -erek ‘The ending -erek isthe Turkish equivalent of ty . ing. You ada it ‘ono verb ston Lao atthe fllowing examples: iiriyerek weal ncn fit erally by wating) Telefon ederekt haber Winfree by telephone’ ‘verecetin. -Aiorally by phoning) Gazeteye bakarak buldum. {found it ty looking at the newspeper, Giinde 24 saat galgarak By working 24 hours a day “he managed it eek can alsomean just ing. For exemple: Citlerek git, She left sting Bize bakiarah, “Mechabs” dedi.Looking at as, she suid ‘ll”. Bilerek mi yaptantz? ‘id you dot hnowingly (Gntentionaly)? 112 ‘The -erel form ofthe vei olmak is posal It mean as, For example: Programa olarak galyorum. I work a a programmer, ‘Turist olarak my, igigin mi? Ava tourist or on busines? ‘Arladagin olarak koauguyarum In talking as pour fiend. iinsan olaralc nasal? How is sheas« person? . ‘Wha’ fer personaly tie) Trediye olarak aldum, bought (i asa preset ‘Meze olarak me var! What i there as starter? (Whot ind of startersare there?) Ba kutuys masa olarak Tuto this evo table Kullamyorum. 6 Verbs with -e, -den, -ile _ Here are some more verts whose objsets need the - ending Gigeldere bastim. squashed the lowers Anineme sordum, asked my mother ‘Ona yardim ettim, Thelped he ‘Band haber vermedin, You did't ell me, Mercedes vurde. Hehita Merete “ebaamak by aadan sean ‘Syardmetnek 10 top ‘chaborvortek to atom, ta ere are some more vers whose objets neod the -den ending ‘Yemekten hoslamyarum. ike food, like eating lderden koreuyor. He's ofraidof spiders. Kopriiden gostil. We've passed over the ridge Savaslan behsetmeyin! Don't menton the war! “en oglonmak to eno “den gogmele tops over Gen erento eon 108 Gen baneetne to moon, ‘sader teaceuss _ Here isa veth whose objet needs ie. Bir lektrikgiyleevlencoek. Shur going t-marry an detriian. 113— Teovionmek —tgetmaned i 7 -dir Jn Units 1 and 2 you lexmed that there was no equivalent of the ngloh words, This is the ence in everyday epech-Mowerer he ‘people want to sound very formal, they use the ending -dir to mean is. You will see -dir all around you on offical notices, im afc ‘ecurnents and in newspaper articles. Hare are ame examples: IC ve DIS” SERV! —14 Aligtrmatar "The key tothose exercises i on page 249. 1 Match the requests in the fist enlumn to the mos likely place ‘youll hea them spaken, (a) Bakar msi? Dersta (8) Birkilo dahaverirmisiniz? Gi) Dolu bie atoboste 2) Cevaplan yazar msm? (i) Lokantada, G@) Misaade wie: misiniz? Gv) Manav, (@) Sapkania euarir mime? () Sinemnada, saphe tat Fartmik ote of Imanaypreangicer 2 You might sve the following signe in Terley. Malke thom moro formal filling inthe gaps using dar, ir, ur odie () Da yoleapah__. (©) et igmel sake {o) Dog yer yok {d) Amerikan Hlspres gogeri__ fe) Garaj eg. {f) Tovaletonin facile 4a). Gwealsar ign degil_— ecard vals ‘bone ou of dor eh ext yaeak aon 3 Match items from the two columns below ta make the mast ‘meaningful gentonoes, (a) Geeuguma 1G) yapar min? ) Besa kan (a) tatar mina? {e) Bim Gi) kapar musi? (d) Vip ites (iv) pln isi? Kap y) ler misini’ D Sapkamas (vi) bakar mene? 115 — (@ Yardum ty attan apr oor gate 4 Moe these parts of a joke in tho corroet order. Add eapital Teter, fll stops and spseeh marks where necessary. ‘ti gee subah kedar pati yop Dir ay doldor onu muayene ederce Dougun oksurigun ck ii der hnasta heray doktora sider hasta gy eovap ven lab iy our dao boy ‘sok cain 9 fata ihe an itpron hap vomek‘ansver 5 Match Home fom the two ealumna below to make thy most ©) Agam tapayarale () cabinekayds, ) Aynaya akarale i) Tike» pratik yap 1) Konusarak ve olayarake Gi) opor yapue @) Parayt sayarae Ge) makyg) yape, 1). Plajda rtarak ie) tabi ogi 1) Yozerek yet Fl [aie man ‘aaymak want ‘aya ie rakyal_ mato 6 Till in che gaps with the approprinte endings. Alter the word before the gap as neceosry. —16— (i) Otebas_ insok, 4g) Kariea— ast ex? 0) Bemisik— dinemek istivorum, 4) Beyemok— biktin, (on) Pencere_— par nisin? (Gem Binlle (6) Tigbirgey_—korkmaz, “einanmak_ fo beloven ‘om toat ‘arpa et Mibiegey nomng ‘Match the requests tothe people making them, (0) Birkilo veri isin? 0) Sera soran adam, 4) By moktubu dese macunae? i) Korkan goo (©) Corap verienisniz? Gi) Kitphanede sala adam, 4) limi tutar mse? Gv) Gepmelisteyen adam, (©) Misaade edermisinie? {6} Gioagind arden adam. () Sasar msm? (7) Aalamayan irene @ Teraranlatr msm? (vi) Abgverig yapan adam, Compo this table which indicates the purposes fer which you can us the pres tenses ix Turkish The fst on has ben ine for you Puro popes essen ese “6 sting on Z i) earbig aha (@) eng sont pening no deena hepa (6) ess pus ape mang pois (a an ase 1h oer sng oe yak abel sare Taos an ancl a TR eecing sora Toe no {snr lege samen —aT— ® a ie eee teeta {o) Gasetede yoxan Iii, {© Resorts yk nig) ete {e) Bim span hgh li) gator {@) Aparieana bakan igi, (iv) vafir fe) Meyvevesebze satan ig. (0) gg (7) Lokamaa servis yapan kil (0) ang @ Ddaweie iG) ee (H) Pabedan) gual {Sag ken i (3) mar Spornen_ Beak ofa moe yee Konugma 2 ‘amide Hamu has reached the dal stop, She is now sitting in the dolmug, siting fori to fll up. Time is geting on and she is fonserned about missing her light. There is just oe empl seat lel. amide Hani Sofie be, delim mi artik? Sofor Yok abla, hal dot diz amide Hamm Acelom var Havalimanna kag lira? Sefer Yetmighotin, ‘Hamide Hamm Tamam. Hen ugofm kagirmak istemivorum. Ben ik ig in berm, Sofr Peki fendi. ‘The driver stars the engine and they move off ‘Hamide Hamm Sofie bey, pencerenia kapatir meine acaba? Gok souk ‘The driver winds the window half way up. Rotor termi? ‘amide Hamm Yeter. Tesekcires, Soler Bir gey dil. "The driv tees the radio on we Hamide Tamim Sofi bey! Soir rend amide Hamm Radyonun sosai biraz lasar musiniz acaba? Gok silkoek ‘The driver turns the radi ff. Sofir zonally) olor mi? amide Hamm Tosecrle, Sofér Ries ederim. ‘aiden mi? ahaa? a yr 119 — 8 NEREYE GiDELiM? NE YAPABILIRiZ? In this unit you will learn how to 1+ make exlanations express poasbility snake suggestions Cer to do something fompare things Konusma Metin and Defne are sittingat home Inte one Saturday aftemean Metin Gikalin mi bu aksam? Defne Had, okalm. Telvizyondan biktum. Nery gidelin? Metin Sinemaya gidebiics Define Urya. Sinema da eloviyon gi. Baska ne yapabilii? ‘Metin Merker Tiyatrosunda i bir oyun var. Define Doje Ama herhalde bu saatie let bulawayy, ‘Metin Sorabiliz. "Telefon edeyim mi? Define Haye. Baska bir soy yapalim, Metin Ne ii? Defae Bilmon. Gin esteranna gd Metin Hangisine? Talsivdkine mie Define Hayir. Bence Bebekcki Taksin'Gekindes daha giz ‘Metin Dogru. Ama Bobet, Taksin'den ok daha usa a Defne Fark etme, Metin Fark oder. Arabayla gidomiyoras bx algonn, Unuttun mu? Arabaya kardgime dling veriyoram, Defne An unultum. 0 zaman kardoyin bizioraya ptdremee ni? Metin Yok can. 0 Yel’ goto Tes yone gir, Defne Tamar, Taksimekine side, ee rd ore gidin? ahowehatwe go? bente. ny onion Sibi We an Bebattck the one n Sobek Staal ohn! Bebek tek Tat dekndon daha stk, simi ‘ze thro. rooes moor Esyka no npabiniz? anacace an ean Fae a Bebo, Tain’ den gota wake Nuekee Tptrosu tho Contas "Bobo ot rh Tain “heabe farteimle tometer ‘oyun toy ‘ldemiyore ie ea92 feratde "consi dre varnok toon Duley “ioc in ‘olarak ove, ranpor, cacy orlina_ we canst Bugiorenaem? ‘anthetae s? ‘Secon? st ipane? yoke ce of Sin "Ching inane eal Sorular Dog mu, rang mi? 1 Defne ile Matin odo kalmaleetomivorar 2 Metin tjatroyavelebn evo. 4 Birtok Gin restora var, 4 Tolsim, Bebelten daha yalan, ‘he answera are on page 249.) Notlar Foreign restaurants ‘hore are few foreign restaurants in Turkey, You will find them ix big ities lke Istanbul und Ankara, but none i smaller pce, Exclamations You hear exclamations such a¢ Gi bel and yoke eamumt all the time. —1a "They ace diffi to translate, but when you hear them its often clear wl emotion they exprese Bosse of the poner: Caco and tons of voice! Here are afew mare: [Feetingoxpressed | Rough tranciaton ‘surprise Wer! never! surprise on Jamoyarco Fig, mato? exasperation Good git pn ‘Govcat ght ent boing fet up Ohno! Come oat Jicboletand annoyance | Cane oft! siogust Pooh Uoht ‘Children's cones are fll of such words, Dilbilgisi 7 Can and can't -ebit- ‘Yor can spot the Turkish oquivalent of can or be able by the inclusion of -ebil ina verb farm, Tis ending slots into an tense af a wer just taller the stem To use i, fillow these stops: sation Example Take the blliommot tha veo, | gleoedin Zid-ebitatertne vere sem, |goleblecogin -ebil wees ype vowel harmony, ‘When talking about che present, you usually use the r present tense swith-cbil. Here are some examples: teoh ‘Simple present form “Can torm ‘ide ‘debi ysparsin yapabisin yuror ‘nde hoya, oyaba sbylerin séylayebiesiniz vetrer erebiifer You aiold note how th ob endings are smetimes diferent in ie two columrs abe, ee Seer ‘Question: Why? ‘toe Inthe fi nn the yrcting we ite it ve a 3 em othe vrs Iason saat pecling vow Ut Ain -ebil or -abil. e ee ‘Malkng questions with the ea form is easy enough [statoment [auestion bi eb yin? Yopablis rapa isin? reba yrayotier? ovale koyabie ivr? soylyebiesin sey isin? vorelirer vero? ore are seme examples in the Future and Uke past tenses ‘Yapabilecegim. TU be aie to do (i. Gelebitecek isin? Will you be abe to come? Oynayabitai mi? Was he/she able to play? Yardim edebildiniz You were able oly - ‘You can spol Uhe Turkish equivalent of cun'cor notable by the inle- son of -e- alter the stem af a ver form, To use this eading, fallow ‘these steps = ea ‘Acton Example "Talo tho nogatvo orm of to verb. | gdoyocok ‘hdd = attr ho vor som, ‘ademeyecek [Note thatthe follows ctype vowel Inrmony. Hare are some exans pls inthe preseat tease: on leant goinom demon Fonmacon operas yarimez vyatyome. koymayiz eyamayre stlomezsin| Sfoyomozee vomedtor vetomecler ere are some examples in various tents: Gidemeyecetim. wont be abieto go. ‘Yapamadim, I eontd't doit Oamaat oan’ bet Golemedik. Werouldnt ome, CE Tu TT Et ages 2 Might -obil- ‘Tosay what might hagpen, you ako use the bil ending. For example: Biraz sonra igehilirim, Tight avea drink tle later Pasar glebilivim, Tight come on Sunday. Whether the above sentences mean ean or might will ke clear from the context. -moyebil- ‘The negative form of might is diferent from the negative form of can, You make the negative farm of might by placing -me ater the verb Yapabilicim, yapmayabilivim, S might doit and Eight not Dikkat, Sevmeyebilivler. Be care. They might nt lke Noe the diforenee between might not and cannot Sinemaya gidemen. Tean' goo the cinema, Sinemaga gitmerel Tonight sat goto th cinema. Sinemaya gidemeyecogim. Ion beable to go the eincme. ‘You can combine mighi and con, Fr example: ‘Sinemaya yidemeyebilirim. I might not be abl goto Bho cinone. 3 Comparing things {nm order to say Ym clwerer than you, in Turkish you say Fn mor Hever from you alll clever ‘Alalhyym, Tim clever Senden daha alallymm. clever than yor, Here are some more examples: Yeni Zelanda, Tarkiye'den New Zealand is smaller than ‘daha igi. Turkey daha ew. Turkey ischegper then England. ‘Henden daha giiglisiindz, Yoh stronger than me, ‘TheTurkish equivalent of the most or the #9 sen Diinyada en gizel yer. ‘The mest buavtfil plas en corth. ‘TWirkiye’deen iyi garkaer Paris the best singer Paar. in Turkey. ‘Rikpeninenbapuket Try apt yi ental, istanbul. Bn bilyike Galatasaray! Galatasaray the football eam) ave the greatest! 4 Thelet forms of verbs ‘Look athe following examplos meaning et. ideyim etme go; her, go fidelim lesgo Blin Let im go; he shold go Eilsintor {et ther wo; they should go ‘Auld -eyim onto the stem ofa verb to give the meaning here, ff me... ‘You se Tor ering help making suggestions. Por example: Paltonu alayrm. Let me take sour cont ‘Yardim odeyim. Ter, ket me help. Gideyim mi? Shall Igo? Yawaim edeyim mi? Shall Telp? ‘Add -elim onto the stom ofa verb ta give the meaaing es. You use it formaking suggostons, For example Gidetim. Lets go. allel. Tete get up, Evora in saneone’s Inoue this means fg) Yapalim m? Shall we do i? live dénelim mi? ‘Shall we go home? ‘Adi -sin tothe verb stem to say wht someone ele (ot the person 5ov'te talking ba) shold do, Also use ev express a hope Ut some ‘hing will happen Turkish Evogitsin. ‘Yagiur yagmasin. Get ale olay gots Ash Konus, ‘yo olsun "The plural farm of-sin b-inler: ‘Yarm getsinter. “Tako a noun which already has a de ending ior exampls, otelde). “You can make an adjectve out oe To do so, ad the ending et (for ‘sample, oteldek Now loa atthe following examples: Turkish [uiterat translation [engtsh| 7 ‘ide bar te nte-holelbar | thot (nia nie hte osedekd mass | ho ntho-comeiabi.|o tbe n te conor ‘AmanyaldaliTrer|har-Gemany Tribe Tks n Gormany ‘nasadil gelier | hoor thotatiofowor |e Abas on totale [ete how -ki doesnot change boeaust of vowel harmony. tis obvious what your talking stout, you can use -k without the ‘oman to mes te one which is in at/n. or example: soteldekt thee ih is ithe hated ebyedeki ‘theonein the corner Almanya’éakiler ‘theones in Germany ‘masadakiler ‘theanes onthe table Wiis obvions what yore talking abt, you ean put ki on anosessor ‘tamean the one which is mines ote For example otelinki the one whichis the hots, ‘the htalsone Denionk (ihe one which ie) mine, my one onlarmkt ‘heir, their one ‘seninkiler sours, your ones “onfarsnkiler ‘thers, thir ones 6 -ce Ohen, you add -ce to ¢ nationality or people to give the related Tnguage. Forexample: [nationaty Language Te rrnkes ‘it ings panyol isoanyolca cart cin Enon |Emerice rap apc ‘nanan [Yunanca eee int eon ment Amean | Tote how -ee follows eype vowel harmony, al how the ¢ becomes g sfler a woiecess consonant. Sometimes you nl 00 to tho name of « enunizy to sive the related Jnguage. Fer example: Country Language Gin ‘ince evo Ibvecee Hollnsa Holiandaca Portliz Potokace “You ean ad-ce onto the end af personal pronaans to mean aevording “far example! hence {in my opinion shioe fn your opinion You can ad-ce ont aetives to mean rather. for example: ivice rather good, quite good iyikge rather big, gute big 8 Buffery,n ors? You uses as.a buffer: © for possessed endings: with compound nova. You uso m asa buffer © fr possessor endings: with a werd which already has a possessed ending; © with the porsanal pronouns bu, stand o; Vth the tending, Otherwise yea use y asa buler, ‘lore are some oxamplest 2 Match tems from the two columns below to form tre sentences, power sees (a) Avustralyabior (© Almanca konnguyorla. ‘Stuation eontn 4) vusturyadsoturan ae ‘possessed ending (gant hishor bag insanlar Gi) Arapgakonaguyorta, ‘compound oun —_felgantast anabag 1, Beka ine (ld. anaes nope m Vaaksinaanlar Ge) _nglize komuguor ‘aposessor oring [Ania las “ ae) i ‘ator a posesed ending [Qantas ta | Hod hiser ba, © Sud Arabian (©) Portekizce omguyoriar, ‘ath bu, guardo—[Bunu soviyecum, |r io tis 3 Read this brochure extract about diffrent types of aecommo- wth the-Ki ering [Seninkini alten. [cok yours. dation and then answer the questions baow. rorrnal direct obj |Allyi seviyorum. | ithe Alt Peas ee eer ee OSMANLLOTLL GINAROTELL PANSIVON BERLIN a ee eee iL Geen Aligtirmalar Simlodds——Kittodear era ete oats Evers aan el itis Par ree ces 1 Read the dialogue andthen answer the questions below. 2apkehar, — PEMESIE HEME O59 ony mae oes ore po soreness 5 Selmiom gaan a eonitiaea Semra_ Peki, hangi dilleri biliyorsur ‘salon Load See es eer omar ae es ee cee eres Serr enter ion Onunla konuabiliyorum ama yazamryorum. Pransu- (a) Qnar Oteli‘nde Pansiyon Berlin'den daha gok bar var mu? fanaa ns 2 eae Bese 3) Ge snc oe a Sena eas eee ores o ano Gy ni oe or ee eee 2 een oer eran ee 2 areas ane Seer 8 ee eae eee ene | a reaecenterny © Nerodedans edebitrsini? (@) Osmanl Olde angi spor yapabilisini? ©). Size hangs en iy? opin hath marron dah etc ‘vari corset, comnuzus fare shang cone, naviet yun salont games ea farsa “aandining vate sar Jn the frst enlumn ele is list of offers. Inthe soepnd column isa deseription of peopl in need ot help, Matk the offers ta thase ‘oho need hem. lo} Mektula okayayim mn?) Bebe taayan anne. 1b) esi, Gi) Koeola ig fe) Sana kahve yapaym, Gi) Bozuk arabada otaran high. le), Benim kalomimi vereyim, (is) Igten eve gelen esi 16) Qocuubon twtayin an?” Ge) Terleyen aden (A) Penceres’ gaya, (a) Youmaleisteyen adam, sete nat octet | ‘These three gms ar all on show inthe same carpark! Play safe and assume ll three sts of restrictions appl. Referring a them, answer the questions bw Ba [pte ore myer | (Pazar gecessat onbindesrabaum park edebiir miyim? (@) Camartes ssbalu motosiketim park edobili mivin? (e). Pazartes fen kamyonumu park elemtermiyin? (2) Gamma gin ieden sonra arabarm park eds mien? 6 In the first exlunn bolow is alist of eamplaints which might be ima by the person you are with. Matzh each one with one the suggestion you would make in reply. (a) Avaldann atryor. ” @ Birsore kam (6) Gop kaldk (ii) Brahaneve feelin. fe) Sosadim, (ii) Bre dinelin, (a) Sialdim, (iv), Dahanzh yirbyotin, {e), Yatmak istizorum, (0) Birwe atari lek to ‘at puck guy 7 Dogrumu, yanhma? (a) Antalya, Loodratdan daba sak. (6) ‘Torkel bir fnean cay bir bardak gaydan daha Rigi, 193 — (2) Otis dolmustan daa eu {2 Gan en pola otal {)Japonga, Njeryaldan daha rengin, 1G) Monako inyanin en kdgak ules. (q)_Turkiyede en ysl dof Ulu (@) Sarap,raladan dal kuvvet {Gite fated daha pa (1 Istonbol dbayaminen buyak seri ‘dog. muna ‘incan_ cn ey Study this telephone dislue between a harrassed suerotry and Joe grompy bose in the office nest door. iin the gaps using «ach ofthe words listed below. ara bwklesiler getireyim gidemem gitsin fieinter otmasin Sekreter Bay Tashan isi anyor Sef Isimvar, Oifeden rane tekrar (a). Selreter Poli, Bay we Bayan Ozer geld et 0)? Sekroter Baklemeyeckler glib, Sel Omaman Sekreter Pek, Saat onkide Taksim'dotopluntunz var. Ref Bond). Yorime mot 0) Sekreter Gay (| mi Sef Gotir Sone). Penny has been planning a two-week tour af Turkey. She his ‘nara al he plas she wanta te sea on the map overleaf She oes aot knw’ whether she will have time forall of them, so she has plagod 4 question mark nest those whch sho might skip. Referring tohr plan say whether the slatomunts below are true or fae ogra mu, yang mi? (a) Ponny kosinlieItanbuT gieoek 1b) Konya gitmeyetii. a © Borgama'y girmeyebiir, (a) Tamirde esialike durmayacak. fe). Seleueu girlie, 4) ala Bars dsur () Bodrontda darmayat Gd) Penny tarihi yerleri hig someyebii. seats iy np ayaa 10 “Try qussing the meaning ofthese places and nationalities, @ ‘Amerta Biryit Deven AD) aera © age ‘ey ©) Bana ra (@) Palgasston Bilge @ Cm ont 8 She Sai (® Gincy Arita Siny Ati ) Mintsean Hina Kins ‘ee Yen tanda Yen nda a Konusma 2 DDelne and Metin have made i to the Chinese restaurant. They have just been shown to table. Define Mein Deine Mein Deine Mei Deine Mi Deine ‘Metin Delne Nosirtine Bina. pt isin ieylin doce, Xen yn eine okt be sn {Eis ve tape ier iit tn Apt osann Bic gk alsin at Gingemeteilraa pier i? Hak er gnome inn Gnpmeberptede mi Soni bi atte bal her cast yore eu pe of fa FE | iaomer to mint moe oak ion ‘Enyomehiere am ger mi? ‘Boos at gona Cnseload? ISlebakali goon ase frit = aes 9 NELER YAPMAYI SEVIYORSUNUZ? — In this unit you will learn howto (© expres obligation © tale about likes and dislikes © givealvice Konusma ‘Yasemin is a Turkish pop singer. She is beng interviewed om tall. show Sune Yasomin Sunvew Yasemin Sune Yasemin Sunuew Yasonia, hepimis gianni tamyoruz ama sii Hit slovak isumyoris Bog zamualarnadn neler yaar: Sunes aie gepmay serveur” Gok, ast. geyler. Benim Boforda bie dain var. fala deni: Kerannda yirimey seven, snenaye sftmesi sever, arkadagllaberaber" olnakian Frnnyorom ba Spor sje anaes? ok esmiorum. Din yn, Tes seyret ovgoram Fi srr nani? aye ‘Resale hay. Fula seyrotnekten nef cediyorum = futbol sevenlerdes Gar diem ama ig seemigorn, Pek, bir da pinion bahseim mi? Mik yapmak ley an i? 197 — Yasemin Kaley degil ~ lam teri, Gok alayorum. Benim I scl, her Kenserim kusursuz olmat. Bunun iia cok felegalignim gercijon. Sumac Sartilarnies netede yanyorsunus? Dojas’daki ovinizde Yasemin Yok Evde ysamyorum, Istanbuldayken yazmayt ogre me, yang mi? 1 Nur kere talofonetmeyegalayr, 2 shan yarn elmek istensiver. how often the oficial sounding ir ending is used on the pest ‘ape roerdings. Note also the use ofthe -mistir verb ending ich simply els as an official version ofthe past tense 181 — ‘erg Fllard ailesine Yeni ylls saglik huzur ve matlelue — ofiferiz Galetler adina Mign Geb fs ale} mig. [Naa how Nurs the mending to report what se has just Ierned Swearing This very difical to know when snd how to use svear words in fr. ign faniguage. You should avoid using any you might pie wp or you tad eause great upset However, here are somo the eominan ones kt Donkey! (a'*srily Dato Gera a Eesyoila gk! Son ofa dontey! Baril) Kahretsin: May’ Gad eras yout it. Damn!) Dilbilgisi 1 -dik adjectives “Looe the filling phrases: the colour whieh Fike, the colour whieh I liked enim) sevdigion renke —182- , (venin) tuttugun kitap the book which rou're holding, thebook which you held the ur tehiek he drives, the ar which he drove the Louse whieh we're buying, the house whieh we bought he fia wehich you eat, the [ood which you ate the ater whieh theyre writing, the letter whieh they wrote im, tultuzun, sind, aldigimes, yeditinis ‘are all adjectives. The iden of which eentonoes ix same: hing Turkish does in'a completely diffrent: way fo English. The ih say the elour ohh Flite, bat in Turkish you say mylked folour: ‘You we the ending dik wo exeute adjecties hike theee above, se we il al chem -dik adjectives. To create them, fallow these steps (onun) sirdiigd araba (binim) aldygemie ev iti) yediginis yemek onlanin yazdhge mektup Aetion Exampe Tokethesiom oft vom, | ye : Ais i yea ‘kino possessed ending, | yecgim ‘ho examples abwvo all show -dik adjectives created from vere Which ad an + ering to their objets, Thay are the equivalent ofthe Finish hich. You can also uso ik adjectives to mean in whic oF a which. In such ‘noes hey include the idea ofthe Turkish de ending Por exasnle: ‘oturdujgum ev ‘he house in which Te eldigin sant ‘he tine at which you came ‘Thay can aso include tho idea of the Turkish -e ending, In such eases, thay mean to which, For examsle tigi ok the schol fiohich) he goes to Dindigimis trea the train Gahioh) we got onto sail aljctives eax alo include Uh ida of the Turkish dem ending, Insuch cases they mean from which. For example: 183 — seldiginiz boy the illage whic) you come from Sarin indi araba theca tach they got out ‘Thay can alao include the idea of le. fa such eases they mean wit which, For example: oman goeule tHe hil Gham) gu were tel wlth ‘evlendigierkele he mat (hor) she married [Nete how -dik adjectives can sefr either tothe pastor the present. ‘Tho, you con iranelatataltagunu kitap a ether the book ou ore holding ox te bok yor Held, The mesning is usually clea from the cmntext 2 The difference betweon-on and-ci adjectives Austin: What js the difrence between the ik adjective made fom a verbal the vom active made rom the sme verb (sere onpage 1117" ‘Raswer: You use the -en form to deserve the doc (Ue sub} of an atdin. You ue tho ik orm to deseibe the objet ofan action. Tak hot exams: ‘Bent seven kad. ‘the aman ho oes me. Sevdigim kadin. The woman un Tow 1x the frst sentence, it the woman who is ding the loving Sho is {he sujec Int tcond gentence i ahe who ie boing loved Sho the objet. 1 gramme books, the -en form is elle the subjet partial of 0 ‘er, and thea form is elle the objoct paride. Ii, however, asic To think of thon ssadjectves Ban as farms 8 ver 3. -dik nouns sometimes yeu can use » il sdjetive witb tho noun which it tsenbes, So instead of saying: yaphian geye bul lok ot the ting ‘pare done) you ean say yap bal ook at he hin youn) —108— “Nite hw you take the -e ending from gey and add it to the end of| loro, ths ile adjoaivo ie acting aa fit wore noun. You “Ton ony do this when iis obvius what tht missing noun is, oro ae some exanplesof-dik adjectives used a8 now: “Full sentenco (tk word acting. ‘Short sentence ck word acting 3 acjctive) ‘asaroun) “Ridiim goyistiyor musun? | Alum istiyor musun? oven gaye ranmyorum, | Sdyledgee inanmiyeum. “Yann geydon Forkiyorur. | Yapugisan ronkuyorum, LGraigimae goyeon bansome! | Geredgimizden baksotme! Sounectpniz ada oeugmayint ‘nian gore yomodi yoneyocosim. ‘Sevrdiizio konugmayil COnian gate yenayacogi, fou should pote bow, in all these examyies, you take the Be cing om to ining er ot oad no parti Athovssing now isin a plural form, you ad that plural ending to ‘he -ik participle to, For example Fulton ‘Aim gayle steiyor mus? Séyltein gover nanmyorun. Sovmodiinzinsaniaria rousgmayin! Shor term ‘Nalitar isoriyormusun? Séyleioin inanmyorum. Sovmedtietnzi konugmayin! 4 -ecek adjectives and nouns mike a which sentence about che future you use an eee adee= tive, For example Olayacagim kitap. ‘The book which In going tore. Oturacaginis yehie. ‘The oun where wut ve, ke an adjective like this, follow these steps 105 — ony eg | Taio tea deve fst farsce mo ee ee ere are same more examples where te eek forms art hike actives the lm okieh ou se theft wokich you wont se ek fms You ca als se ee forms as nouns. Hom re some examples: Siyleyeceyine dildeat et. Beare about what youre ging: zim yapacagumars merale Dor tory abot what were umeyin. aig tod, ‘Algealdarim bunlar. ‘hese are the anes which Tn ing tis. ‘You use -ecek as the falure equivalent of -en adjectives a8 well an -Aikadjstives. Sa you useit for subjects aswell as abet. Fr example: Past form Future frm "Yanan bu. (THB7S the paren | Yapacak bu (si the person ‘tho ci it) wih die) ‘Yaphis bu. (M818 te one | Yapacagy bu. (This the one teas) ‘ord, Gidriorkin? (mo are tho | Gidocker kin? Who are te ones noe te en) wt wit 90?) Ceti one ine. (The places | Gidertim yer ze. The paces Inwenttoronice) goto ae nice) 5 -ip In English, instad of saying Tonight Fm going to hove « bath avd Pm going to awash ray hair, you ean Say Tonight Tm going to have ¢ bath fand wah my har. Tae Seed Fam going isnot. necessary 5 we miss it oat without Ising the menning — 186 — In Turkish you ean do something similar, but where you miss abit fut you insert a signal to let people know you're skipping samething. Mh signal the euing 4p. Look ate Pllowing sentences ‘Buakgam banyo yapacagim ve suglarims yikayneaiim, Buakgam banyo yapip siglarim: yikayacaizun. Inthe second sentence, tho frst -neagm has gone, end ip is in its places The ve fl min Here are some more examples of sp sentenoos Full sentence Shortened version Balla git vo bir sata | Bakialn itp ir io it Annesine kogtu ve onu apt. | Amnesia kogup anu Et Djurworar vo dos calgyerta. | Otuup dors galgyorar. “Bulag ykaraiiym ve annare | Bulag yikayp annem telefon ‘olf etmetyin, ‘malin, || sinomsya get ve im ‘Sinemaya gai fim syredatim, soyedetim. || Poncsey!kapanemsin vo Pencoroy kapatp bara esr buaya galemisinz? rin? ‘You stould note that you cannot use the -p verb for to shorten the folowing sentences ive dinecegiz ve gahgacaiam. We'tgo home and I work Alioyun oymuyor ve Tlakun AI playing game ond Hakan televizyon seyrediyor. is wating television Question: Why cart you? “Answer: In the fint Sentence, the ver forms are not the same, In the “second sentone, itis no the same sujet performing Use two etons 6 Kipkirmizi etc. “Turkish usually works by adding suises (endings) to words. Ther is tne cave where it works by adding prefies (additions to the frat) Instead. This is when you want to make the meaning of adjectives nore intense. 107 Here are some examples with approximate English translation nestled for epi bomboyaz sapsan yemyest simaiyan sphere tortemiz bombos timate