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PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR

SUBSTATION

Presented By:
Pallavi Agarwal
Trainee
THE NEED FOR PROTECTION

 All electrical equipments undergo abnormalities in their life time due to


various reasons.
For example: A tree falling or touching an overhead line may cause a fault.
A lightning strike can cause insulation failure.

 It is necessary to avoid these abnormal operating regions for safety of the


equipment.

 Even more important is safety of the human personnel which may be


endangered due to exposure to live parts under fault or abnormal operating
conditions.

 A small current of the order of 50 mA is sufficient to be fatal!


FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING

 The IEEE defines protective relays as: “relays whose function is to detect
defective lines or apparatus or other conditions of an abnormal or dangerous
nature and to initiate appropriate control circuit action ”.

 The most important role of protective relays is to first protect individuals,


and second to protect equipment.

 Theoretically speaking, a relay system should be capable of responding to


an infinite number of abnormalities that may happen within the network.

 However, in practice, some compromises must be made by comparing risks.


To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault
occurs, protection is arranged in zones.

 The zones of protection should overlap, so that no part of the power system
is left unprotected.
FAULTS IN A POWER SYSTEM

 A fault in an electrical system is defined as a defect in the electrical circuit


due to which current is diverted from the intended path. The most common
and dangerous type of fault that occurs in a power system is the Short-
Circuit or Shunt fault.

 Fortunately, most of the faults are transitory in nature and may vanish
within a few cycles – as would be the case when a twig falls across a line
and burns out itself.

 The balanced three-phase fault occurs very rarely, accounting for about 5%
in total, but is the severest of all types of faults, and is used in the
determination of circuit breaker rating.
RELATIVE PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE OF
MOST FREQUENT SHORT-CIRCUIT FAULTS

Percentage
S.No. Type of S-C fault Occurrence

1. Single phase to Ground (L-G) 70

2. Two Phases to Ground (L-L-G) 15

3. Three phases to Ground (L-L-L- 10


G)

4. Phase to Phase (L-L) 2 or 3

5. Phase to Phase and 3rd Phase 2 or 3


to Ground

6. All three phases short-circuited 2 or 3


(L-L-L)
FAULT ANALYSIS & EQUATIONS

 At the time of a fault, such as an open-phase, system will be unbalanced.


Hence positive, negative and possibly zero sequence currents and voltages
exist. Using phase voltages and currents along with Fortescue‟s formulas,
all positive, negative and zero sequence currents can be calculated.
a) Sequence CURRENTS for different types of faults
b) Sequence VOLTAGES for different types of faults
MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS
The main components of protection systems are discussed briefly below:

 Instrument Transformer: The CTs and VTs. Their purpose is to step down the
current or voltage of a device to measurable values, within the instrumentation
measurement range 5A or 1A in the case of a current transformers (CTs), and
110V in the case of a voltage (or potential) transformers (VTs/ PTs). Hence,
protective equipment inputs are standardized within the ranges above.
 Protective Equipment: a collection of protection devices (relays, fuses, etc.)
Relays include intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) which receive measured
signals from the secondary side of CTs and VTs and detect whether the
protected unit is in a stressed condition (based on their type and configuration)
or not. Fuses limit the amount of energy which flows to a fault, and form a
major backup protection in medium-voltage and high-voltage distribution to
11 kV.
 Circuit Breakers: Circuit Breakers act upon open commands sent by protective
relays when faults are detected and close commands when faults are cleared.
They can also be manually opened, for example, to isolate a component for
maintenance.
RELAY
 A relay is a logical element which processes the inputs (i.e. voltages and
currents) from the system/apparatus and issues a trip decision if a fault
within the relay's jurisdiction is detected.
EVOLUTION OF RELAYS
If we zoom into a relay, we see three different types of realizations:

 Electromechanical Relays
 Solid State Relays
 Numerical Relays
RELAY FEATURE

Electromechanical •Principle of electromechanical energy conversion is used for


Relays decision making
•Known for their ruggedness and immunity to Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI).

Solid State Relays •Design is based on the use of electronic devices instead of coils
and magnets to create the relay characteristic
•Advances in electronics enabled the use of linear and digital
integrated circuits.
•Provide more flexibility and have less power consumption than their
electromechanical counterpart
•Also have self checking facility i.e. the relays can monitor their own
health and raise an alarm if their own component fails

Numerical Relays •Involves analog to digital (A/D) conversion of analog voltage and
currents obtained from CTs and VTs.
•Provide maximum flexibility in defining relaying logic.
•various relay functions can be multiplexed in a single relay.
•When enabled with communication facility, acts as an Intelligent
Electronic Device (IED), performs both control and protection
functionality
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

 Faults, typically short circuits, lead to currents much above the load current, also
known as inrush or overcurrent. From this, the graded overcurrent system, a
discriminative fault protection, has been developed.

 This should not be confused with „Overload‟ protection, which normally makes
use of relays that operate in some degree to the thermal capability of the plant to
be protected.

 Overcurrent protection, on the other hand, is directed entirely to the clearance of


faults, since overcurrent protection is primarily intended to operate only under
fault conditions. Although with the settings usually adopted some measure of
overload protection may be obtained.
 The relay settings are first determined to give the shortest operating times at
maximum fault levels and then checked to see if operation will also be
satisfactory at the minimum fault current expected.

Overcurrent Protection characteristic


DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT
PROTECTION
 There can be situations where for the purpose of selectivity; phase angle information
(always relative to a reference phasor) may be required – as in case of a radial
system with source at both ends.

 Consequently, fault is fed from both the ends of the feeder. To interrupt the fault
current, systems which have multiple paths to source require relays at both ends.
However, installing relays at both ends does not provide a complete relaying
solution.

 From the magnitude of the current seen by the relay R2, it is not possible to
distinguish whether the fault is in the section AB or BC.
Since faults in section AB are not in its jurisdiction, it should not trip. To obtain
selectivity, a directional overcurrent relay is required.
DISCRIMINATION PRINCIPLE
 The 'discrimination principle' based on phase angle comparison between a set of
phasors, one of which is used as reference is called 'directional discrimination
principle'.

 The relay R2 should operate if fault is at F1 because it is on primary feeder but not
behind i.e. at F2. It is apparent that for fault F1 current I1 seen by the relay lags Vp
by 90 degrees. This is under the assumption of bolted fault and reactive nature of
circuit impedance. However, when the fault is in the position F2, then relay current
leads the voltage Vp '.

 If the relay 'detects fault' and current lags Vp ,


then permit relay tripping.
 If the relay 'detects fault„ and current leads Vp ,
then inhibit the relay tripping.
DISTANCE PROTECTION
 Distance Protection relay is designed to operate only for faults occurring between
the relay location and the selected reach point.

 Principle involves the division of the voltage at the relaying point by the measured
current. The apparent impedance so calculated is compared with the reach point
impedance.

 The underlying factor in distance relay is that the apparent impedance between the
relay and the reach point, seen by the relay, which is defined as the ratio of phase
voltage to line current of a transmission line (Zapp ), reduces drastically in the
presence of a line fault.

 The ratio of Zapp / Zactual also indicates the distance of the fault from the relay.
CHOICE BETWEEN IMPEDANCE, REACTANCE, OR MHO

 For very short lines, the Reactance type is preferred for the reason that more of
the line can be protected at high speed. This is because the reactance relay is
practically unaffected by resistance which may be large compared with the line
impedance.

 The Mho type is best suited for phase-fault relaying for longer lines, and
particularly where severe synchronizing-power surges may occur. It combines
both the directional and the distance measuring functions in one unit, making it
more reliable.

 The Impedance Relay is better suited for phase-fault relaying for lines of
moderate length. Arcs affect an impedance relay more than a reactance relay but
less than a mho relay. Synchronizing-power surges affect an impedance relay less
than a reactance relay but more than a mho relay.

 Actually, there is an overlapping between areas of application of one or another


type of distance relays. Also, changes in systems, such as the addition of terminals
to a line, can change the type of relay best suited to a particular location.

 Hence, to realize the fullest capabilities of distance relaying, one should use the
type best suited for each application.
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
 Principle: Differential protection is based on the fact that any fault within an
electrical equipment would cause the current entering it, to be different, from the
current leaving it. Thus by comparing the two currents either in magnitude or in
phase or both we can determine a fault and issue a trip decision if the difference
exceeds a predetermined set value.

 Although the currents I1 and I2 maybe different, both sets of CTs have appropriate
ratios and connections. Under normal load conditions or when there is a fault
outside the protection zone of the element, the secondary currents will circulate
between the two CTs and will not flow through the overcurrent relay.

 But if a fault occurs in the section between the two CTs the fault current would
flow towards the short-circuit from both sides and the sum of the secondary
currents would flow through the differential relay.
REVERSE POWER RELAY
 Distribution systems are usually radial in nature. If there is a fault on the utility's
distribution system, it may trip a breaker thereby isolating plant from the grid.
This plant may still remain connected with downstream loads. Consequently,
power will flow from the plant generator to these loads.

 If in the pre-fault state, power was being fed to the plant, then this reversal of
power flow can be used to island the plant generation and load from the
remaining system. This approach is useful to detect loss of grid supply whenever
the difference between load and available generation is not sufficient to obtain an
appreciable rate of change of frequency but the active power continues to flow
into the grid to feed the external loads.
RELAY COORDINATION TIME GRADING
 Protection systems in successive zones operate in times that are graded through
the sequence of equipments, so that upon the occurrence of a fault, although a
number of protection equipments can respond, only those relevant to the faulty
zone complete the tripping function. The others make incomplete operations and
then reset.

 Among the various possible methods used to achieve correct relay co-ordination
are those using either time or overcurrent, or a combination of both. The
common aim of all three methods is to give correct discrimination.
1. DISCRIMINATION BY TIME
 In this method, an appropriate time setting is given to each of the relays
controlling the circuit breakers in a power system to ensure that the breaker
nearest to the fault opens first.

 The time delay element provides the means of discrimination.

 Each protection unit comprises a definite-time delay overcurrent relay in which


the operation of the current sensitive element simply initiates the time delay
element. Provided the setting of this element is below the fault current value,
this element plays no part in the achievement of discrimination.

 For this reason, the relay is sometimes described as an „independent definite-


time delay relay‟, since its operating time is for practical purposes independent
of the level of overcurrent.

 The main disadvantage of this method of discrimination is that the longest fault
clearance time occurs for faults in the section closest to the power source, where
the fault level (MVA) is highest.

 These schemes are applied to low voltage systems as an integral part of


the circuit-breaker where it would be uneconomical to provide protection
relays.
2. DISCRIMINATION BY CURRENT
 Discrimination by current relies on the fact that the fault current varies with the
Position of the Fault because of the difference in impedance values between the
source and the fault. Hence, typically, the relays controlling the various circuit
breakers are set to operate at suitably tapered values of current such that only
the relay nearest to the fault trips its breaker.

 It is not practical to distinguish between a fault between two fault points


placed at almost equidistance from the breaker, since their impedance
would be nearly equal.

 Also, for fault points only a few meters apart compared to their actual
distance from the breaker, discrimination by current is not a suitable
proposition.
3. DISCRIMINATION BY BOTH TIME AND
CURRENT
 It is because of the limitations imposed by the independent use of either time or
current co-ordination that the inverse time overcurrent relay characteristic has
evolved.

 With this characteristic, the time of operation is inversely proportional to the


fault current level and the actual characteristic is a function of both „time‟ and
'current' settings.

 For a large variation in fault current between the two ends of the feeder, faster
operating times can be achieved by the relays nearest to the source, where the
fault level is the highest.
IMPLEMENTATION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS IN
POWER SYSTEMS
Protective relays are categorized depending on the component which they
protect: Generators, Transformers, Transmission Lines, and Motors
ZONES OF PROTECTION
TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER POWER TRANSFORMER:
(Up to 500kVA) :
 Overcurrent Relay  Overcurrent Relay
 Earth-fault Relay  Overvoltage Relay
 Fuse Protection Relay  Differential Relay
 More than 1000kVA:  Restricted Earth Fault Relay
 Overcurrent Relay  Buchholz Relay (Alarm & Trip)
 Earth-fault Relay  Min. Oil Gauge Relay
 Buchholz Relay  Pressure Relay Value (Trip)
 OTI, WTI (Alarm & Trip)  OTI & WTI (Alarm & Trip)
 Fuse Protection Relay
LINE PROTECTION
LT (UP TO 11 kV) & HV LINES EHV LINES (220 kV AND ABOVE)
(33 kV TO 132 kV)
 Overcurrent Relay  Overcurrent Relay
 Earth-fault Relay  Earth-fault Relay
 DPR (Distance Protection Relay)  DPR : O/C, E/F
 Main Bus-1
 Main Bus-2 (backup)
 Directional O/C, E/F
 VT Fuse failure
 Under-voltage/ Over voltage (UV/ OV)
 Under-frequency/ Over frequency
(UF/OF)
 Frequency change Relay (df/dt)
AC MOTOR AND GENERATOR
PROTECTION
 Overcurrent Relay
 Earth-fault Relay
 Motor Protection
 Phase Sequence
 Over Speed Protection
 Under-voltage/ Over voltage (UV/ OV)
 Under-frequency/ Over frequency (UF/OF)
 DPR (Distance Protection): O/C, E/F, Power Swing
PROTECTION SCHEMES FOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS
COMPONEN
T RELAY ANSI OPERATING PRINCIPLE INPUT OUTPUT
TYPE CODE PARAMETERS PARAMETERS
Relay tracks the impedance by detecting the
variations of the voltage/current. The variation is
GENERATOR Out-of-Step small during normal conditions however it Current and Impedance (Z =
78
Relay changes nearly stepwise in the case of fault Voltage (V, I) VI)
conditions. This means that the impedance is
changed abruptly.
Protects the transformer from internal faults by
taking the current inputs from both primary and Currents from
secondary side of the transformer. The sum of primary and
TRANSFORMER Differential
87 these currents (taking into consideration secondary side Current (I)
Relay
transformer turns ratio) is zero under normal (Iprimary ,
conditions or external faults but not equal to Isecondary)
zero in case of fault conditions.
A fault in a transmission line will result in the
decrease of line impedance which is compared
Distance with a pre-defined threshold value. The trip Current and Impedance (Z =
21
Protection signal will be sent to the breaker if the Voltage (V, I) VI)
measured impedance is smaller than the
TRANSMISSION threshold.
LINE
A fault in a transmission line will result in the
Over- increase of current passing through the line
current 50/51 which is compared with a pre-defined threshold Current (I) Current (I)
Protection value. The trip signal will be sent to the breaker
if the measured current exceeds the threshold.
A fault at the load bus will vary the terminal
Under/Over voltage. The measured voltage is compared
LOAD Voltage 27/59 with pre-defined threshold value. The trip signal Voltage (V ) Voltage (V )
Protection will be sent to the breaker if it is lower/greater
compare to the threshold.
CONCLUSION
 A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity
distribution network can operate safely for individual items of equipment, staff and
public, and the network overall.

 In order to avoid damage, suitable and reliable protection should be installed on all
circuits and electrical equipment. Protective relays initiate the isolation of faulted
sections of the network in order to maintain supplies elsewhere on the system. This
then leads to an improved electricity service with better continuity and quality of
supply.

 Automatic operation is necessary to isolate faults on the networks as quickly as


possible in order to minimize damage. The development of powerful numerical
algorithms and improvement in digital technology has greatly extended the scope of
protection systems. Most of the latest types of relays are now multifunctional devices
with control, metering, reporting and alarm functions and added capabilities that
included within the same device.

 The economic costs and the benefits of a protection system must be considered in
order to arrive at a suitable balance between the requirements of the scheme and the
available financial resources.