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Teaching the know-alls
What do advanced students really need?
How books are organised:
Grammar
Words (in Lexical Sets)

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How Advanced books are organised:
Difficult / Infrequent Grammar
Difficult / Infrequent Words (in Lexical Sets)

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Difficult tasks

just
after thirty years of living there
really
sometimes
when I’m abroad
totally
in Wales
all my life
actually
for seven generations
basically
until very recently
Which adverb:
1. describes how often something happens
2. intensifies an adjective
3. emphasises the verb
4. describes where the action happens
5. describes when the action happens
6. indicates how long an action continued for
7. commenting on the noun phrase

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Accuracy

• B2s can correct most of their mistakes.


• C1s errors are rare and corrected.
Do we need any grammar?!

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One column out of 13 per unit
Perfect forms
Would
Cleft sentences
Conditionals
Noun phrases
Wish and if only
Passives
Auxiliaries
Continuous forms
Modal auxiliaries
Linking words
Dramatic inversion
Patterns after reporting verbs
Relative clauses
Prepositions
Talking about the future (phrases)
Better might just to deal with grammar
- through conversation
- as it comes up / ‘correction’
- through vocabulary

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The real issue for advanced learners is NOT grammar!

Text Vocabulary
coverage size
50% 100
72% 1000
80% 2000
90% 6000
97% 15000 (academic texts)
See work by Paul Nation
• Difference between intermediate and proficiency is about 12,000
word families.
• Though speaking may be much less.
• We may need anywhere up to 30 encounters for a word to
become productive (6-10 average).
• Words are equally infrequent: a one-star word may occur 4 or 5
times per million words.
• Many infrequent words may be easily avoided (partial synonyms).

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B2 Lexical accuracy is generally high, though some
confusion and incorrect word choice does occur
without hindering communication.
C1 Occasional minor slips, but no significant
vocabulary errors.

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B2 Has a good range of vocabulary for matters
connected to his/her field and most general topics.
Can vary formulation to avoid frequent repetition, but
lexical gaps can still cause hesitation and
circumlocution.
C1 Has a good command of a broad lexical
repertoire allowing gaps to be readily overcome with
circumlocutions; little obvious searching for expressions
or avoidance strategies. Good command of idiomatic
expressions and colloquialisms.

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Dealing with vocabulary
1 We can make some choices
– two-star (2500-5000 most frequent) and one-star (5000-7500 words)
2 Develop vocabulary
- through exploring usage (networks not just sets)
- as it comes up and in response to conversation
- through texts
3 Any advanced / Proficiency will be a snapshot of what students could
learn!
4 Learning, teaching and recycling may have to be more active.
5 Playfulness.

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The problem of lexical sets and a sole focus on meaning

Explain the difference between these words.


a. shack / hut / hovel / shed
b. houseboat / boathouse / narrowboat / cabin
cruiser
c. cabin / cottage / bungalow / villa
d. surroundings / environment / atmosphere
But the answer is not exactly ‘difficult’ vocabulary and tasks

Explain the difference between these words.


a. shack / hut / hovel / shed
b. houseboat / boathouse / narrowboat / cabin
cruiser
c. cabin / cottage / bungalow / villa
d. surroundings / environment / atmosphere

three stars, two stars, one star and no stars?


Questions exploring words
What can create a bad atmosphere at work?
How else might you describe an atmosphere
– at work? at home? at a concert? at a demonstration?
What might be bad surroundings for a restaurant / picnic?
How else might you describe the surroundings of a hotel?
Why might it not match the surroundings or be in keeping with
the surroundings?
Where might a shed be usually? What might you keep in a shed?
What might you do in it?
Beyond lexical sets: words to networks

http://www.lexicallab.com/2017/04/phrase-of-the-
day-allotment/

http://www.lexicallab.com/2018/03/chunk-of-the-
day-adverse-weather-conditions/

http://www.lexicallab.com/2017/11/intermediate-
word-of-the-day-restore/

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A PART OF CENGAGE
Lexical Sets:
going beyond
the words
Lexical sets:
Exploring
collocation
Beyond lexical sets:
outcomes to words
Another example
of vocabulary
with grammar
Fluency, interaction, coherence
• B2s hampered by searching for patterns and
expressions.
• C1s can select a phrase from a range.
• C1s controlled used of organizational patterns
Phrases to
Conversation
Conversation
to vocabulary
Conversation
to vocabulary
It’s in the middle of nowhere. It’s a pain to get anywhere
You’d be lost without a car.
You’d be very dependent on your car.
I’d imagine there’s a strong sense of community.
I doubt it’s very multicultural. It’s probably very white and middle-class.
I can imagine It’s one of those places where people are always sticking their
noses into your business. They probably have a neighbourhood watch.
I’m sure it’s very safe and secure. The crime rate won’t be very high.
It’s not the kind of place where they’d have shootings or problems with drug
dealers
You’ve got very little chance of having any privacy.
It’s my idea of hell!
It’s very clean – I bet the pavements are spotless, and the gardens are
immaculate.
You’d get plenty of peace and quiet and it’s away from all the smog and
congestion.
© Robert Utrecht / Stringer / Getty images in Outcomes Upper-Intermediate
Using texts to focus on
and practise language
On the 15th of June 1996, a huge bomb in Manchester, in the north-west of England, devastated the
city centre, causing nearly a billion pounds worth of damage. The bomb, which had been planted by a
terrorist group called the IRA, injured over 200 people, but remarkably killed no-one as police had
evacuated the area following a warning from the IRA.
Manchester had already undergone some changes as it recovered from the recession that had
destroyed much of its industry and created large-scale unemployment. It had won the right to host the
Commonwealth games (a large sporting event) and redeveloped some deprived areas through the
building of the National Velodrome, an exhibition centre and an award-winning concert hall. However,
at the time of the bombing, the city centre was still badly neglected - dominated by the hideous
Arndale Shopping centre (once described as looking like an enormous public toilet), and squares that
were run-down and affected by drug addiction. So, dreadful though the bombing was, it actually
provided an opportunity to start again that might not have happened otherwise.
Within weeks of the explosion, the government had set up a public-private company to manage the
recovery and launched an international competition to design the redevelopment. The winning plan
involved restoring the historic buildings that had been damaged; demolishing and rebuilding some of
the ugly buildings; creating new public spaces and improving life for pedestrians. Alongside this, the
council reduced traffic in the centre by diverting main roads and developed an integrated public
transport system making access to centre easier. They have also used public spaces for events and
attempted to boost tourism by making more of the city’s historical sites and by creating the new Urbis
museum that celebrates city life. In turn, these changes have been key in attracting new investors such
as banks and the Qatari royal family, who own Manchester City Football club.
Since 1996, the Manchester economy has grown in all areas. However, there are some concerns that
inequality has also increased. Nor are all the new spaces are appreciated. One new garden square
designed by an international architect was rated as the worst attraction in the city. Others argue that
in swapping market stalls and industry for luxury consumption and sparkling glass buildings, the city
has lost some of its soul.
On the 15th of June 1996, a huge bomb in Manchester, in the north-west of England, devastated the
city centre, causing nearly a billion pounds worth of damage. The bomb, which had been planted by a
terrorist group called the IRA, injured over 200 people, but remarkably killed no-one as police had
evacuated the area following a warning from the IRA.
Manchester had already undergone some changes as it recovered from the recession that had
destroyed much of its industry and created large-scale unemployment. It had won the right to host the
Commonwealth games (a large sporting event) and redeveloped some deprived areas through the
building of the National Velodrome, an exhibition centre and an award-winning concert hall. However,
at the time of the bombing, the city centre was still badly neglected - dominated by the hideous
Arndale Shopping centre (once described as looking like an enormous public toilet), and squares that
were run-down and affected by drug addiction. So, dreadful though the bombing was, it actually
provided an opportunity to start again that might not have happened otherwise.
Within weeks of the explosion, the government had set up a public-private company to manage the
recovery and launched an international competition to design the redevelopment. The winning plan
involved restoring the historic buildings that had been damaged; demolishing and rebuilding some of
the ugly buildings; creating new public spaces and improving life for pedestrians. Alongside this, the
council reduced traffic in the centre by diverting main roads and developed an integrated public
transport system making access to centre easier. They have also used public spaces for events and
attempted to boost tourism by making more of the city’s historical sites and by creating the new Urbis
museum that celebrates city life. In turn, these changes have been key in attracting new investors such
as banks and the Qatari royal family, who own Manchester City Football club.
Since 1996, the Manchester economy has grown in all areas. However, there are some concerns that
inequality has also increased. Nor are all the new spaces are appreciated. One new garden square
designed by an international architect was rated as the worst attraction in the city. Others argue that
in swapping market stalls and industry for luxury consumption and sparkling glass buildings, the city
has lost some of its soul.
Choose ten words to re-tell the story.
Write them on a piece of paper
Choose ten collocations or phrases to re-tell
the story. Write them on a piece of paper
On the 15th of June 1996, a huge bomb in Manchester, in the north-west of England, devastated the
city centre, causing nearly a billion pounds worth of damage. The bomb, which had been planted by a
terrorist group called the IRA, injured over 200 people, but remarkably killed no-one as police had
evacuated the area following a warning from the IRA.
Manchester had already undergone some changes as it recovered from the recession that had
destroyed much of its industry and created large-scale unemployment. It had won the right to host the
Commonwealth games (a large sporting event) and redeveloped some deprived areas through the
building of the National Velodrome, an exhibition centre and an award-winning concert hall. However,
at the time of the bombing, the city centre was still badly neglected - dominated by the hideous
Arndale Shopping centre (once described as looking like an enormous public toilet), and squares that
were run-down and affected by drug addiction. So, dreadful though the bombing was, it actually
provided an opportunity to start again that might not have happened otherwise.
Within weeks of the explosion, the government had set up a public-private company to manage the
recovery and launched an international competition to design the redevelopment. The winning plan
involved restoring the historic buildings that had been damaged; demolishing and rebuilding some of
the ugly buildings; creating new public spaces and improving life for pedestrians. Alongside this, the
council reduced traffic in the centre by diverting main roads and developed an integrated public
transport system making access to centre easier. They have also used public spaces for events and
attempted to boost tourism by making more of the city’s historical sites and by creating the new Urbis
museum that celebrates city life. In turn, these changes have been key in attracting new investors such
as banks and the Qatari royal family, who own Manchester City Football club.
Since 1996, the Manchester economy has grown in all areas. However, there are some concerns that
inequality has also increased. Nor are all the new spaces are appreciated. One new garden square
designed by an international architect was rated as the worst attraction in the city. Others argue that
in swapping market stalls and industry for luxury consumption and sparkling glass buildings, the city
has lost some of its soul.
On the 15th of June 1996, a huge bomb in Manchester, in the north-west of England, devastated the
city centre, causing nearly a billion pounds worth of damage. The bomb, which had been planted by a
terrorist group called the IRA, injured over 200 people, but remarkably killed no-one as police had
evacuated the area following a warning from the IRA.
Manchester had already undergone some changes as it recovered from the recession that had
destroyed much of its industry and created large-scale unemployment. It had won the right to host
the Commonwealth games (a large sporting event) and redeveloped some deprived areas through the
building of the National Velodrome, an exhibition centre and an award-winning concert hall. However,
at the time of the bombing, the city centre was still badly neglected - dominated by the hideous
Arndale Shopping centre (once described as looking like an enormous public toilet), and squares that
were run-down and affected by drug addiction. So, dreadful though the bombing was, it actually
provided an opportunity to start again that might not have happened otherwise.
Within weeks of the explosion, the government had set up a public-private company to manage the
recovery and launched an international competition to design the redevelopment. The winning plan
involved restoring the historic buildings that had been damaged; demolishing and rebuilding some of
the ugly buildings; creating new public spaces and improving life for pedestrians. Alongside this, the
council reduced traffic in the centre by diverting main roads and developed an integrated public
transport system making access to centre easier. They have also used public spaces for events and
attempted to boost tourism by making more of the city’s historical sites and by creating the new Urbis
museum that celebrates city life. In turn, these changes have been key in attracting new investors
such as banks and the Qatari royal family, who own Manchester City Football club.
Since 1996, the Manchester economy has grown in all areas. However, there are some concerns that
inequality has also increased. Nor are all the new spaces are appreciated. One new garden square
designed by an international architect was rated as the worst attraction in the city. Others argue that
in swapping market stalls and industry for luxury consumption and sparkling glass buildings, the city
has lost some of its soul.
Eliciting collocations and re-telling.

bomb
changes
recession
the commonwealth games
deprived areas
the city centre
recovery
historic buildings
ugly buildings
pedestrians
tourism
investors
inequality
soul
What other questions to exploit the text /
language and generate conversation?
Understanding Vocabulary

Binomials
Phrasal verbs
Words and phrases (thing, die, laugh)
Ways of
Noun of
Extended metaphors
Noun and adjective formation
Compound adjectives
Adverb-adjective collocation
Nouns based on phrasal verbs
Alliteration
Similes
Common sayings
Loanwords
Snowclones
Synonyms
Being
playful and
realistic:
half-Idioms
Being playful –
Idioms, but not
as we know it!
Remembering new language
– sorry but there’s no miracle!

• Some will be forgotten! That’s life.


• Focus on frequency will mean more likely to re-encounter
• Repeat tasks (with prep over time and with new partner)
• Opportunities for repeated encounters – speaking tasks /
reading / writing
• Memorize in collocations and phrases – VB (not just meaning)
• Memorize text (speeches / drama + Nick Bilborough)
• Revise through deepening knowledge (collocation /
opposites / co-text etc.)
• Not just synonyms but co-text – tends to recycle too
Think of eight words or phrases you
remember from the session

Look back at your notes and find 8 words or phrases you had
already forgotten!
Think of eight words or phrases you could use at work /
everyday / in your next essay.
Think of eight words and phrases you could connect to
members of your family.
Think of eight words and phrases you liked most.
Choose two things that you might apply in your class.
Lexical Lab Summer School
2nd July to 10th August 2018
www.lexicallab.com andrew@lexicallab.com