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Basic KCL and KVL network theory

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Recap…charge/current

Charge and Current- Most basic quantity is electric charge. “Charge is an electrical

property of the atomic particles of which matter consists, measured in coulombs {C}”.

Important characteristics of electric charge:

•bipolar +ve, -ve charge

•charge is conserved: it is neither created nor destroyed

•the smallest charge, the electronic charge, is carried by an electron (−1.602×10-19 C)

•in most circuits, the charges in motion are electrons

•mobile: can be transferred from one place to another

motion of charge creates a electric field (current)

1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second (or 1 A = 1 C/s)

DC vs AC current

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 22

Current

Example:

A conductor has a constant current of 5 A.

How many electrons pass a fixed point on the conductor in one

minute?

Solution

Total no. of charges pass in 1 min is given by 5 A = (5 C/s)(60 s/min) = 300 C/min

300 C/min

19

1 . 87 x10 21

electrons/min

1.602 x10 C/electron

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 23

Voltage/Potential

Voltage- is the energy required to move a unit charge

through an element

When 1 J of work is required to move 1 C of charge,

there is a voltage of 1 volt between the terminal.

• Electric voltage, vab, is always across the circuit element or between two

points in a circuit.

– vab > 0 means the potential of a is higher than potential of b.

– vab < 0 means the potential of a is lower than potential of b.

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 24

Voltage

Example:

Electrical energy is converted to heat at a rate of 8 kJ/min in a

resistor and charge flowing through it at the rate of 300 C/min.

What is the voltage difference across the resistor terminals?

Solution

p 8 103 J / min

v 26.67V

i 300 C/min

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 25

Power & Energy

Real-life examples

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 26

Power

• Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy,

measured in watts (W).

dw dw dq

• Mathematical expression: p vi

dt dq dt

When power is +ve the element is absorbing energy.

--check polarity of voltage and direction of current

absorbing supplying

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 27

Energy

p0

• Energy is the capacity to do work, measured in joules (J).

t t

• Mathematical expression w pdt vidt

t0 t0

28

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR

Energy

Example:

How much energy does a 200 W electric lamp consume in 2 hr.

Solution

400 60 60 J

1440 kJ

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 29

Circuit Elements

Active Elements Passive Elements

energy (or absorbs energy) and then either

converts it into heat (R) or stored it in an

electric (C) or magnetic (L)

Independent Dependant

sources sources Active Element: The elements that supply

energy to the circuit

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 30

Independent/Dependent Source

Independent: two terminal element that maintains a specified voltage/ current independently.

determined by determined by

other circuit other circuit

elements elements

Dependent: Voltage across/ current flowing through is function of other voltages/ currents in

the circuit.

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 31

Independent/Dependent Source

Example

i2 = 1A.

Solution

Voltage v is the sum of the current-independent 10-V source and the current-

dependent voltage source vx.

Note that the factor 15 multiplying the control current carries the units Ω.

Therefore, v = 10 + vx = 10 + 15(1) = 25 V

32

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR

Ideal and Practical Voltage Sources

“Regulation

curve” or “load

line”

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Basic Concept DSPM IIIT-NR 33

Ideal and Practical Current Sources

and short-circuit

current

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Current Sources DSPM IIIT-NR 34

Construct a Circuit Model of a Flashlight

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Current Sources DSPM IIIT-NR 35

Passive Elements: 1. Resistance

Resistance of a wire is determined by the resistivity of the conductor as well as the geometry:

R=ρl/A

Conductance: G=1/R

Series & Parallel Resistances

Series Resistors & Voltage Divider Parallel Resistors & Current divider

2. Capacitance

• An ideal capacitor is an energy-storage circuit element (with no loss associated

with it) representing the electric-field effect.

q

• The capacitance in farads (F) is defined by C

v

With v being proportional to q, C is a constant determined by the geometric configuration of

the two conductors

Circuit symbol

and −q charges i C

dt dt

3. Inductance

• An ideal inductor is also an energy-storage circuit element (with no loss associated

with it), representing the magnetic-field effect

• The inductance in henrys (H) is defined by N

L

i i

where λ is the magnetic-flux linkage in weber-turns (Wb·t), N is the number of turns of the

coil, and Nψ is the magnetic flux in webers (Wb) produced by the current i in amperes (A)

Circuit symbol

di

A single inductive coil of N turns vL

dt

Nodes, Branches & Loops

Node: point of connection between two or more branches.

Loop: is a closed path

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Network Theorem DSPM IIIT-NR 40

Kirchhoff’s Law

KCL: The algebraic sum of the currents entering any node is zero. (conservation of charge)

iA + iB + (−iC) + (−iD) = 0

KVL: The algebraic sum of the voltages around any closed path is zero. (conservation of energy)

v1 + (-v2 )+ (−v3) = 0

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Network Theorem DSPM IIIT-NR 41

Series Resistors & Voltage Divider Parallel Resistors & Current divider

Dr. Debanjan Das, ECE Network Analysis: Network Theorem DSPM IIIT-NR 42

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