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GROUND POTENTIAL RISE INFLUENCE NEAR HV SUBSTATIONS IN URBAN AREAS

L Grcev, V Filiposki, V Arnautovski

St. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia

The ground potential rise (GPR) in high voltage 1250,1250 (m)


substations in case of ground faults may cause
dangerous voltages between telecommunication
installations and local ground. It is important to
note that not only installations serving substations,
but all other general use cables and telephone
subscriber installations in the zone of influence are
equally endangered and have to be protected. The
CCITT directives define 430 V (or 650 V) contour 0,0
as a border of the zone of GPR influence on the
telecommunication installation and all wire-line
telephone subscriber installations inside such zone -1500,-500 (m)
have to be protected.

If the high voltage substation is located out of ur- Fig. 1: Grounding system connected to cable network of
ban area, the equipotential contours usually follow existing 110/10 kV substation in urban area.
the form of the grounding system, tending to be-
60
Potenital (% of substation potential)

come circles at larger distances, with decaying Substation Underground cable


values in radial direction from the zone of the sub-
station, depending on the soil structure and resis- 50
tivity. Profile

However, if the high voltage substation is located 40


in the urban area, its grounding system may be
connected to a buried network of uncoated metallic
sheathed cables. Other buried metallic structures 30 Measurements
are also often located close to the substation Calculations
grounding system and are extended through out
20
the urban area, such as metal sheaths of tele-
communication and power cables, neutral wires of Distance from the origin of profile (m)
power distribution lines, water pipes, pipelines for
heating and gas, rails of traffic systems. If these Fig. 2: Normalized values of calculated and measured
buried metal structures are not taken into account values of the potential along a profile near
it may lead to underestimate of the zone of influ- 110/10 kV substation.
ence.

Although national and international regulations de- pabilities, network of 10 kV buried uncoated metal-
lic sheathed cables in a 2750 × 1750 m area, il-
2
fine the potential contour 430 V (650 V) as a bor-
der of the GPR zone of influence on telecommuni- lustrated in Fig. 1, is included in the model. The
cation installations in case of faults to ground in- computer model is validated by comparison with
side a high voltage substation or on a connected other author’s software and with direct comparison
power line, if the substation is in highly urbanized with field measurements, Fig. 2.
area, the potentials are equalized due to large and
complex underground metallic networks. In such This model is used to estimate the GPR zone of
cases, as more suitable to define the protection influence to the consumer installations in urban
measures are potential differences that may cause environment. The effect of the equalizing of poten-
overvoltages in the telecommunication lines. tials by other buried metallic networks that are
typical for urban environment and are usually un-
A computer model of the substation grounding known is included in the model as a correction
system that include connected and near metallic based on measured potentials in a small number
structures is developed. As an example of its ca- of specified points.
GROUND POTENTIAL RISE INFLUENCE NEAR HV SUBSTATIONS IN URBAN AREAS

L Grcev, V Filiposki, V Arnautovski

St. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia

The ground potential rise (GPR) in high voltage 1250,1250 (m)


substations in case of ground faults may cause
dangerous voltages between telecommunication
installations and local ground. It is important to
note that not only installations serving substations,
but all other general use cables and telephone
subscriber installations in the zone of influence are
equally endangered and have to be protected. The
CCITT directives define 430 V (or 650 V) contour 0,0
as a border of the zone of GPR influence on the
telecommunication installation and all wire-line
telephone subscriber installations inside such zone -1500,-500 (m)
have to be protected.

If the high voltage substation is located out of ur- Fig. 1: Grounding system connected to cable network of
ban area, the equipotential contours usually follow existing 110/10 kV substation in urban area.
the form of the grounding system, tending to be-
60
Potenital (% of substation potential)

come circles at larger distances, with decaying Substation Underground cable


values in radial direction from the zone of the sub-
station, depending on the soil structure and resis- 50
tivity. Profile

However, if the high voltage substation is located 40


in the urban area, its grounding system may be
connected to a buried network of uncoated metallic
sheathed cables. Other buried metallic structures 30 Measurements
are also often located close to the substation Calculations
grounding system and are extended through out
20
the urban area, such as metal sheaths of tele-
communication and power cables, neutral wires of Distance from the origin of profile (m)
power distribution lines, water pipes, pipelines for
heating and gas, rails of traffic systems. If these Fig. 2: Normalized values of calculated and measured
buried metal structures are not taken into account values of the potential along a profile near
it may lead to underestimate of the zone of influ- 110/10 kV substation.
ence.

Although national and international regulations de- pabilities, network of 10 kV buried uncoated metal-
lic sheathed cables in a 2750 × 1750 m area, il-
2
fine the potential contour 430 V (650 V) as a bor-
der of the GPR zone of influence on telecommuni- lustrated in Fig. 1, is included in the model. The
cation installations in case of faults to ground in- computer model is validated by comparison with
side a high voltage substation or on a connected other author’s software and with direct comparison
power line, if the substation is in highly urbanized with field measurements, Fig. 2.
area, the potentials are equalized due to large and
complex underground metallic networks. In such This model is used to estimate the GPR zone of
cases, as more suitable to define the protection influence to the consumer installations in urban
measures are potential differences that may cause environment. The effect of the equalizing of poten-
overvoltages in the telecommunication lines. tials by other buried metallic networks that are
typical for urban environment and are usually un-
A computer model of the substation grounding known is included in the model as a correction
system that include connected and near metallic based on measured potentials in a small number
structures is developed. As an example of its ca- of specified points.
GROUND POTENTIAL RISE INFLUENCE NEAR HV SUBSTATIONS IN URBAN AREAS

L Grcev, V Filiposki, V Arnautovski

St. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia

INTRODUCTION

The ground potential rise (GPR) in high voltage


substations in case of ground faults [1] may cause
dangerous voltages between telecommunication Fault to Ground
installations and local ground. It is important to
note that not only installations serving substations,
but all other general use cables and telephone
Underground Cable Network
subscriber installations in the zone of influence are
equally endangered and have to be protected
110/10 kV
[2,3,4]. The CCITT directives [5] define 430 V Substation 10/0.4 kV
contour as a border of the zone of GPR influence Substation
on the telecommunication installation and all wire-
line telephone subscriber installations inside such
zone have to be protected [6].
Figure 1: Grounding system of high voltage
If the high voltage substation is located out of ur- substation connected to underground
ban area, the equipotential contours usually follow cable network.
the form of the grounding system, tending to be-
come circles at larger distances. Typically the
ground potential value decays in radial direction This paper presents results of measurements that
from the zone of the substation, depending on the confirm this conclusion in a zone near the substa-
soil structure and resistivity [7]. tion, while at a distance, especially in the highly
urbanized zone, the additional buried networks of
However, if the high voltage substation is located conductors tend to equalize potentials. The level of
in the urban area, its grounding system is often such equalizing of the potentials has to be deter-
connected to a buried network of uncoated metallic mined experimentally [6,14]. This effect is included
sheathed cables [8]. Although such cables are no in the computer model by forcing the model to ac-
longer manufactured in many countries, many of cept equalizing of potentials in extent determined
them are still in operation. Other buried metallic by measurements in a small number of points.
structures are also often located close to the sub-
station grounding system and are extended
through out the urban area, such as metal sheaths MODEL OF THE GROUNDING SYSTEM
of telecommunication and power cables, neutral CONNECTED TO UNDERGROUND CABLE
wires of power distribution lines, water pipes, pipe- NETWORK
lines for heating and gas, rails of traffic systems. If
these buried metal structures are not taken into
account [9], this may lead to underestimation of the The model of a substation grounding system con-
zone of influence, as it is shown in [10]. Previous nected to underground cable network is illustrated
papers [11,12,13] have shown that metallic net- in Fig. 1. It is based on the following assumptions
works directly connected to the substation [8,11,17,]. The grounding electrodes are modeled
grounding system substantially affect the GPR as a set of connected conductors buried in homo-
zone of influence. However, all elements of the geneous or two-layer soil. The uncoated metallic
urban environment that affect potential distribution cable sheaths are directly connected to the
cannot be included in any model, firstly, because grounding conductors and are connected to 10/0.4
of the complexity of the problem, and, secondly, kV local substations or to other cables.
because there are numerous unknown elements of
the urban environment. The grounding electrodes are divided into ng
segments, and the cables are divided in nc
segments. Cables are considered to have
z1 I1 u1 z2 I2 u2 zk Ik uk
The previous equations imply that there is no mu-
ug tual magnetic coupling between cable segments.
Such an assumption holds practically for the un-
i1 i2 ik coated, steel armored lead sheathed three-phase
zkt cables that are commonly used in distribution sys-
tems. For unarmored cable constructions with un-
coated metal sheaths the expressions (6) are ap-
proximate.
Figure 2: Equivalent circuit of the uncoated
metallic sheathed cable. Voltages uc depend on the currents flowing from
cable sheath segments and from the source sub-
station ground electrode into the soil. This relation-
longitudinal impedance, with equivalent circuit ship can be expressed as
illustrated in Fig. 2 [8,17]. The parameters yk
denotes the longitudinal admittance of cable k uc = Rgc ×i g + Rcc ×ic (7)
sheat segment, ik denotes the current emanating to
the soil from sheat segment k, while Ik denotes The analogous equation for the source substation
current flowing through sheat segment k. The ground electrode will be
potential of the source substation is ug, while uk is
the potential of the sheat segment k. The t
1g ×ug = Rgg ×i g + Rgc ×ic (8)
consumer substation grounding system is denoted
by the admittance ykt. The parameters needed for
the circiut in Fig. 2 are obrained using measured From the current continuity law it follows
data for given types of cables [11].
1tg ×ug + 1ct ×ic = J (9)
For this model of a cable, the following relation can
be written If we substitute uc from (7) into (4), the following
relationship is obtained
- i k = Ygk ×ug + Yk ×uk , (1)
Yc ×Rgc ×i g + (Yc ×Rcc + E )×i c + Yg ×ug = 0 (10)
where
Relations (8)-(10) build a closed system of linear
t
Ygk º [- y k 0...0 ] , and (2) equations that can be solved for ig, ic and ug.

é2 y k - yk 0 ... 0 ù
ê ú VALIDATION OF THE COMPUTER MODEL
ê- y k 2y k - yk ... 0 úú
Yk º êê . (3)
ê ... ... ... ... ... úú
ê0 0 ... - y k y k + y kt úúû The validation of the results of computer analysis
ëê is based on the comparison with field measure-
ments performed by the Electricite de France,
Equation (1) is valid for all cables emanating from Paris, France, in the period 1976-85. An extensive
the source substation if the specific values for pa- set of experiments had been performed for differ-
rameter yk and ykt are used. Consequently, based ent grounding electrodes arrangements [15]. Some
upon (1), the following general equation, including comparisons for low and high frequencies are
all radial positioned cables, can be written documented in [16].
- i c = Yg ×ug + Yc ×uc (4) Figure 3 shows comparison with measurements in
case of irregular and complex arrangement of
where ground electrodes [18], and Fig. 4 direct compari-
t t
ic º éêëi1t ... i mt ùúû , uc º éêëu1t ... umt ùúû (5) son in urban area is presented for the practical
case given in in the next part.

t ùt The computer model was also compared for power


Yg º éêëYgt1 ... Ygm úû , Yc º diag {Yk } (6)
frequencies with other authors’ software [19], with
excellent agreement of the results, Fig. 5. Results
In case of complex cable configuration, the matrix in Fig. 5 are magnitudes of the electric field com-
Yc is not diagonal, and it takes the form, which cor- ponent along profile A-A at earth’s surface for the
responds to mutual cable connections. illustrated ground grid. Conductors are constructed
of copper with radius 0.5 cm, and grid is buried in POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION AROUND
soil with ρ = 100 Ω⋅m at 0.5 m depth. Current of 1 110/10 KV SUBSTATION IN URBAN AREAS
kA at power frequency is injected at the central
point.
The computer model is used for estimation of the
Earth potential GPR zone of influence around an existing 110/10
kV substation in case of a ground fault. The net-
100 Measurement work of 10 kV buried uncoated metallic sheathed
cables in a 2750 × 1750 m area, illustrated in Fig.
Simulation 2
%
6, is included in the model. The substation’s sur-
60 rounding is a highly urbanized area, on the right
side in Fig. 5, and partially urbanized area, on the
40 left side in Fig. 5. For the same case detailed
20 measurements were made. The measurements
were done using current injection method, follow-
0 ing procedures in [14].
0 50 100 m 200
Distance along profile

Figure 3: Comparison with field measurements. 1250,1250 (m)

60
Potenital (% of substation potential)

Substation Underground cable

50
Profile
0,0
40

-1500,-500 (m)
30 Measurements
Calculations
Figure 6: Grounding system connected to cable
20 network of existing 110/10 kV
substation in urban area.
Distance from the origin of profile (m)
0
Figure 4: Normalized values of calculated and Average value of the
Voltage between substation grounding

measured values of the potential along measured voltage


1
a profile near 110/10 kV substation.
system and local ground (V)

Electric field (kV/m)


1 3

0.8 4 Level of the potential equalising


A A
10 m
0.6 5 Substation zone
Partially urbanized Highly urbanized area
10 m area
0.4 6
-400 -200 0 200 400 600 800
Radial distance from the substation center (m)
0.2
Figure 7: Measured values of the voltage be-
0
0 5 10 15 20 tween grounding system and local
Distance along profile (m) ground using current of 100 A.

Figure 5: Comparison with other authors’ model.


Results of the measurements using simulated
ground fault current of 100 A are given in Fig. 7.
Two areas could be separated in radial distance
around the substation. On the right side in Fig. 7,
the highly urbanized area that include complex
underground network of water pipes, pipelines for Subscriber
heating, metallic sheathed cables for telecommu-
> 430 V Exchange
nication and power, local grounding and other
buried metallic structures, produces equalizing of
the potential at a distance of the substation. Such
effect is not visible on the left side in Fig. 7 for par-
tially urban area. This result is in accordance with
similar already reported in [6,14,20].

It may be concluded that the protection of the sub- Figure 8: Protection on the side of the subscriber
scriber telecommunication installation based on and the exchange by gas discharge
the concept of the GPR zone of influence is not tubes.
always applicable in the highly urbanized areas,
where potentials may be equalized due to large
underground networks of conductors. In such sumer installations in urban environment. The ef-
cases protection should be based on the potential fect of the equalizing of potentials by other buried
difference that may cause overvoltages in the tele- metallic networks, typical for urban environment, is
communication lines. included in the model based on measured poten-
tials in a small number of specified points.

PROTECTION OF SUBSCRIBERS’ AND


EXCHANGE INSTALLATIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENT

In case when there is a potential difference be-


tween the subscriber local ground near the substa- The work was partially supported by the Ministry of
tion and the exchange local ground larger than 430 Science of Republic of Macedonia.
V, gas discharge tubes (GDTs) were used for pro-
tection, Fig. 8. To protect subscribers’ terminal
equipment against overvoltages coming in by the REFERENCES
telecommunication lines caused by GPR at high
voltage substation, GDTs are connected between
the line conductors and local earth [5]. The same is
[1] K. H. Feist, 1978, “Zone of Influence of Earth
done on the side of the exchange.
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[2] IEEE Std. 487, 1980, "IEEE Guide for the Pro-
CONCLUSION tection of Wire-Line Communication Facilities
Serving Electric Power Stations".

When the grounding system of a high voltage sub- [3] G. Grand, A. J. Pesonen, 1976, “Protection of
station is connected to uncoated metallic shielded the Telecommunication Circuits Entering
cables, they act as a part of the grounding system, Power Stations and Substations”, Electra, 48,
and have large influence on the potential distribu- 51-72.
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V as a border of the GPR zone of influence on Potential Rise and Telecommunication Lines”,
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A computer model of the substation grounding tialising when High Voltage Energy Facilities
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