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In this experiment, it was conducted using air pressure process control training system
which is model AP922. There are several purpose of this experiment which are to identify the
important of the air pressure control system and mark them in the P&I Diagram. Besides, the
start-up procedures need to be carry out systematically to ensure the experiment run smoothly
and using the PID controller to control the pressure in single capacity and two capacity of the
process. The variable involves in this experiment are Proportional Band (PB), Time Integral (TI),
Time Derivative (TD) and Pressure.

The beginning of the experiment, the related valves were opened and closed beforehand
according to the lab manual. Then, it was started by switching on the main switch at the control
panel. After that, the identification of the major components in the air pressure process control
system model AP922 was made. One of the major components in the model AP922 is the control
valve which pneumatic control valve that was used. There are two types of actuators in
pneumatic which are air-to-close and air-to-open valve. Basically, the mechanical operational of
these type of control valve is the same. The important mechanism is the diaphragm which
contain upper and lower chamber, the spring to push and pull control valve (open or close), the
stem and control valve. Next, in the model AP922 on/off control also was identified as one of the
major components. This control basically assigns other control element and can be one or two
position control. They control final element which is either they will fully open or close (control
station). In addition, the PID control of pressure in both single and two capacity process were
conducted in a proceeding manner.

Based on the result obtained, it can be observed from the process response chart that the
fluctuation/oscillation for two capacity process moves further compared to the single capacity
process. It occurs due to the intricacy of two capacity process itself. By observing both process
which are single and two capacity process, the PID controller has the steepest tangents compared
to the one of PI controller. Thus, it shows that the response time of the variable improved to a
faster pace when PID controller was applied. Besides, PID controller has quicker settling time
compared to PI controller. PID controller also has more stability than PI controller as the
fluctuations reduces. Hence, having a process which moves much further (steeper tangent) as
well as having better controller, PID controller is the better choice for two capacity process as it
covers in depth of the complex process.

Based on the theory, when the value of Proportional Band (PB) increases, the controller
gain (Kc) decreases and vice versa. The results become sensitive when the PB is low and Kc is
high which leads to the fluctuations in the flow. The flow become stable and not many
fluctuations occurs when it less sensitive, which are the value of PB is high also low Kc. The PID
controller attempts to minimize the error, reduce the offset and stabilize the fluctuations to

During the experiment conducted, there were several possibilities that might occurs and
contributed to the errors. The instruments that was used not undergo a maintenance and it was
used for long time which is more than 8 years, so it can affect the result obtained. There are
possibilities that the pipelines has leakage and will affect the readings of the air pressure. When
the experiment is running, the configurations of the valves need to be followed accordingly. It
will lead to the abnormal trend of the results obtained if failed to follow.