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5 Design of Absorber

Mole fraction of Hydrogen at bottom


Y1 = 0.8929
Mole fraction of Hydrogen at top
Y2= 0.9561
Mole fraction of Hydrogen in liquid at top
X1 = 0

Mass balance:
Gm (y1 – y2) = Lm (x1 – x2)
Gm (y2 – y1) = Lm (x2 – x1)
17952.842 (08929- 0.9561) = 3289.989(x2– 0)
X2= 0.3448
Slope:
m= y1/x1= 0.9338
As, y1/y2= 0.9338
Now,
mG’m/L’m = 0.8
′ ′
1 𝑚𝐺𝑚 𝑦1 𝑚𝐺𝑚
𝑁𝑂𝐺 = ln[(1 − ′ ) + ′ ]
𝑚𝐺 ′ 𝐿𝑚 𝑦2 𝐿𝑚
𝑎 − 𝐿′ 𝑚
𝑚
Figure 4.12 Separation Column (Distillation Absorption and Extraction)

NOG = 0.02 (Fig 11.40 Coulson & Richardson V6, Ed, 4)

4.6.6 Calculation of Diameter of Column

Flow rate of entering gases = G =17952.842Kg/hr.


Flow rate of entering solvent = L = 312078.06 Kg/hr.
Temperature of entering gas=Tg= 107.3˚F = 314.98K
Temperature of entering Solvent=TL = 152.3oF =339.9833K
Pressure of entering gases= P = 6.5bar
Density of gas mixture=ρg = 1.581kg/m3(Aspen Hysys)
Density of liquid solvent =ρL=975.2Kg/m3
Viscosity of liquid solvent= µL =0.4186cp
Viscosity of Gaseous mixture = µg = 9.487*10-3cp
Now
Abscissa of fig 11.44

L ρg
√ = 0.6990
G ρL

For pressure drop 42mm of H2O /m of packing


From fig 11.44 …………………………………… (Coulson & Richardson volume-6)

K4 = 0.54
K4 at flooding = 0.9

Figure 4.13 Pressure Drop Correlation

Percentage Flooding = 100* (0.54/0.9)1/2 = 77.44%


Figure 4.8 Characteristics of Dumped Tower Packings

Also from table 22.1……………………………………... McCabe& Smith 5th-Ed,


Packing factor for 1-inch – Metal pall Rings =Fp=56m-1
From Coulson & Richardson volume-6

G*w = [k4× ρg × (ρL-ρg) / 13.1×Fp× (µL /ρL) 0.1] ½

G*w= [10.54×1.581× (975.2-1.581) /13.1×56× (0.4186 /975.2)0.1]1/2


G*w= 1.5685 Kg/m2-sec.
Flow rate of gas entering =G =17952.842 /3600
=4.98 Kg/sec.
As
Column Area Required =A= G / G*w = 3.179 m2

Diameter of column=D= [4*A/3.14] ½


So
Diameter of the Column = 2.0125 m

4.6.7 Calculation of Height of Transfer Units

From Coulson & Richardson volume-6


Equation for calculation of effective interfacial area is given as.
−0.05 0.2
aw σc 0.75 Lw 0.1 L2w a L2w
= 1 − exp[−1.45 ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ]
a σl aμL ρL g ρL σL a
Where
aw= effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3
L*w = liquid mass velocity kg/m2s
a = actual area of packing per unit volume m2/m3
σc = critical surface tension for particular packing material
σL = liquid surface tension N/m
a = 63 ft2/ft3 converted to 207 m2/m3(from Unit operation y Maccabe Smith Page, 710)
L*w
= 312078.06/3.179*3600 kg/m2s
L*w = 27.27 kg/m2s
σc = 75 x 10-3 N/m (Aspen Hysys)
σL = 65.05 x 10-3 N/m (Aspen Hysys)
µL=0.4186 CP
ρL =975.2Kg /m3
a=11.3485m2/m3
4.6.8 Calculation of Liquid Film Mass Transfer Coefficient

2 1
ρL 1/3 Lw 3 μ L −2 0.4
KL ( ) = 0.0051 ( ) ( ) (adρ )
μL g a w μL ρL DL

KL = liquid film coefficient m/s


dp = Packing size =38.1x 10-3 m
DL = diffusivity of liquid = 8.1643x 10-9 m2/sec

Then, by substituting the values,


KL = 3.76285x 10-6 m/s

4.6.9 Calculation of Gas Film Mass Transfer Coefficient

1
0.7
K G RTg Vw μg 3 −2
= K5 ( ) ( ) (adρ )
aDg aμg ρg Dg

Where KG = Gas film coefficient, kmol/m2s.bar


G*W= Gas mass velocity = 1.5685Kg m2/sec
K5= 5.23 (For packing size above 15mm, Coulson& Richardson)
Dg =Diffusivity of gas = 7.137 x 10-5 m2/sec (Coulson& Richardson V6, Chap, 8)
Then, by substituting the values,
KG =1.83x 10-4kmol/m2s.bar
Now,
GM
HG =
K G aw P
Where,
HG = Gas-film transfer unit height
Gm= 1.5685/2 = 0.78425 Kmol/m2.sec
Then,
HG =0.78425/ (1.83 x 10-4 ×11.3485 ×6.5)
= 58.09 m

Lm
HL =
K L aw Ct
And
HL= Liquid-film transfer unit height
Lm= 27.27/18 = 1.515Kmol/m2.sec

Ct =Concentration of solvent = 975.2/18 = 54.17Kmol/m3


HL = 37.7

4.6.10 Calculation of Height of Transfer Units

mGm
HoG = HG + ∗ HL
Lm
HG =58.09m
HL =37.7m
Height of transfer units=HOG = 58.09+ 0.8 ×037.7

4.6.11 Calculation of Height of Tower

Total height of packing =Z= NOG × HOG


Z = 0.02× 217.03 = 4.34m
Allowances for liquid distribution = 1m
Allowances for liquid Re-distribution =1m
Total height of tower = 4.34 + 1 + 1
Zt = 6.34m
Total height of tower= 6.34 m

4.6.12 Pressure Drop

PFlooding  0.115FP0.7
Fp=56/m
∆P of flooding = 1.92499

Calculation of total pressure drop


From figure 22.6, McCabe& Smith (5th Ed.)

Gx ρy
=√
Gy (ρx − ρy )

Here, Gx = L=5.584896lb/s.ft2
Gy= G=0.3212lb/s.ft2

Density of gas = 25.30b/ft3


Density of liquid = 15608.19 lb./ft3

Gx ρy
=√
Gy (ρx − ρy )

=0.700

Gy 2 Fpux 0.1
g c ( px  p y ) p y
ux = 1.0126lb/hr. ft.
Fp = 17.0311 ft-1
= 0.0250

Figure 4.14 Generalized Correlation for Pressure Drop In Packed Column

From Fig.
ΔP = 0.75 in.H2O/ft. of packing
ΔP =2.46 in. H2O/m of packing
ΔP = 62.484 mm H2O/m of packing
Total pressure drop = 62.484 x 5.34= 333.66 mmH2O/m of packing
ΔP = 3.2721Kpa/m of packing (0.03 bar/m of packing)

Calculation of number of streams for liquid distribution at top of the packing:


Number of liquid distribution streams at the top of the packing
Ns= (79.1771654/6)2
D = Diameter of the absorption column in inches = 79.1771654inch
Putting values in above equations, we get, Ns = 13.1961