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Project 3.2.2 and Project 3.2.

3: Student Resource Sheet

Use the information found below to guide your research and to design your model. Guiding questions are
broken down by assignment. Take notes, answer questions, and complete sketches in your laboratory journal.
Oral cavity, pharynx, (must also include accessory organs such as salivary glands, tongue, and
● What is the oral cavity and what does it contain? Includes the lips, gingivae, retromolar
trigone, teeth, hard palate, cheek mucosa, mobile tongue, and floor of the mouth. Salivary
glands are in close
● What is the function of the salivary glands? Keeps parts of the digestive system moist,
breaks down carbohydrates, lubricates the passage of food down from the oropharynx to the
esophagus to the stomach.
● What is the function of the tongue? the tongue is used to swallow, chew,and speech,
● What is a bolus?-a small rounded mass of substances , especially of chewed food at the
moment of swallowing
● Where are the soft and hard palate located and what are their functions?the soft palates is, in
mammals, the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth. The soft palate is
distinguished from the hard palate at the front of the mouth in that it does not contain bone.
● What mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the oral cavity?it begins in the mouth and
breaks down food into nutrients the mechanical digestion that occurs in the oral cavity is
chewing. The chemical digestion occurring in the oral cavity is the enzymes in saliva
commencing the degrading of food.

● What mechanisms are in place to make sure food doesn't “go down the wrong tube” and into
the windpipe? A flap of skin known as epiglottis separates the trachea, preventing food from
going the wrong way.
Esophagus and Stomach
● What is peristaltic movement and how does it function in the esophagus? Peristaltic
movement is muscle contraction which functions in the location of the esophagus by helping
to push food to it.
● Does any digestion of food occur in the esophagus? Yes, some digestion of food takes place
in the esophagus.
● What are the primary functions of the stomach? Breaks down food after feeding and to
extract the nutrients needed for the body.
● What is chyme and how does the stomach mix this material? Chyme is acidic fluid that
passes from the stomach to the small intestine. The stomach mixes this material by
combining food, enzymes, and gastric juices.
● What role does the stomach play in decontaminating the incoming food matter? The stomach
has many acids that help break down food and kill bacteria.
● What cells in the stomach function to form enzymes and acids? Parietal cells in the stomach
function to make enzymes and acids
● Why doesn’t gastric juice digest the inside of the stomach? The stomach can tolerate and
handle the gastric juices, which protects itself from breaking itself down.
● What are sphincters and how are they related to the stomach? Sphincters are the openings
into and out of the stomach. They open and close when needed either to allow food into the
stomach or to allow digested food out of the stomach.
● What mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the stomach? Mechanical digestion
occurs in the stomach and processes food by churning. Chemical digestion occurs in the
stomach and has the use of gastric acid.
Small Intestine and Large Intestine
● What are the three sections of the small intestine and what role does each section play in
digestion or absorption?
The three sections of the small intestine are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The duodenum receives
partly digested food, acid, and bile. The jejunum and ileum break down food fully.

● What is the pH within the small intestine and how is this pH maintained?
The pH of within the small intestine is 6. This pH is maintained through bicarbonate ions.

● Where do bile and pancreatic enzymes enter the small intestine?

Bile and pancreatic enzymes enter the small intestine through the duodenum.

● How does food move through the intestines?

The pathway of food through the intestines is duodenum → jejunum → ileum → cecum →
colon → rectum

● What enzymes act inside the small intestine and what are the functions of these enzymes?
The enzymes that act inside the small intestine are amylase, protease, and lipase. Amylase acts on starch
and breaks it down into small carbohydrate molecules. Protease acts on proteins and breaks them down
into amino acids. Lipase breaks down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol.

● What is the function of the large intestine in relation to digestion?

In relation to digestion, the large intestine absorbs water and salts. It also stores waste material until
they're thrown out of the body.

● What are the three sections of the large intestine and what roles does each play in digestion
or absorption?
The three sections of the large intestine are the cecum, colon, and rectum. The cecum takes digested
liquid from the ileum and passes it on to the colon. The colon is the principal place for water
reabsorption and absorbs salts when needed. The rectum is where leftover waste sits until it is ready to
be emptied through the anus.
● How does the large intestine help maintain a water balance in the body?
The large intestine helps the body digest and remove water from the remains of food (feces) after which
it will go through the rectum.

Pancreas, Liver and Gallbladder

● What is the size of the pancreas and where is it located? - The pancreas is about 6 inches
long and is located behind the stomach
● What are the different functions of the pancreas, and how is the pancreas directly related to
digestion? - The pancreas helps digestion and regulates sugar levels; it converts our food
into fuel for the body.
● How does the pancreas connect to the rest of the digestive system?- Releases insulin,
hormones, and glucagon as regulates sugar
● What enzymes does the pancreas produce and what are their functions? - Trypsin and
chymotrypsin digest proteins. Amylase breaks down carbohydrates. Lipase breaks down fats
and cholesterol.
● How is insulin related to the digestive system?- it increases the intake of sugar in the blood
● What is the size of the liver and where is it located?- top right corner of the abdomen and is
7-10 cm and weighs 3-5 pounds
● How does the liver function in relation to digestion?- produces bile to go to the intestines
● What are other functions of the liver in the body? - To filter blood before it goes to the rest
of the body.
● -Also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes blood.
● -Makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
● -Processes nutrients from the small intestine.
● What is the relationship between the liver and the gallbladder?- the gallbladder store bile
that is made in the liver
● What is the function of bile and where does it enter the digestive tract? - absorbs fats and
eliminates waste from the body enters the gallbladder and flows until it hits the duedom.

Works Cited: