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IDENTIFICATION CATION ANALYTICAL OF GROUP 4

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Kebin A. Palmera Sepulveda 20162150013
1​
Daniel S. Sogamoso Poveda 20162150302

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Jesus Jimenez Montoya
1.2​
University Francisco José de Caldas Faculty of Science and Education

1​
Student's Inorganic Chemical Analysis
___________________________________________________________________

ABSTRACT:
The analytical gears are important sum for analytical chemistry, especially for qualitative
analysis since it allows us identify cations in unknown samples by some precipitating
reagents, qye they do is reacted with the cation needs be identified, resulting in a selective
reaction, which analyzes the color of the precipitate or the color of the solution,order to
confirm the presence of the cations being identified, in order to confirm the presence of the
cations that are being identified, a series of experiments were carried out in this laboratory in
which the cations of group one were separated, in order to find the cations that were
contained in a problem sample. the processes due to the sample problem, a qualitative
analysis was made which indicated the presence of two cations.

KEYWORDS: analysis method, cations , selective reactions, reactions specific, precipitating


reagents , Centrifuged.

THEORIC FRAME: - Reagent general ​are those which


analytical chemistry deals with the act on a large number of species
chemical characterization of the material and are commonly used to perform
that responds to two important questions: separations, typically inorganic
What is (the qualitative aspect) and how nature: NaOH, Na​2​CO3.
much is presented (Quantitative). - Special reagents: ​those who act
Qualitative analysis aims identifying the on a limited number of chemical
elements or groups present in each species and are used for
sample. identification tests or recognition
The species identification is made by - reagents selective: ​those acting
using a reactive xy it may be evidenced by on several species.
the formation of a precipitate, complex or - Specific reagents: ​when they do
coloration. only on a given species.
Identifying a chemical species is to
produce the same change in properties It is distinguished from the metals of the
which is readily observable. the agent other groups by the fact that its salts do
causing change is the reagent. reagents not precipitate with: HCL, H2S or (NH4)
can be classified into: 2S * The resulting precipitates are white. *
The coloring of the flame will be different formation of a light green precipitate,
in all cases. Co​+2 ​, Cu​+2 ​and Ni​+2​. which confirms the presence of the Ni​2+
cation, in the tube 3 hydrochloric acid
RESULTS: (HCl) is added to regulate the pH to acid,
we continue adding of 2-3 drops of
ferrocyanide (Fe(CN)​6​4-​), reddish brown
Cation group IV
turbulence is evident indicating the
cations Known Unknown presence of the Cu​2+ cation, in tube 4 3-5
drops of sodium thiosulfate (Na​2​S​2​O​3​) are
Co​2+ + + added and added hydrochloric acid to
adjust the pH of The solution, to eliminate
Cu​2+ + - possible interferences of other cations, is
added 3-5 drops of thiocyanate (SCN​-​)
Ni​2+ + + and 1-2 ml of acetone, evidencing the
Table 1: cations obtained from the formation of a blue or greenish layer in the
mother solution and the sample solution, which confirms the presence of
problem the Co​2+​ ion.
Reactions
● Co​+2 In the sample problem begins by
separating the solution into 4 different
tubes to perform the cation test, tube 1 is
added 1 ml of acetic acid to regulate the
pH of the solution, then add 4 drops of
dimethylglyoxime, it is evident a reddish
● Cu​+2
pink precipitate which indicates the
presence of the Ni​2+ cation, to confirm this
presence in tube 2, 1 ml of NaOH is added
● Ni​+2 and instantly a green precipitate is
evidenced, which confirms the presence of
the Ni​2+ cation in the sample problem, to
show the presence of the Cu​2+ ion to tube
three is added 1 ml of HCl to regulate the
pH of the solution, 3 drops of ferrocyanide
DATA ANALYSIS:
are added, a slight brown precipitate is
You start by having an ammoniacal
evident, which indicates the possible
solution with the cations of this group, this
presence of the Cu​2+ ion, in tube 4, 4
solution is divided into 4 tubes of equal
​drops of sodium thiosulfate are added and
portions in order to carry out the checks, in
hydrochloric acid is added to adjust the pH
the first tube acetic acid (CH​3​COOH) is
of the solution, then 4 drops of thiocyanate
added to regulate its pH in more or less
and 2 ml of acetone are added, the of a
6-8, 3-5 drops of dimethylglyoxime
blue or greenish layer in the solution,
solution (DMG) are added, a reddish pink
which confirms the presence of the Co​2+
precipitate is evident which indicates the
ion.
presence of the Ni​2+ cation, for the
ANNEXES:
confirmation of the nickel cation to the
second tube is added 1 ml of sodium
hydroxide (NaOH), it is evident the
Image 1: checking the cations of the
known sample, precipitated Image 4: precipitate of the nickel cation
2+​ 2+​
colorations, Ni​ ,Cu​ . test in the mother solution, check with
sodium hydroxide.
CONCLUSIONS:

➔ Theoretically it is possible to
confirm that the coloration of
certain substances indicate the
cation implicitly they have as is the
example of cobalt and copper,
being their colorations pink and
blue respectively, when reviewing
the sample problem we realize that
it is blue which confirms that it can
contain the Cu​2+​ cation.
image 2: precipitate of the nickel cation ➔ It is evident that there is copper in
test in the sample problem. the problem sample, the
verification is made with
ferrocyanide and it is a precipitated
brown, which indicates the
presence of copper, but it should
be clarified that at the time of
thinking that cations announce
copper is discarded and the cobalt
is rescued which his verification
gave us very minimal, this was due
to a close analysis of the analysts.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
● Chang, R. Goldsby, Kenneth A.
Image 3: precipitate of the nickel cation
Quimica 11.edición.Mc-Graw-Hill,
test in the mother solution.
2013. Mexico
● From:
https://quimica.laguia2000.com/co
nceptos-basicos/​cations.​ (25
February 2018).
● From:
http://ciencia-basica-experimental.
net/marcha-analitica.htm.​(25
February 2018).