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RESEARCH METHODS (Reviewer) insights into it (Exploratory or

Formulative Research studies)


 To portray accurately the
RESEARCH DEFINITION: characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group
 MARTYN SHUTTLEWORTH
(Descriptive Research studies)
- Includes any gathering of data,
 To determine the frequency with
information and facts for the
which something occurs or with
advancement of knowledge
which it is associated with
something else (Diagnostic Research
 CRESSWELL
studies)
- Is a process of steps used to
 To test a hypothesis of a causal
collect and analyze information
relationship between variables
to increase our understanding of
(Hypothesis-Testing Research studies)
a topic or issue.

 POLIT AND BECK, 2004 CHARARCTERISTICS OF RESEARCH


- Systematic inquiry that uses
 Scientific
disciplined methods to answer
- Empirical
questions or solve problems. The
- Scientific process
ultimate goal of research is to
develop, refine, and expand a
 Valid and Reliable
body of knowledge.
 Controlled
 Generalizable
IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH  Systematic
 Develop professionally and
personally in ways not possible PURE/BASIC RESEARCH
through traditional lecture and
laboratory courses - Its aim is not to find out solutions
for the current problems but to think
 Opportunity to gain deeper
for the wider areas of life
knowledge of research techniques
- Seeks to create new knowledge and
and processes, apply classroom
is not directly related to technical or
learning in real-world contexts,
practical problems
explore academic literature, and
- Provides new knowledge about a
form a meaningful relationships
particular user group but does not
with faculty members and
specify a way this knowledge can be
professional researchers.
used to solve a problem

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH
 To gain familiarity with a
- Seeks to solve problems in a
phenomenon or to achieve new
practitioners level
- Aims to develop solutions and 2. What are the current topucs in my
recommendations that can be used field of specialization?
to improve practices 3. Are the topics connected to my
- Done to get answers for the current field?
problems
- Seeks to solve practical problems
SOURCES OF TOPIC

1. Periodicals
ENGINEERING RESEARCH
2. Research Summaries
- Concerned with the discovery and 3. Everyday Situation
systematic conceptual structuring of 4. Archive Data
knowledge 5. Secondary Data Analysis
- Concerned not only with knowledge
of natural phenomena, but also with
DETERMINING TOPIC RELEVANCE
how knowledge can serve
humankind’s needs and wants 1. Is the topic too broad?
- Was intended to confront a student 2. Can the problem be really
for the first time, with a complex investigated?
problem that was not well specified, 3. Are these data susceptible to
would need defining, and would analysis?
require synthesis of should signify 4. Is the problem significant?
the student’s knowledge for its 5. Can he results of the study be
solution. generalized?
6. What costs and time are involved in
the analysis?
FOCUS OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH
7. Is the planned approach appropriate
 Products and Services t the project?
- Design 8. Is there any potential harm to the
- Development subject?
- Operational Support
- Maintenance
SUBTOPICS OF CHAPTER 1

 Variables A. Introduction
- Cost - Not a title of research
- User compatibility - Should not only signify the
- Producibility importance of the topic but
- Safety also cause an impact on the
- Adaptability to various reader
external operating conditions B. Theoretical Framework
and environments - Basis of research problem
- Serves as inductive approach
SELECTING A TOPIC
towards the statement of the
1. What do you want to know? problem
- Explains the phenomena
upon which the thesis 3. Situation – Reading
investigation hopes to fill the - Questions that involved the
vacuum in the stream of results of the manipulation of
knowledge the variables on the other
- Organized, logical, and
coherent upon which 4. Situation – Producing
problems of the study are - Question establishes explicit
based goals or actions
- Perceives what is the study - Require development of
about plans under which the goals
may be achieved
Theoretical – based on actual theory

Conceptual – Creation of the author


THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRY
(HYPOTHESIS)

C. Statement of the Problem A. LEVEL 1


- Most important parts of a - Questions are asked when
research the researcher has limited
- Focus on the study and all knowledge of the topic
questions stated should be - Usually starts with WHAT
categorically answered - Exploratory in nature
- Maybe stated in question or - Prominent in descriptive
topical form researches
D. Hypothesis of the Study
E. Basic assumptions of the Study B. LEVEL 2
F. Significance of the Study - Questions on relationships or
G. Definition of Terms effects of variables

FOUR MAJOR TYPES OF RESEARCH C. LEVEL 3


QUESTION - Those which assume
1. Factor – Isolating relationships and effects and
- Questions generally starts ask “why” of the results
with WHAT - Involves more variables,
- Characteristics outcomes, and predictions
- Properties
HYPOTHESIS
2. Factor – Relating
- Realtionships, Effects  Gay (1976)
- Seeks info on the - Tentative explanation for
relationships of variables or certain behaviors,
effects of variables on other phenomena, or events which
variables have occurred or will occur
- States your expectations effect nor interaction
concerning the relationship between variable
between the variables in your
research problem  Alternative Hypothesis
 McGuigan (1978) - Opposite of the null
- A testable statement of hypothesis
potential relationship - Indicates that there will be
between two or more difference, relationship,
variables effect or interaction bet
- Used for level 2 or level 3 variables
inquiry
ASSUMPTION

- Statements taken for granted


FUNCTIONS OF HYPOTHESIS
- Not to be proven
- Introduces your thinking at the start - Opposite of hypothesis
of the study - Important in research because it also
- Structures the next stages of establishes the parameters of the
investigation study
- Helps you provide the format for - Necessary in forecasting for it must
presentation, analysis and assumed that the factors of
interpretation of the data of your prediction remain constant
study

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE


CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD STUDY
HYPOTHESIS
 SCOPE
- Should be reasonable - Defines where and when the
- Should state the relationship study is conducted and who
between variables the subjects are
- Should be testable
- It should be based on previous  LIMITATION
findings - A phase or aspect of the
investigation which may
affect the result adversely but
TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
over which you have no
 Research Hypothesis control
- Temporary solution to the
problem stated in the study
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
TWO FORMS OF HYPOTHESIS
- Shows the value of your
 Null Hypothesis (Negative) study
- Predicted that there will be - Shows impact of your study
no difference, relationship,
DEFINITION OF TERMS C. Puts all the constructs or concepts
that are related to the topic
 Conceptual
D. Leads you into the specific questions
- Found in dictionaries
to ask in your own investigation
- Academic or universal
E. Presents the relationship among the
meaning given to a word or
variables that have been
group of words
investigated.
- Understood by many people
F. Enables you to view your topics
against the finding earlier bared
 Operational/Functional
- Specific way or the meaning
used in your study
FUNCTIONS OF THE REVIEW OR
- Operates or functions in your
RELATED LITERATURE (RRL)
investigation
- Provides the concepts or theoretical
framework of the planned research
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
- Provides you with the info about
 CONCEPTUAL LITERATURE past researches
- Literature coming from - Gives you a feeling of confidence
books, journals, and other since by means of the RRL, you will
non-data materials have on hand all the constructs
- More readily available than related to your study
research literature - Gives you info about research
- More comprehensive that methods used, population and
research literature sampling considered, instruments,
 RESEARCH LITERATURE techniques and computation
- Empirically based, consists of - Provides findings and conclusions
findings in theses and - Offers no a mere bibliography but
dissertations an analytical and critical appraisal of
- Differences and similarities the important and recent substantive
of the research literature and methodological developments
mentioned either within the - Informs and lends support to the
chapter or at the end of the
Researcher’s assumptions, operational
chapter
definition of terms and even
methodological procedur
FUNCTIONS OF THEORY

A. It identifies the start for the research


HOW DO YOU CONDUCT THE RRL
problem by presenting the gaps,
weak points etc. - Keri na to basahin sa handout at
B. Provides the study with conceptual own words! 
or theoretical framework, justifying
the need for investigation
CATEGORIES OF LITERATURE REVIEW TYPES OF VARIABLES

1. Sources of research findings  DISCRETE VARIABLE


2. Theoretical literature - One that can take on only a
3. Generally and specialty area finite or potentially countable
literature set of values
4. Methodology Literature
5. Research literature coming from  CONTINOUS VARIABLES
other disciplines - One that can take on an
6. Popular literature or those written infinite set of values between
by experts any two levels of the
variables
SOURCES OF RRL
 INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
1. Internet - Stimulus variable
2. Libraries - To determine its relationship
3. Different Org to an observed phenomena;
4. Periodicals, Books, Articles called cause
5. Theses and Dissertations - Factor that is expected to
another variable

VARIABLES
 DEPENDENT VARIABLE
- Quantity or characteristic that has - Response variable
two or more mutually exclusive - To determine the effect of the
values or properties of objects or Independent variable
people that can be classified, - Called effect, results criterion
measured or labeled in different in the study
ways
 MODERATE VARIABLE
- Secondary or special type of
CHARACTERISTICS
independent variable chosen
- Observable characteristics of a by the researcher to ascertain
person or objects if it alters or modifies the
- Capable of assuming several values relationship bet independent
representing a certain category and dependent variable
- These are raw data or figures
gathered by the researchers  CONTROL VARIABLE
- Values that may arise from counting - Variable controlled by the
- Predicted values of one variable on researcher in which the
the basis of another effects can be neutralized by
eliminating or removing
variable
 INTERVENING VARIABLE 3. INTERVAL MEASUREMENT
- Variable which interferes - Distinguishes the ordered
with the independent and arrangement in units of equal
dependent variable intervals.

4. RATIO MEASUREMENT
DETERMINING VARIABLES
- Refers to a variable where
1. Look for the cause and effects equality of ratio or
2. Analyze the elations of one proportion has meaning.
observation with another
observation
CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES
3. Describe the characteristics that are
not the same from all situations 1. QUANTITATIVE DATA
- Data that are obtained from
ordinal, interval or ratio
MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES measurements indicating
1. NOMINAL MEASUREMENT how much of a variable
- Classification of the exists
measured variables into - Also refers to the numerical
different categories information gathered about
the sample
 REAL NOMINAL
MEASUREMENT 2. QUALITATIVE DATA
- Classified based on a - Data obtained from nominal
naturally occurring attribute measurement, indicating that
like nationality, gender or variables differ in quality
ethnic origin

 ARTIFICIAL NOMINAL FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF


MEASUREMENT RESEARCH DESIGN
- Classified based on man-
made attributes ff. certain 1. NATURALISTIC SETTING
rules like passing or falling a - For the results to have
test external validity, the study
must be conducted under
2. ORDINAL MEASUREMENT normally encountered
- Amt. of variable placed in environmental conditions.
the order of magnitude along
a dimension 2. CLEAR CAUSE – AND – EFFECT
RELATIONSHIP
- The results of the study can
be interpreted with
confidence IF and ONLY IF
all cofounding effects are
identified. 3. THIRD GROUP – consists of those
methods which are used to evaluate
3. UNOBSTRUSIVE AND VALID the accuracy of the results obtained.
MEASUREMENTS
- There should be perceptible
connection between the METHODS OF RESEARCH USED
communication presented to
subjects and the  HISTORICAL
measurement instruments - Involves any appeal to past
used experience to help in
knowing what to do in the
4. REALISM present and future.
- A research design must all be  DESCRIPTIVE
realistic - Designed for the investigator
to gather info about present
conditions
WHAT IS DISCUSSED?

- The method of research and  EXPERIMENTAL


techniques to be used - Future oriented and never
- The nature of the sample and hypothesis free
any control groups - Method of advancing
- The data needed to test the scientific knowledge
hypothesis or the answer to - ONLY METHOD of research
the questions that can truly test hypothesis
- The source of data concerning cause and effect
- The procedures followed in relationships
gathering and analyzing the
data SAMPLING
- The statistical treatment of
data BASIC TERMINOLOGY

 POPULATION
RESEARCH METHODS IN 3 GROUPS - entire set of people, things,
events or groups that is of
1. FIRST GROUP – includes methods interest to the researcher
which are concerned with the
collection of data  SAMPLING FRAME
- List of elements in the
2. SECOND GROUP – consists of population
those statistical techniques which are
used for establishing relationships  SAMPLE
between the data and the unknowns - Subset of the population
 SAMPLING UNITS include members of different
- Elements of population that are groups
chosen to be included in the
sample c) MULTISTAGE SAMPLING
- Used when there is no list of
 PARAMETER every element in the population
- Number that describes some available
attribute of the elements of - Used when a list of clusters or
population geographic areas is available,
but researcher lacks access to
 STATISTIC lists of elements within clusters
- Number that describes some or areas.
attribute of the elements of the - A version of cluster sampling is
sample area sampling

GOAL OF SAMPLING 2. NON PROBABLITY SAMPLES

- To obtain a sample that is - Often resorted to beacuse


representative of the
population being studied

Two (2) MAJOR SAMPLING STRATEGIES

1 PROBABILITY SAMPLING

- Allows us to be most sure that


the sample is representative of
the population

a) SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING


- allows every element in the
population the same chance of
being included in the sample
- used when a complete sampling
frame is available
- sample statistics would be close
to the population parameters

b) STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING


- Drawn from different categories
(strata) of a population
- used when a complete sampling
frame is available and crucial to