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Chapter: Three

Historical Background

3.1. Human Rights Concept At Early Period:

The concept of human rights is a twentieth century name for what has been traditionally known
as natural rights or, in a more exhilarating phrase, the right of man. The fact is that the concept of
'Right of Man' and other fundamental human rights were already known to the people of earlier
periods. These rights of men had a place almost in all the ancient societies of the world though
they were not referred to by that name.

Human rights are those rights which are inherent in all men and women and which they ought to
have solely by virtue of their humanity. Human rights are universally inherent, inalienable and
inviolable Rights of all members of the human family, which the states and their public
authorities are to ensure for the people. The human rights come with birth are concerned with the
dignity and worth of the individuals and 'represent minimal moral standards for human society3.

All human rights are essentially classified into three generations. On the basis of the three watch
words of French Revolution i.e. Liberty. Equality and Fraternity, in 1979 the great Czech jurist
Care Vasak divided all human rights in three generations. The first generation rights, in other
words, the civil and political rights, were the brain child or Western democratic countries, the
proponents of second generation rights, in other words, the economic, social and cultural rights,
were socialist countries and the third generation rights are introduced basically by United
Nations after 1 972 by the Stockholm Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the
Human Environment4. The first generation rights include right to life, liberty, security to persons.
Freedom of assemble, freedom of association, freedom of religion etc. The second generation
rights include right to employment, right to housing, right to equal wage etc. The third generation

3 SK. Kapur, “International Law and Human Rights”.—p.03.

4 “ibid.22.p.07.
include group and collective rights, right to self determination, right to environment, right to
development etc5.

In Bangladesh. The concept 'human rights' has not been defined by any statutory provisions of
law. But in India, section 2(d) of the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 provides that human
rights means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed
by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by Courts of

In Bangladesh, the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh as the fountain of all
rights has divided different rights of citizens in two broad categories i.e. (a) Civil and Political
Rights and (b) Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The first category rights are located in Part
113 titled "Fundamental Rights" (Article 27- 44) and the Second category rights are placed in
Part 11 under the heading Fundamental Principles of State Policy".

It should be minded that the first category of rights are judicially enforceable subject to such
restrictions as mentioned in those Articles, if any and the second category rights are not
judicially enforceable. If anybody infringes those rights of first category, the victim or the
aggrieved person can go to the High Court Division for redress. Article 44(1) state that the right
to move the High Court Division in accordance with clause (1) of article 102 for the enforcement
of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed6.

Again the fundamental rights can be classified in two groups' i.e. absolute rights and qualified
rights. Absolute rights are those rights, which the citizens are entitled to enjoy beyond any
condition, restriction e.g. equality before law, non-discrimination on the ground of race, sex,
religion, caste or place of birth, equality of opportunity in public employment, right to consult
and be defended by a legal practitioner of his choice, prohibition of forced labor, protection in
respect of trail and punishment etc. The citizens can enjoy the qualified rights subject to few
limitations. The rights include right to life,

5 javid Rehman “International Human Rights”—p.07.

6 Ibid.25, Article 44 and 102 of the Bangladesh Constitution.
freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, freedom of association, right to property, protection
of home and correspondence etc. or prior approval from someone, security of the State, and
friendly relations with foreign states. The restrictions are imposed in accordance with law and on
the ground of public purpose, public order, public interest, public health, decency or morality or
in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement of an offence.

The rights mentioned in Part 11 i.e. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights are not judicially
enforceable. The framers of the Constitution kept the provision of these rights with the view that
these rights, in the form of principles, shall be fundamental to the governance of Bangladesh and
shall be applied by State in making the laws. In Kudrat Elahi vs. Bangladesh, 1982, 44 DLR
(AD) 31 9, the appellants indirectly sought enforcement of these principles pressing in aid the
provision of Article 7(2). The Appellant Division of the Supreme Court negotiated the contention
of the appellants. Justice Mustafa Kamal pointed out that these are •principles" as distinguished
from 'laws' and as such there is no question of application of Article 7. It was also held that they
are in the name of People's program for socio-economic development of the country in peaceful
manner, not overnight, but gradually. Implementations of these programs require resources,
technical know-how and, many other things including mass-education24. Whether all these pre-
requisites for a peaceful socio-economic revolution
exist is for the state to decide.

This is not possible to prescribe a complete list of human rights, but Khwaja Abdul Muntaqim
attempted to frame a list of human rights. According to him, human rights include human
dignity, personal freedom, equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on ground of
religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, equality of opportunity in matter of public private
employment, freedom of speech and expression, freedom to form association or union, to
practice any profession, to carry on any occupation, trade or business, protection of life and
personal liberty, prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor, right to freedom of
religion, protection of interest of minorities, etc. Human dignity, personal freedom, equality
before law, equality of property in matters of employment, private or public, protection of
privacy, the right not
to be subjected to torture, or other curt inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,
prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, color, sex or place of birth,
political and other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or status, freedom of speech
and expression, freedom to assemble peacefully, freedom to form association and union, freedom
to move freely, freedom to reside anywhere, freedom to practice any profession, freedom to
carry on any occupation, trade or business, protection of life and personal liberty, right against
exploitation, prohibition of traffic in human being and forced labor, prohibition of employment
of children in factories etc., right to freedom of religion including freedom of faith, conscience,
creed and free profession. Practice and propagation of religion, freedom to manage religious
affairs, freedom as to attendance' at the religious instruction. Or religious worships in certain in
educational institutions, protection of interest of minorities, right of minorities to establish and
administer educational institution, women's rights mainly. Improving their status and standing in
the society. Their civil, political, economic sexual and cultural rights, rights of elimination of all
forms of discrimination against women, provision for healthy health care, rights of children, such
as. Parental guidance. Separation from parents, aim) reunification, illicit transfer and non-return,
abuse and neglect, recovery and re integration, periodic review of placement into foster care,
basic health and welfare, the survival and development of the child, disabled children, social
security and child-care services and facilities, education, including vocational training and
guidance, leisure, recreation and cultural activities, special protection measures, children in
situation of emergency, refugee children, children in armed conflict, including physical and
psychological recovery and social re integration, children in conflict with the law, the
administration of juvenile justice, children derived of their liberty, including any form of
detention. Imprisonment or placement in custodial settings, the sentencing of juveniles, in
particular, the prohibition of capital punishment and life imprisonment, children in situations of
exploitation, including physical and psychological recovery and social integration, economic
exploitation, including child labor, drug-abuse, sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, sale,
trafficking and abduction of children belonging to a minority or an indigenous group, other
human rights, such as, right to development, protection against death penalty. Protection to
refugees, right to constitutional and other legal remedies as
also fair trial, right to franchise, right to environmental protection. Right to health and mental
care, standard of living, protection of wild life, fauna and flora7.

3.2 Historical Background of Human Rights:

Human rights may be called the rights associated with the very birth of mankind in that these are
fundamental requirements for existence of human beings. I may venture to call them rights
inherent in men and women for their preservation, protection and growth. As upon such rights
existence and glory of mankind depend violation of the same always is to be jealousy guarded
and the injury done to those are to be remedied throughout the world through effective
machineries and methods both at domestic and international levels.

They has been quest for effective realization and enforcement of human righted in different
societies, from the dawn of human civilization. Human rights are also recognized in the earliest
Madina Sanad. This is in case of war with any body they will redeem their prisoners with
kindness and justice common among Believers. (Not according to pre-Islamic nations where the
rich and the poor were treated differently). In case of war with anybody all parties other than
Muslims will redeem their prisoners with kindness and justice according to practice among
Believers and not in accordance with pre-Islamic notions. Those Jews who follow the Believers
will be helped and will be treated with equality. (Social, legal and economic equality is promised
to all loyal citizens of the State). The peace of the Believers (of the State of Madinah) cannot be
divided, (it is either peace or war for all. It cannot be that a part of the population is at war with
the outsiders and a part is at peace). Conditions of peace and war and the accompanying ease or
hardships must be fair and equitable to all citizens alike. The freedmen of Thaalba will be
afforded the same status as Thaalba themselves. This status is for fair dealings and full justice as
a right and equal responsibility for military service. If anyone attacks anyone who is a party to
this Pact the other must come to his help. A

7 Ali Akkas Sarkar, Appointment of Supreme Court Judges in Bangladesh, A Study of law and Practice
Journal of Judicial Administration Vol. 11 (3) (2002). 146-157.
man will not be made liable for misdeeds of his ally. Anyone (any individual or party) who is
wronged must be helped. Instances of the earliest instruments crepitating some fundamental
human rights are found in the magna charta,1215 A.D. the petition of rights, 1628.and below of
rights ,1689.The American declaration of independence proclaimed on July 4, 1776, Fench
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789 and the others. But those were limited in their
respective fields .Mostly hey deal with civil and political rights. 'The civil and political rights
primarily associated with the English, American and French bourgeois revolution of 17thl
century and 18th century. On the other hand, economic social and cultural rights find there origin
primarily in the socialist and Marxist revolution of early 20th century. They originated in the
former Soviet Union and gradually appeared in other parts of the world through resolution and
welfare struggle'. However, after devastation as a reslt6 of the 2nd world war the world leaders
failed seriously the need to save the humanity from the holocaust of explosion of atom bombs in
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They sat together, pondered over and ultimately adopted the world
human rights form of the international bill of human rights of the united nations popularly known
as the universal declaration of Human Rights, on the 10th of December,!948.The European
convention of human rights,1950, the international covenant on economics social and cultural
rights, 1966, American Convention of Human Rights, 1969 and the African charter of human
and People's rights and The Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against
women are among the other notable covenant following the universal declaration of human
rights. Since the declaration the Human Rights day is celebrated year all over the world8'

8 Tuhin Malik. Human Rights Law, Legal Education and Training Institute, Bangladesh Bar Council,
1997, p.194-195
3.3 Universal protection of human rights

Under this heading following things will be discussed:

a) U.N. Charter and human rights.
b) U.N. bodies primarily concerned with human rights.
c) The Universal declaration of human rights
d) The International Bill of human rights.

3.4 U.N. Charter and human rights

Human rights occupy significant placer in the C~ Charter. The Preamble of the Charter reaffirms
faith in fundamental human rights and dignity aid worth of human persons and equal rights of
men and women. It is one of the purposes of the U.N. to achieve international co-operation is
solving international problems of economic .social .cultural or humanitarian charter and in
promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without
distinction as to race ,sex ,language or religion'9. Besides this ,it is provided in the Charter that
the General Assembly shall initiate studies and, make recommendation for the purpose of
promoting international co-operation in the economic ,social Cultural, educational and health
fields and assist in the realization of the human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without
distinction as to race, sex, language or religion10 .Further with a view to the creation of the
conditions of stability and well being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations
among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self of peoples
determination ,the U.N. shall promote universal respect for and observation of human rights and
fundamental freedoms for all. Article 62 and 68 also reaffirm the commitment of the U.N. to
promote and encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for

9 Article 1 Paragraph 3 of U.N. Charter

10. Article 13 (b) of U.N. Charter.
all Article 55 charges the U.N. to promote •'universal respect for all, and observation of, human
Rights and fundamental human freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or
religion. The provision is further strengthened by Article 56 under which "All members pledge
themselves to take joint and separate action in co-operation with the organization for the
achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55"

Thus Article 55 and 56 bind member's states to. Observes and respect human rights this view
support from the interpretation of these provision by the world court.

Last but not the least, one of the basic objectives of the trusteeship in accordance with the
purposes of the U.N. laid down in Article 1 of the Charter, shall be "to encourage respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex. language or
religion to encourage recognition of the interdependence of the people of the world [Article

3.5 U.N. Bodies Primarily Concerned with Human rights:

3.5.1 Human Rights commission - The Commission on Human Rights was established by the
Economic and Social ' Council in February 1 946.It is the nearest approach to permanent
machinery of the supervision of the "problem of protection" of human rights .It is one of the six
fundamental commissions established by the Economic and Social Council. Under its terms of
reference the commission Was directed to prepare recommendation and reports on (i) an
International Bill of Human Rights (ii)International Conventions or declaration on civil liberties
;the status of women freedom of information and similar other matters;(iii)the protection of
minorities ;(iv)the prevention of discrimination on the basis of race, sex .language or religion and
(v) the prevention of discrimination on the basis of race .sex, language or religion and (v) other
matters concerning human rights. The commission's terms of reference are extensive .under
them, it may deal with any matter concerning human rights. The Commission makes studies and
recommendation either on its own initiative or at the request of the General
Assembly of the Economic and Social Council. The commission consists of 43 members elected
for three years terms and meets annually for a period of five or six week .At present ,there are 53
members of the Commission .All commission decisions are made by a majority of the Member's
present voting .The Commission submits a report on each session to the Economic and Social

3.5.2 Sub-Commission on Prevention and protection of Minorities — Established in 1947 it

consists of 26 persons selected by the Commission on Human Rights, normally for three years .It
submits a report session to the Commission on Human Rights.

3.5.3 Commission on the Status of Women-It was established by the Economic and Social
Council in has done valuable work for promoting the rights of women in political,
economic, civil, social and educational fields and in achieving the goal of women having equal
to those of men.11

11 S.K. Kapur, International of Human Rights, Central Law Agency, Allahabad, 121 edition, 2003,p,59.
3.6 Background of human rights education

The emphasis on Human Rights Education began in 1995 with the beginning of the UN Decade
for Human Rights Education, though previously addressed in 1953 with the UNESCO
Associated Schools Program, which served as an "initial attempt to teach human rights in formal
school settings". The first formal request for the need to educate students about human rights
came about in UNESCO's 1974 article Recommendation concerning Education for International
Understanding, Cooperation and Peace, and Education Relating to Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms. The participants of the International Congress on the Teaching of
Humans Rights eventually met in 1978 to form a specific definition of what would be required
application of the education in formal curricula. The aims at which the Congress agreed upon
including the encouragement of tolerant attitudes with focus on respect, providing knowledge of
human rights in the context of national and international dimensions as well as their
implementations, and finally developing awareness of human rights translating into reality
whether social or political on national and international levels.12

Human Rights Education became an official central concern internationally after the World
Conference on Human Rights in 1993. This conference brought the issue of educating formally
to the top of many countries' priority lists and was brought to the attention of the United Nations.
It was two years later that the United Nations approved the Decade for Human Rights Education,
which reformed the aims of application once again. Since the development of the UN Decade,
the incorporation of human rights education into formal school curricula has been developed and
diversified with the

12 In people VCron well (1804)3 Johns (N.Y)337

Chapter: Five
Human right education Bangladesh : Current situation and

5.1 Introduction

Bangladesh has committed itself to the consensus of the global community that the right to
development is a fundamental human right of all citizens of the country. Bangladesh's
commitment to human rights requires explicit focus on human development such that
empowerment and participation of the poor and disadvantaged groups are ensured for promoting
an equitable process of development. While all components of human development are necessary
to ensure human rights in a comprehensive manner, the lack of education has an especially
significant negative impact on people's ability to exercise all forms of human right. In
Bangladesh, an approach under which the right to education can be ensured will create a unique
regime that will be more favorable to protecting other human rights. A foundation of basic
education and literacy expands an individual's economic and social opportunities, helping to
acquire better job with higher and more dependable income. Education can also be a powerful
vehicle for improving awareness on other social issues, such as healthcare and the uptake of
preventive health services.
5.2 Necessary of human right education in Bangladesh

Human Rights Education has similar practices and approaches to other forms of education (such
as peace, environment, civics, Treaty of Waitangi, union, health, and development education). It
needs to be recognized, however, as distinct from them in its substance.13

Human Rights Education encourages people to:

 internalise and apply rights and responsibilities

 reflect on historical processes that have prevented the realisation of human rights and
analyse current structures and systems
 critically examine human rights
 prioritise those rights and responsibilities that are most pertinent to a group, community
or society
 apply international human rights standards to local and national realities.

5.3 Existing situation of human right education

At present, the concerns of human rights do not guide educational strategies and programmes in
the country. This is equally true for other human rights as well. At the macro-level, meeting the
challenge requires measures aiming at mainstreaming human rights and integrating human rights
issues in educational processes. Unless the human rights principles and obligations are reflected
in educational strategies and policies, the present approach to education, guided by human
capital formation, would emphasize economically relevant knowledge, marketable skills and
market-related competence at the expense of human rights values. Such a reductionist approach,
which highlights only the economic value of schooling and its rate of return, puts priority to just
one of the purposes of education and shall not provide sound basis for human rights-based
education in the country.14

13 C.H Chowdury, The University Press Limited, 1st Publish 2002,at 99.
14 Supra Note 16 & 27
5.4 Public and Private university programs
In our country public and privet university deals about the matter of human right education. In
the public and privet university we can see human education teach in hons and masters level. In
the public university we can see that there are many kind of human right subject teach as like
1. law
2. sociology
3. social welfare
4. Social work etc.

But we can see that Subject law is play a great role of human education. Many law paper deals
about the matter of human right.

1. Human right
2. environmental law
3. constitution law
4. public international law
5. media law
6. law of tort
7. Penal code etc.

Along with law sociology, social welfare, Social work deals about the matter of human

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5.5 Human right education provided by NGOs

NGO means non-governmental organization. It plays a great role in economically, educationally

and different type of social activities in our country. There are many NGOs work for human

Number of NGOs in Bangladesh

According to a list available from the Association of Development Agencies in Bangladesh

(ADAB), which is the apex body of NGOs, there are 993 NGOs in the country of whom 418
offer non-formal education literacy programmes under a subvention programme from the
government and 306 provide NFPE programme. NGO programme are, however, mainly urban-

Dhaka Division has the highest concentration of NGOs (47.4 %) while Sylhet Division has the
lowest concentration (3.7 %). About 56.8 per cent of the total NGOs are located in urban areas
and 65 % of the urban NGOs are concentrated in Dhaka Division.
There are many NGOs in our country but I will be discus two NGOs

1. BRAC Program
2. THE Chittagong based non-governmental organisation PHREB

1. Human Rights Education in Bangladesh: BRAC Program

Education for Working Children: A Basic Children's Right

Many children under the age of 14 used to work in for garment factories in Bangladesh, in
violation of the International Children's Rights Law. U.S. Senator Paul Harkins presented a bill
in Congress providing that goods produced by children would not be accepted or sold in the U.S.
UNICEF and the U.S. ambassador to Bangladesh, along with the ILO, Bangladesh Labor and
Manpower Ministry, and Bangladesh Garment Manufacturing and Exporting Association
(BGMEA) signed a memorandum of understanding supporting the bill. The BGMEA, ILO and
the ministry surveyed all the garment industries to locate working children under 14. They found
more than 10,000. Along with NGOs such as BRAC and GSS they provided them with basic
education and a stipend of Tk300 per month. In Dhaka and Chittagong, BRAC now runs 262
schools for such children.

The People's Republic of Bangladesh is a land of diverse attractions and a centuries-old cultural
heritage. It lies in South Asia, surrounded by India except for a short southeastern frontier with
Myanmar and a southern coast
fronting the Bay of Bengal. It is small, with an area of 143,999 square kilometers, and a large
population of 122.2 million.

Located in one of the wettest regions of the world, Bangladesh's tropical monsoon climate brings
rain-bearing winds, warm temperatures and high humidity. During the summer and monsoon
seasons, tropical cyclones, storms and tidal bores cause widespread damage and destruction.
However, an early warning system and evacuation facilities have greatly reduced loss of life.

Its people include Muslims (87 percent), Hindus (12 percent), and Buddhists, Christians and
others (less than 1 percent each). Over 98 percent of the people speak Bangla, although English
is used as a second language. Bangladesh is a multiparty parliamentary form of democracy,
where the Prime Minister is the head of government. The 330-seat National Parliament or Jatiya
Sangshad has a normal term of five years. The constitutional head of state is the President.

Sixty-five percent of the total labor force is employed in agriculture, which accounts for nearly
46 percent of the country's GDP. Rice and jute are the two main crops.

Concerted efforts of a large number of nongovernmental development organizations, including

the largest of them, BRAC, have contributed substantially to rural development and poverty
alleviation. One of BRAC's main programs is NFPE. (A.Z.M. Sakhawat Hossain)17
2. THE Chittagong based non-governmental organisation PHREB

THE Chittagong based non-governmental organisation PHREB (Promoting Human Rights and
Education in Bangladesh) has been running long-term school-based awareness campaigns since
then* establishment in 2004. The purpose of these campaigns is to educate young people on
human rights issues and encourage them to speak out and defend their own human rights. These
young people will gain confidence, which will empower them to mobilise their families and
communities hi the fight against gender-based violence.

The campaign begins in the form of workshops, in which young girls and boys learn through
presentations and demonstrations from PHREB staff members about a variety of issues including
illnesses and diseases, health care and sanitation, safe water and healthy eating, gender equality
and violence against women. The students then participate in group-work sessions, to discuss
what they have learned and then impart this knowledge to their peers through drama, song,
dancing or debate.

During these workshops the staff select girls from each class to attend training sessions and
seminars, which equip them with the tools needed to become members of Bangladesh Kishori
Adhikar Forum (BKAF)
In these training sessions and seminars the girls learn in depth about the issues affecting
themselves and other females in Bangladesh. They also learn how to raise their voice in order to
seek and access their fundamental rights.

During the violence against Women seminars, the girls can speak out about the violence, abuse
and victimisation they are suffering.

Police officials attending these seminars can then offer advice and support to the girls. On 16th
July 2009 the deputy police commissioner of Chittagong (North) Mr. Banaj Kumar Majumdar
attended PHREB's seminar, giving the girls further opportunity to be heard and further
highlighting the importance of reporting violent incidents to the police.

PHREB has been reaching out to a number of new schools since the beginning of July.
Campaigns in these new schools have been very successful, with PHREB staff doing an
excellent job of engaging these young people, whose views and ideas have been inspirational.
Students have been enthusiastic and energetic about learning; many of them asking for the
sessions to continue for longer and wanting to know when they will next be visited by PHREB.

Currently PHREB runs campaigns at 250 schools per year, reaching out to over 300,000

BKAF is an adolescent girl's alliance committed to motivating the victims of gender-based

violence to become leaders of change whilst also continuing to raise awareness on issues of
violence against women, sexual and
reproductive rights, maternal health and women's rights. These adolescent "change makers" then
have the opportunity to speak at the annual Adolescent Girls' Summit, among key community
persons, police, civil society bodies and other Women's rights organisations. BKAF has grown
dramatically since it began in 2004 and now has in excess of 26,000 members in 225 chapters.

By continuing its innovative campaigns and interventions, PHREB wants to make human rights a
fact in Bangladesh so that every man and woman enjoys equal human rights and freedoms.
PHREB dreams of a Bangladesh hi which violence against girls does not exist, and will continue
to work towards stopping all forms of violence against girl children. In the immediate future
PHREB amis to increase the amount of individuals they visit each year, with an aim of reaching
300 plus Schools in the Chittagong region next year, 100 communities, 150 mosques in addition
to developing further adolescent, head teacher and community alliances. (Promoting Human
Rights and Education in Bangladesh Thursday, 10 September 2009)16

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5.6 Human right educations in school: is possible in Bangladesh

When Bangladesh emerged in 1971 as an independent country, it emphasized human rights

education for children, who early on learn their civil, social, political, and legal rights from
reading poetry, tales, essays, and their textbooks in social science, history, civics, and religion. In
primary- and secondary-level textbooks, human rights are mostly taught as citizens' rights. The
higher-secondary civics textbook clearly states that noncitizens enjoy all the social rights enjoyed
by citizens. It also contains a chapter on human rights and lists all 30 clauses of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Human Rights Education

In the primary stage (classes 1 to 5), children are supposed to learn 53 terminal competencies,
some of which are the following:

 love for all creation;

 respect and tolerance for all religions;
 respect for all people irrespective of sex, property qualification, occupation, and lifestyle;
 respect for parents, guardians, and neighbors, and performance of duties toward them;
 awareness of rights and duties as family members, as members of society, and as citizens;
 tolerance and respect for the opinions of others;
 nationalism; and
 independent thinking and the capability to express one's own opinion.
These competencies are directly related to the principles set forth in the Declaration. The
appropriate articles of the Declaration are indicated for reference purposes.
The environmental social studies textbook (class 3, primary level) shows that children have the
right to their parents' care. It describes the mother as cook, nurse, and family caretaker. The noil-
time duty of the father and the mother is to take care of the children (Article 25, UDHR). The
duty of the children is to respect their parents, follow their orders, listen to what they say, nurse
them when they are sick, and take care of them in their old age (Article 25, UDHR). It is also
their duty to take care of other relatives living under the same roof. Rights and duties of children
are also discussed in a later chapter of the textbook, although they should have been presented at
the beginning.
Children are taught to abide by school rules, be attentive in class, respect teachers, behave
properly with other children, and help their neighbors, especially the poor ones (Article 26,
They are also taught that they have the fundamental rights to food, clothing, shelter, medicine,
and education, which the State has the duty to provide (Article 26, UDHR). In a developing
country such as Bangladesh, however, not all children, especially the poor ones, enjoy them.
The class-4 textbook for environmental social studies elaborates on the duties of children toward
their family and neighbors. The class-5 textbook teaches children their rights and duties as
citizens (Constitution, and Article 29, UDHR).
The textbooks teach three kinds of rights:
 social rights, including the right to own property and observe one's religion (Article 18,
 political rights, including the right to form or join political parties, vote, and run for
election if qualified (Article 20, UDHR); and
 economic rights, including the right to work and engage in commercial activities or any
other legal occupation (Article 23, UDHR).

The textbooks discuss the duties of citizens, such as commitment to the development of the
country, following the law, paying taxes, voting in elections, and following the State's orders.
The class-5 textbooks teach that with rights come duties, and that citizens should possess three
qualities—intelligence, conscience, and self-control.

Children are also taught that the people's fundamental rights were severely violated by the
Pakistani army and their local cohorts during the War of Liberation, from 25 March to 14
December 1971, when as many as 3 million people were killed, 200,000 women raped, and
countless others made homeless. Text material, especially that related to social science, civics,
and Bangla literature, is selected to inform pupils of their human rights. The school curriculum
also lays special emphasis on the affective domain, so that the students may become humanistic,
democratic-minded, and tolerant. Finally, we are aware of the need to further improve the
curriculum and to incorporate more and more democratic ideals and human rights concepts in the
textbooks. (Human Rights Education in Schools in Bangladesh NURUN NAHAR BAGUM) 17

In the above discuss we will say that human education is possible in our country, if the
government help about the matter.

17 Abul Karim Sarker. Human Rights, Central Law Agency, edition, 2001,p,09.