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 Why have a viva?

 The thesis examination process

 The examiners
 How is your thesis judged?
 Possible outcomes
 How to prepare for the viva
 What to do in the viva
 After the viva
 brainstorm

Prove you
wrote it

Proof your
Prove you
research is

Rite of knowledge
passage of the wider
 Intention to submit (including selection of the
 Exact title submitted for approval not less
than one month before submission.
 Thesis is submitted together with submission
form to graduate school office.
 Examiners independently assess your thesis
 Pre-viva comparison of notes by examiners
 Viva (a defence not an exam)
 Decision
 Who selects the external and internal examiners?
 You/your supervisor can make suggestions
 Head of school/section has final say

 How to find out about your examiners.

 Ask colleagues, google them, read their work and
cite them if relevant!
 Think about how the thesis relates to their work.

 Don’t forget the importance of the internal.

 See:
 A doctoral thesis must exhibit ‘substantial
evidence of original scholarship’ and contain
‘material worthy of publication’

 It is ‘a body of work which a capable, well-

qualified and diligent candidate, who is properly
supervised, can produce in three years of full-
time study’.

[taken from Ph.D. and M.Phil. Handbook for

students and staff, page 15]
1. Original work?
2. Worthy of publication?
3. Adequate knowledge of the field?
4. Critical judgement?
5. Three years’ work?
6. Unified body of research?
7. Adherence to academic conventions (i.e.
references, coherent structure, literature
review, clear conclusions)?
 Pass outright!
 Pass with minor corrections (1 month)
 Pass with minor revisions (6 months)
 Thesis passes, but fail at viva (second
viva/written exam required)
 Resubmission required (12 months, with or
without second viva)
 Thesis appropriate for Masters degree
 Fail (this is very rare)
 Get lots of peer and other professional feedback.
◦ Present at conferences
◦ Attend conferences to informally discuss your work with
◦ Become an active member of your local academic community
(research groups, conference organisation etc.).
◦ Send material for publication.
 And send it off again after you’ve addressed the comments
from the first draft/rejection letters!
◦ Ask at least one other qualified person (who’s not your
supervisor) to read the draft before you submit (preferably
someone who has experience in examining theses).
◦ Get clear feedback from your supervisor on the FULL and
FINAL draft.
 3 things you can do to prepare for the viva:
◦ Re-familiarise yourself with your thesis
◦ Predict and practice possible questions
◦ Think about how to express yourself in the viva
 Keep your thesis alive: Re-read your thesis (make a 1-
page summary of the main points in each chapter).
 Be familiar with the references you cited
◦ Keep up to date with the field – esp. what’s happened since
you submitted.
 Read it with the thesis criteria in mind.
 Be honest with yourself:
◦ Identify weak points so you can be in a good position to:
 Show you know the faults
 Defend those that you feel are minor
 Show you know how you would remedy them if you had this
knowledge in hindsight.
 Prepare to engage the examiners in debate over how they would
have tackled that area.
 Get a supervisor or colleague to question spot with you.
 They’re always looking for proof you fulfil the
criteria for passing:

 Original?

 Worthy of publication?

 Good knowledge of field and literature?

 Shows critical judgement?

 Unified body of work?

 Satisfactory literary presentation?

 What is your thesis about?
 Summarise your key findings
 What is original about your work?
 What are the contributions to knowledge of
your thesis (why is it important?)
 Why did you approach the area in this way?
 Summarise your key findings
 Have you published any aspects of the work?
◦ You might have presented things at conferences, in
proceedings which are worth mentioning.
 What could you publish?
 And where?
 [NB: if you have published anything, include it
as an appendix which shows without a doubt
that it is worthy of publication]
 Summarise your key findings
(Can you identify and prioritise what is important in your own
 What is original about your work?
 What are the contributions to knowledge of your thesis
(why is it important?)
 What is the strongest/weakest part of your work?
 Why did you approach the area in this way?
 If you could start again now, what would you do
(This can be a way of showing self-criticism.)
 How could you improve your work?
 What could you publish?
(Indicates your views of what is good about your work.)
 What have you learned from the process of the PhD?
 What are the contributions to knowledge of your thesis (why is it
 What were the motivations for your research? Why is was it worth
◦ Who else is working on this problem?
◦ How has it been tackled before?
 Why did you approach the area in this way?
◦ How else have others done it?
◦ Why do you think your way is better?
 If you could start again now, what would you do differently?
(Show you know of any studies in which the problem has been tackled
since you planned and executed your work).
 What do your results mean?
(Show in the context of other studies.)
 What are the big questions in your field at the moment?
 What do you think the next big developments will be?
 What is your thesis about?
◦ Can you identify the common thread, the common
question addressed by all of the work in your
 Prepare a 1 minute answer to this.

 Prepare a 5 minute answer about this.

 Have a mental map of how you could expand

on this 5 minute question if pressed.
 Why are you being asked these questions?
 The examiners are:
◦ Not trying to catch you out
◦ Looking for positive evidence to tick criteria boxes
◦ Genuinely want to engage in debate
◦ Test what your view, as an academic equal, think
about a topic
◦ Clarify muddled or ambiguous expression in thesis
 Don’t rush answers
 Don’t interrupt!
 Don’t be defensive
 Answer assertive but don’t be defensive.
 Defend your ground, but concede where appropriate.
 Don’t be flippant
 Don’t undersell yourself
 Don’t volunteer flaws
 Ask for clarifications where necessary
 Give clarifications if necessary
 Be honest
 Stay calm. You are likely to know more about the subject than
those giving the marks!
 Be forthcoming and allow discussion to develop. Don’t just use
‘yes’ or ‘no’ responses and await the next question.
 Accept references
 Ask for clarification
◦ Recast in your own words ‘Do you mean…’
 Buy some time to think of the answer:
◦ ‘Now the answer to that is not obvious/straightforward...’
 (buying time…)
◦ ‘that’s a good question’
 (plus a little flattery…)
 If you really can't answer a question:
 Be honest.
 But if you have any ideas on the subject, say so.
 Or Say, "I can't answer this without some more detailed thought,
but I should be able to work it out with a bit of time."
 If it relies on literature or ideas you are not familiar with, thank
the examiner for the useful pointers and references.
 Don’t panic
 Remember you are engaging in a debate with equals.
◦ Don’t be aggressive (or defensive)
◦ Rather, seek to find out your examiners views on how the
problem might be remedied.
 Can it be addressed in future work which develops on what
you’ve done in your thesis?
◦ …or in a resubmission
 Better than not showing awareness and not being given the
chance to resubmit.
 If it’s something you are already aware of, prepare your
discussion of why it doesn’t undermine your whole thesis.
◦ Showing you are aware of this will show you have good
critical skills.
◦ But don’t volunteer flaws unnecessarily!
 You’ll be given clear direction of what the
outcome is.
 You’ll be given a list of corrections
◦ or instructions of what needs to be changed/added
(usually for more substantial changes)
 It’s your passage into independent academia
 Enjoy the attention
 Enjoy the captive audience
 Enjoy the compliment of the examiners
spending so much time thinking about your

 … and with a little luck,

 Enjoy that post-viva celebration