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a. V. + ㄴ/은/는 셈이다

3.

=> "it is (almost) as though," "I would say..."

b. A.V. + ㄹ/을 셈이다

=> "(one) plans to," "(one) intends to"

-ㄴ/은/는 셈이다 indicates a calculated result and is a colloquial expression. -ㄹ/을 셈이다 indicates an intention or
a plan.

(a)

 비싸게 산 셈이다.
=> (It's almost as though) we paid too much.
 이 아파트는 값에 비해 넓은 셈이다.
=> (I'd say) this apartment is large, considering the price.
 매일 학교에 가는 셈이다.
=> It's almost as though I go to school every day.

(b)

 나는 오전 중에 돌아 올 셈이었다.
=> I was planning on coming back before noon.
 너 앞으로 어떻게 할 셈이야?
=> What are you planning to do from now on?
 나를 바보 만들 셈이냐?
=> Are you going to make a fool of me?

NOTE

 ~은/는 편이다 essentially means "quite, kind of ~, or tend to be ~"


 If you say, "와! 여기서 커피가 비싼 편이네" you are essentially saying, "Wow, the coffee
here is kind of expensive." (more so than usual)
 ~은/는 셈이다 essentially means "all things considered ~, or comparatively speaking ~"
 So in the example, "동생은 많이 먹는 셈이에요" basically means "My little brother eats a
lot!" (considering he is so little) He may not actually eat very much, but he does for
someone his age/size.
 -는 편이다: Here 편 carries the the meaning of 'side'.
 This this grammar holds the idea of expressing something on one side of a spectrum. e.g.
추운 편이다 - it's cold; it's on the cold side (of the spectrum).
 -는 셈이다: Here 셈 carries the meaning 'to count' from the verb 세다.
 This this grammar holds the idea of saying something 'counts up to' or 'adds up to' or
'equals'. (although none of these make sense if translated literally, but the idea is there).
Therefore you use this to compare one thing to another, saying they are basically the
same. e.g. 시험은 어려웠으니까 80점이면 잘 본 셈이에요 - 'The exam was hard so even
you got 80 points you did well', or 'the exam was hard, so if getting 80 points is the same
as doing well', or 'the exam was hard, so getting 80 points adds up to be the same as
doing well'
 Similarity They both denote personal judgment or opinion regarding a particular action or
event.
 Difference
 Objective basis (편이다) vs. subjective basis (셈이다)
 그래도 고기를 많이 잡은 편이다. -- Compared to others, I have caught a lot of fish.
 You can use 편이다 when you can compare the number of fish you caught with others
and you fall under the people who caught many fish vs. people who didn't catch a lot of
fish.
 그래도 고기를 많이 잡은 셈이다. -- I think I have caught a lot of fish.
 You can use 셈이다 when you don't know whether you caught many fish compared to
others, but in you opinion you caught many fish.
 시험은 잘 본 편이다. -- Compared to others, I have taken the test well.
 You use 편이다 when you can compare the test scores with others and yours clearly fall
under the better side of the test scores.
 시험은 잘 본 셈이다 -- I think I have taken the test well.
 You use 셈이다 when you don't know if your test score falls under the better side
compared to others, but you are satisfied with your score in your opinion.

« -고 해서 I heard that …/ they said that …


-기 쉽다/어렵다 Easy/Hard To + Verb »

-기 나름이다 it all depends on how…,the most important thing is how…


August 25, 2009 by tailieutienghan

This is a common way to express the meaning of “it all depends on…” or “the most important thing

is….” When you want to emphasize the deciding factors or the most important factor in a matter,
you can use the structure -기 나름이다 (-gi nareum-ida) and this structure is often used together

with the verb 하다 (hada).

기 나름이다

Formation
Verb stem + 기 나름이다
For Example:
 생각하다 (saenggakhada) – “to think”
 생각하 + 기 나름이다 = 생각하기 나름이다 (saenggakhagi nareum-ida) – “to depend on the way
one thinks”
 생각하기 나름이에요. “It depends on the way you think about it.”

Noun + 나름이다

For Example:
 사람 (saram) – “person”
 사람 + 나름이다 = 사람 나름이다 (saram nareum-ida) – “to depend on the person”
그건 사람 나름이에요. “That depends on the person.”
Example Sentences
1. 모든 것은 받아들이기 나름이에요.

modeun geos-eun badadeul-igi nareum-ieyo.

Everything depends on how you take it.


2. 그건 생각하기 나름이에요.

geugeon saenggakhagi nareum-ieyo.

It all depends on the way you think about it.


3. 대답하기 나름이에요.

daedaphagi nareumieyo.

It depends on how you answer it.


4. 문제도 문제 나름이죠.

munje-do munje nareum-ijyo.

It depends on what kind of problem it is.

You might see a resemblance here with -에 달려 있다. Well, they are pretty
much identical in meaning. The difference is that this grammar structure can
only be used with AVST or nouns (if you remove -기). And there’s also a tiny,
tiny difference in nuance between the two but they are in almost all cases
interchangeble. The difference in nuance is hard to describe and you’ll most
likely have to read, and listen to, a lot of Korean before you can fully grasp it,
but -기 나름이다 has a stronger implication that it’s up to the subject and that
really everything in question will depend on the subject’s action. For
comparison, let’s look at an example:
 생각하기에 달려 있어 – It depends on how you think/on the thinking

생각하기 나름이야 – It depends on the thinking of each individual



Again, they are pretty much identical so it’s not something you’d have to worry
about getting wrong. Both the 달려 있다 and -기 나름이다 grammar structures
can be used both in writing and conversation as well. I’d rank -에 달려 있다 as
somewhat more important to know, so if you know neither grammar, you
should probably go for that one first.

Usage

N -에 | (이)냐에 | 이었(느)냐에 (past)+ 달려 있다


Note: 에 becomes 에게 if it’s a person!

DVST – (으)냐에 | 었/았/였(느)냐에 (past)+ 달려있다


AVST – (느)냐에 | 기에 | 었/았/였(느)냐에 (past) + 달려있다
This grammar, along with other similar ways of expressing the same thing, is
an important one to know and to be able to use. In this particular grammar
pattern, the second clause depends on the first clause and words such as
“얼마나” and “어떻게” is often used in the first clause to form statements such
as “it depends on how (much)…” like:
“...어떻게 하느냐에 달려 있다.”
= it depends on how you do it.

y ou’ll often encounter this pattern in the form of 생각하느냐에 달려 있다 (or


even more commonly 생각하기에 달려 있다) which means “it depends on how
you think about it“. If you want to say “success depends on how your
determination,” you can say “성공은 마음먹기에 달려있다.” You can then
replace 성공 (success) with pretty much anything achievable to make your
own sentences.
Some more examples:

너에게 달려 있어.
= it’s up to you/it depends on you (notice how it’s 에게 and not 에!)
행복은 어떻게 살고 있느냐에 달려있습니다.
= happiness depends on how you live your life.
얼마나 예쁘냐에 달려 있어
= it depends on how pretty you are

-느니 Grammar Lesson – “I would rather…” On KimchiCloud.com


Please note
To make an even more interesting sentence, you can add to the first clause
“whether or not…” where you take the verb + 고 and its negative form +고는
(or 은/는 것은) (하고 안하고는…에 달려 있다 for example) .

You might also see -냐에 swapped out with -는가에 to form -는가에 달려 있다.
Don’t be confused! It means the same thing. 그리고! Sometimes people like to
add 따라 after 에 (…에 따라 달려있다). The meaning doesn’t change here
either.

To sum it up – a very useful grammar pattern in all situations. It’s easy to use
and makes you sound a little smarter if you use correctly. So if you run out of
things to write about in your TOPIK essay, it’s really good to have in your
arsenal of grammar.
For comparison, please check out our article on -기 나름이다.

5. Expressions for "any" or "every"

a. 아무 N. + (이)나

=> "any N."

b. 아무/누구/무엇/어디/언제 + (이)나

=> "anyone," "everyone," "anything," "any place/everywhere," "any time"

When a noun is preceded by 아무 and followed by -(이)나, it means "any," as in 아무 책이나 "any book," or 아무
지도나 "any map." When the particle -(이)나 is attached to a question word 아무, 누구, 무엇, 어디, or 언제, it
becomes like a pronoun: 아무나 "anyone," 누구나 "everyone," 무엇이나 "anything/everything," 어디나
"anyplace/anywhere," or 언제나 "any time/whenever." (For more on "any" or "every," seeL10, GN4.)

(a)

 방학동안에 아무 일이나 하겠어요.


=> During vacation, I'll do any kind of work.
 어떤 색깔 셔츠를 드릴까요?
=> What color shirt would you like?
아무 거나 주세요.
=> Please give me any color.
 무슨 영화 볼래?
=> What do you want to see?
아무 영화나 볼래.
=> I'll watch any movie.

(b)

 누구나 시를 쓸 수 있다.
=> Anyone can write a poem.
 미국은 무엇이나 발달됐다.
=> In the United States, everything is developed
 봄에는 어디나 꽃이 핀다.
=> In the spring, flowers bloom everywhere.
 언제나 바다에 가면 배들을 볼 수 있다.
=> Whenever you go to the ocean, you can always see boats.

한국에서 가장 중요한 명절은 설과 추석이다. 설날은 새해를 맞이하는 정월 초하루이고 추석은 음력 팔월


십오일이다. 음력은 보통 양력보다 한 달이나 두 달쯤 늦어지므로 1 추석은 양력으로 구월이나 시월이
된다. 추석 때가 되면 무덥던 날씨가 시원해진다. 산에는 단풍이 들어 경치도 아름답다. 게다가 추수가
끝나서 곡식과 과일 등이 풍부하다. 그래서 추석은 미국의 추수감사절과 비슷하다고 한다.

차례를 지내는 것은 추석의 중요한 행사이다. 아침에 친척들이 모여 차례를 지낸 후 성묘를


하러 간다. 그래서 이날은 서울 거리가 텅 비지만 지방으로 내려 가는 2 고속 도로는 꽉 막혀서 차들이 꼼짝도
못한다.3 어떤 때는 차 속에 앉아서 몇 시간을 보낸다.

룸메이트: 이번 금요일이 추석이라 강릉에 계신 큰아버지께서 내려 오라고 4 하셨어. 친구와 같이 와도


좋다고 하셨는데 같이 안 갈래?

현배: 그래? 강릉이 여기서 머니?

룸메이트: 강원도에 있는데 꽤 멀어. 서울에서 동쪽으로 다섯 시간쯤 걸릴거야.

현배: 야 신난다! 그런데 큰아버지께 실례가 안 될까?


추석에는 무슨 특별한 행사가 있니?

룸메이트: 나도 추석은 처음이어서 잘 모르겠어. 차례가 있다고 들었어. 그리고 근처산에 있는 할아버지
할머니 산소에도 간다고 해.

현배: 송편도 먹겠네! 미국에서 추석 때 송편 먹던 생각이 난다.

룸메이트: 내일 수업 끝나고 두 시쯤 떠나자. 우리 강릉 가는 김에 5 설악산까지 갔다 올까? 며칠 놀러


갔다와도 되니?
현배: 요즘 숙제가 많아서 좀 바쁜 편이지만,6 갔다 와서 하면 되겠지 뭐.

The legend tells us that what we see under the full moon
is a couple of busy rabbits. Under a cinnamon tree, they
are pounding rice in a wooden mortar to use in
preparing for Ch'usŏ k's rice cake.
(계수나무 cinnamon tree; cassia tree, 떡방아 rice-flour
mill; 떡방아 찧다 to pound rice into flour, 찧다 to pound,
토끼 rabbit)

[추석날 계수나무 밑에서


떡방아 찧는 토끼]
Rabbits Making Rice Cake
under the Cinnamon Tree

문형과 문법 (Patterns and Grammar Notes)

1. a. V. + (으)므로

=> "because," "as," "for," "since," "for being . . ."

b. N. + (이)므로

=> "because it is . . ."

This causal connective (으/이)므로 is rarely used colloquially. Other causal connectives, -(으)니까, -기 때문에, -
(어/아)서, and -(으)니, are used in spoken language. These causal connectives are not always interchangeable.

(a)

 파올로의 생일은 형 생일보다 두 달쯤 늦으므로 9 월이다.


=> Since Paolo's birthday is about two months behind his older brother's, it's in September.
 가을 날씨가 좋으므로 관광객이 많이 온다.
=> Since the fall weather is good, many tourists are coming.
 아버님이 오셨으므로 그날은 일찍 집에 가기로 했다.
=> Since my father was visiting, I decided to go home early that day.
(b)

 사흘 있으면 명절이므로 길이 막힐 거다.


=> Because the holiday starts in three days, the roads will be jammed.
 내일이 추석이므로 할머니 댁에 가야 한다.
=> Because tomorrow is Ch'usŏ k, I must go to Grandmother's house.
 내일부터 휴가(이)므로 오늘 일을 끝마쳐야겠다.
=> Since my vacation begins tomorrow, I have to finish the job today

ADV. 꼼짝

=> "a tiny bit (of motion)"

꼼짝 is generally used with a negative―for example, 안 and 못 or with the negative ending 없다, 말다, or -지
않다. It may be used positively, however, in a question. (Certain adverbs may be used only in the negative.
See L20, GN2 for more on negative adverbs.)

 꼼짝도 안 한다.
=> It does not move, even a little bit.
 꼼짝 할 수 없다.
=> I am not able to move at all/even a little bit.
 나는 요즘 바빠서 꼼짝도 못한다.
=> Because I am busy these days, I can't go out at all.
 꼼짝 말아라!
=> Don't move!
 그 차 속에서 꼼짝 할 수 있니?
=> Can you move at all in the car?

5. A.V. + ㄴ/은/는 김에

=> "while one is at it/doing it," "since/because"

This colloquial expression is used when we say, "while we are at it, we might as well do . . . ," and use the verbal
modifier ㄴ/은 or 는, depending on the tense.

 은행에 가는 김에 서점에도 들를까?


=> Since we are going to the bank, shall we stop at a bookstore?
 뉴욕에 간 김에 자유의 여신상을 구경했다.
=> While we were in New York City, we toured the Statue of Liberty.
6. a. D.V. + ㄴ/은 편이다

=> "to be kind of," "to be rather," "to be relatively"

b. A.V. + ㄴ/은/는 편이다

=> "to be kind of," "to be rather," "to be relatively"

Used with descriptive verbs, this expression indicates that something is "relatively" or "kind of" 좋다 "good," 크다
"big," 많다 "many," and so on. For action verbs, it is often accompanied by an adverb or an adverbial phrase that
modifies the verb, as in 빨리 읽는 편이다 "to read kind of fast."

(a)

 아기가 착한 편인데 피곤해서 지금 운다.


=> The baby is usually rather good-natured, but he is crying now because he is tired.
 세일인데도 비싼 편이다.
=> It's on sale, but it's still rather expensive.
 어려서 우리 누나는 키가 작은 편이었다.
=> My sister was relatively short when she was young.

(b)

 수잔은 불어보다 독어를 잘 하는 편이다.


=> Susan speaks German somewhat better than French.
 중학교 때 나는 책을 빨리 읽는 편이었다.
=> I read books relatively fast when (I was) in middle school.
 그 사람 부자 에요? 아니오. 못 사는 편이에요.
=> Is he rich? No, he is fairly poor.

-탓이다 & -(으) ㄴ / 는 탓에

This expression is mostly used when expressing


the cause or situation of ‘negative result.‘ (It
becomes a little awkward when used to express the
cause of ‘positive result.’)

Example sentences)

1)

A: 왜 우리 팀이 졌는지 생각해 봐.

Think about why out team lost.

B: 모두 제 탓입니다. 제가 팀을 잘 이끌지 못했습니다.

It’s all my fault. I didn’t lead the team well.

2)

A: 시험을 망쳤어. 난 처음부터 교수님이 마음에 들지 않았지.

I messed up on my test. I didn’t like the professor from the beginning.

B: 그건 공부를 하지 않은 네 탓이야.

It’s your fault because you didn’t study.

3)

A: 오늘 못 만날 것 같아. 지금 병원에 왔거든.

I don’t think we can meet today. I am at a hospital.


B: 병원? 무슨 일이야?

A hospital? What happened?

A: 아침에 부엌에서 넘어졌어. 다 언니 탓이야. 어젯밤에 요리하고 하나도


정리를 안 해놨거든.

I fell in the kitchen this morning. This is all my sister’s fault. She didn’t clean
up the place after she cooked last night.

B: 얼마나 다쳤어?

How much are you hurt?

A: 팔을 삐었어. 며칠 안에 괜찮아질 거야.

I twisted my arm. I should be okay in a few days.

1)
A: 눈 오는데 산책할래요?

It’s snowing. Do you want to go for a walk?

B: 아니요. 날씨가 추운 탓에 밖에 나가기가 싫어져요.

No. I don’t feel like going outside because of the cold weather.

2)

A: 폰 충전하는 걸 잊어버렸다고?

You forgot to charge your phone?


B: 응. 기억력이 안 좋은 탓에 자주 잊어버려.

Yeah. I forget it often because I have bad memories.

A: 연락이 안 돼서 걱정했잖아.

I was worried that I couldn’t reach you.

B: 이제 안 잊어버릴게.

I won’t forget again.

3)

A: 무슨 일이니? 괜찮아?

What’s wrong? Are you okay?

B: 별거 아니에요. 준비운동을 하지 않은 탓에 다리에 쥐가 났어요.

It’s nothing. I got a cramp in my leg because I didn’t do a warm-up exercise.

A: 저 쪽에서 좀 쉬렴.

You should get some rest over there.

Other uses
Example sentences)

1)

A: 왜 그렇게 화가 나 있어?
Why are you so mad?

B: 요즘 일이 잘 안 풀려. 전부 다.

Things are not going well. I mean everything.

A: 무슨 일이야?

What’s the matter?

B: 잘 모르겠어. 그리고 친구들도 다 짜증 나.

I don’t know. And my friends are all being jerks, too.

A: 남 탓하지 말고 진짜 원인이 뭔지 잘 생각해 봐.

Stop blaming others, and try to find out what the real reason is.

2)

A: 운전할 때 말 걸지 말라고 했잖아!

I asked you not to talk to me while I’m driving!

B: 무슨 소리야? 난 브레이크를 밟으라고 했잖아!

What are you talking about? I told you to hit the brakes!

C: 지금 네 탓 내 탓 가릴 때가 아니잖아!

This is not the time to blame each other!

B: 알았어. 병원으로 옮기자.


Okay. Let’s take him to the hospital.

3)

A: 아무도 그 일을 예상하지 못했어.

No one saw that coming.

B: 이런 경우에는 누구 탓을 해야 할지 모르겠어.

In cases like this, I don’t know whom to blame.

A: 빨리 해결 방법을 찾아 보자.

Let’s find solutions quickly.

Comparison between -기 때문에, -는 바람에, -(으)ㄴ/는 탓에, and -(으)ㄴ/는 덕분에 :

1. Good vs Bad result.


 Good: -기 때문에, -(으)ㄴ/는 덕분에
 Bad: -기 때문에, -는 바람에, -(으)ㄴ/는 탓에
2. Cause type.
 All types: -기 때문에, -(으)ㄴ/는 덕분에, -(으)ㄴ/는 탓에
 Unexpected cause: -는 바람에
3. Tense of 1st clause.
 All tenses: -기 때문에, -(으)ㄴ/는 덕분에, -(으)ㄴ/는 탓에
 Present tense: -는 바람에
4. Tense of the 2nd clause.
 All types: -기 때문에, -(으)ㄴ/는 덕분에, -(으)ㄴ/는 탓에
 Past tense: -는 바람에
5. Used with Adjective, Verb, and Noun.
 All types: -기 때문에, -(으)ㄴ/는 덕분에, -(으)ㄴ/는 탓에
 Verb only: -는 바람에