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Interchange x’s and y’s Interchange x’s and y’s 2

Interchange a’s and b’s Interchange a’s and b’s Set b2  a 2 Set c 2  a2

Conic Section Ellipse Hyperbola Rectangular Hyperbola

Shape

2 2 2 2
x2  y  1, a  b x2  y  1, b  a x2  y  1 y 2 x2 a
Equation  1 x2  y2  a2 xy  xy  c 2
a 2 b2 a 2 b2 a 2 b2 b2 a 2 2

0  e 1 e 1

Eccentricity 
b2  a 2 1  e2  
a 2  b2 1  e2  
b2  a 2 e2  1  
a 2  b2 e2  1  e 2

e2  a 2b e2  b 2a e2  a 2b e2  a 2b


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
a a a b

Foci   ae,0   0, be    ae,0   0, be   a 2,0   a, a   c 2,  c 2 


Directrices x   ae y   be x   ae y   be x a x  y  a x  y  c 2
2

Asymptotes Nil y   ab x x   ab y  y   ab x y  x x0, y0 x0, y0

dy dy b2 x dy b2 x dy dy 2 dy 2
Expression for By implicit differentiation:  2 By implicit differentiation:   xy  a2   c2
dx dx a y dx a 2 y dx dx 2x dx x

Cartesian equation of xx1 yy1 xx1 yy1 yy1 xx1


 2 1  2 1  2 1 xx1  yy1  a 2
tangent at P  x1 , y1  a2 b a2 b b2 a
Prove as required
Cartesian equation of a 2 x b2 y 2 2 a 2 x b2 y 2 2
normal at P  x1 , y1  x1  y1  a  b x1  y1  a  b

Chord of contact xx0 yy xx0 yy0 yy0 xx0 Prove as required Prove as required
 20  1  2 1  2 1
from T  x0 , y0  a2 b a2 b b2 a xy0  x0 y  a 2 xy0  x0 y  2c 2
Set b = a or prove
Parameterisation x  a cos  , y  b sin  x  a sec  , y  b tan  x  a tan  , y  b sec  equations as required x  ct , y  ct
Parametrically, it is
Equation of tangent x cos y sin x sec y tan y sec x tan more convenient to
 b 1  b 1  a 1 x  t 2 y  2ct
(Parametric form) a a b use the hyperbola
xy  c 2
Equation of normal
(Parametric form)
ax

by
cos sin
2
a b
2 ax

by
sec tan
2
a b
2 ax

by
tan sec
2
a b
2

t 3 x  ty  c t 4  1 
Equation of chord Chord PQ:

P cp, cp  
Q cq, qc  x  pqy  c  p  q 