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4.

Matrix Ray Tracing


* (y, α) method
* (nu, y) method
* Rigorous ray tracing & Spatial ray tracing

* (y, α) Ray Tracing

 A B  
 yo       yi 
  ->  C D   ->  
α o  Opticalsystem  α i 
 

 yi   A B   yo 
α  =    
 i C D  α o 

1. Translation matrix
 yo   yi 
  <-t->  
α o  α i 

y  1 t   y 
yi = y0 +α0 t; αi=α0 ∴  i =  
o
 
α i  0 1 α o 

2. Refractive surface

R 1 0
 yi     yo 
α  =  n − n′ n  α 
 i  o
 Rn′ n' 
n n′

3. Thin lens
1 0
R2  yi     yo 
R1 α  =  − 1 1  α 
 i  f   o 

n n′ n
1 =
f
( n′ − n ) n × ( 1 − 1 )
R1 R2
4. Spherical mirror 3-2
1 0 
 yi   yo 
R

  =  −2 −1  
α
 i α
R   o 

R<0 ∵A spherical mirror is equivalent to a thin lens

f = R/2

ex.

M2 M3 M4
M l-1

Ml
M1

 yi   yo   A B   yo 
α  = Ml × Ml-1 … M2 × M1  =    
 i α o  C D  α o 

5. Matrix method in thick lens

α3
α1
α0
y2 = y3

y0 = y1
R1 R2

n1 n2 n3
 1 0 
i. at 1 surface (refraction): M1=  n1 − n2
st
n1  3-3
 n2 × R1 n2 
 1 0 
 y1   y0     y0 
α  =M1 α  =  n1 − n2 n1  α 
 1  0
 n2 × R1 n2   0 
1 t 
ii. Translation at n2: M2 =  
0 1

 y2   y1  1 t   y1 
α  = M2 α  = 0 1 α 
 2  1    1

 1 0 

iii. at 2 surface (refraction): M3=  n2 − n3 n2 
nd

 n3 × R2 n3 
 1 0 
 y3   y2     y2 
  =M3   =  n2 − n3 n2   
α 3  α 2  α 2 
 n3 × R2 n3 

∴ Optical system is

 y3   y0   y0 
  =M3 M2 M1 α  =M α 
α 3   0  0

Now, thin lens: t → 0 & n1 = n3 = n (n L = n2 )

 1 0  1 0  1 0 
M = ( n L − n ) nL     ( n − n L ) n 
 (n × R) n   0 1   (n L × R1 ) nL 
 1 0
= ( L
n − n 1 1 
 n )( R − R ) 1
 2 1 

1 n −n 1 1
Lens equation: =( L )( − )
f n R1 R2

 1 0
∴ M = − 1 
1
 f
 
6. Calibration of matrix method (y- α ) 3-4

A B
M = 
C D 

n
det ( M ) = AD - BC =
n′
n : refractive index in object space
n′ : refractive index in image space

 1 translation matrix
n
 n′ refraction surface

det ( M ) =  1 for thin lens in air
 −1 reflection surface

 n n ′ thick lens

∴ n = n ′ ⇒ det ( M system) = 1

7. Element of matrix

 y f   A B   y0 
光學系統   =   
α f  C D  α 0 

即 y f = Ay0 + Bα 0

α f = Cy 0 + Dα 0

a. 若 D = 0 → α f = Cy 0 = constant

無論入射光線與光軸夾角 α 0 值為何,出射線與光軸之夾角 α f 恆為一定


值 Cy 0 (僅與光點和光軸距離 y 有關)即出射線為一組平行光線。 3-5

b. 若 A = 0 → y f = Bα 0

一組與光軸夾角為 α 0 的平行光,無論光點與光軸之距離 y 0 為何,其映射

點與光軸之距離 y f 恆為一定值(僅與 α 0 有關)即像點必落在焦平面上。

c. 若 B = 0 → y f = Ay 0

y f 定值(僅與 y 0 有關)。即與光軸距離 y 0 之光點發出的任何光線,經光

學系統無論如何必匯聚於定點 y f 。

yf
註: 1. A = ( y0
)即為此光學系統之放大率
2. 求像距時,以 s ′ = ( y f α ′) 3-6

d. 若 C = 0 → α f = Dα 0

此為一組與光軸夾角 α 0 的平行入射光束,經光學系統產生一組與光軸

夾角 α f 的平行光束。

註: 1. 此種“平行光入射,平行光出射”的光學系統稱之為望遠鏡系統。

2. D = ( α f α 0 )為此系統的角放大率(angler magnification)。

HW1:if B = 0, find image formation equation

HW2:if f = 10.0 cm of thin lens= =


in air. so 15 cm & yo 2 cm .

Find properties of image

* NYU Matrix Method


1. Refraction surface
n + n ′ = ( n ′ − n) = P
s s′ r
3-7

u 的符號規定,從幾何關係 Definitions:
y = su = s′( −u′) = y ′  y: height from O.A. 
 
→ s =( y ), s′ =( − y ′)  n: refractive index 
u u  u: slope of the ray 
 
′ ( n′ − n )
代入成像公式:n ( u y ) − n′(u y ) =r  nu: numerical aperture 


nu − n′u′ =y × (n − n) =yp p : power of surface
r
n′u=′ nu − yp
and 
 y = y′

 n′u′ 1 − P   nu 
以矩陣式表示為  ′  =   
 y  0 1   y 

其中 nu: 光線的數值孔徑 (numerical aperture, NA)

1 − P 
則  稱為球面介質成像矩陣
0 1 

2. Translation matrix

ray from A → B
t
∴ y ′ = y + tu = y + × ( nu )
n
also nu = n'u '
 n′u ′  1 0   nu 
=
>  y′  =   
  t n 1   y 

↑ called translation matrix in homogeneous medium


3. Thick lens 3-8
第一折射面的球面介質成像矩陣 M1

1 − P1 
M1 =  
0 1 

厚透鏡中的轉移矩陣 M2

 1 0
M2 =  t 
 n′ 1 

第二折射面的球面介質成像矩陣 M3
1 − P2 
M3 = 
0 1 

則厚透鏡的成像矩陣為 M
M = M3 M2 M1
1 − P2   1 0 1 − P1 
M =  
0 1   t n' 1 0 1 

1 − P2 × ( t ) − ( P1 + P2 − P1 × P2 × ( t )
M = n' n' 
 t 1 − P1 × ( )
t 
 n' n' 
又厚透鏡的光焦度 P

P = P1 + P2 − ( t ′) × P1 × P2
n

1 − P2 × ( t ) −P 
 n′ 
故 M =
 t 1 − P1 × ( t ′) 
 n′ n 
4. Thin lens 3-9
續厚透鏡成像矩陣,令 t = 0 即為薄透鏡成像矩陣:

1 − ( P1 + P2 )
M = 
0 1 

其中 P1:第一折射面之光焦度; P2:第二折射面之光焦度

Note:校對判別式 same as y-α matrix method


A B
光學系統之矩陣 M =   ;判別式 det (M) = AD – BC = 1
C D 

ex. By using NYU ray tracing


以表格方式來表示矩陣的運算結果,以便於應用電腦計算,其依據:

 n′u′ 1 − P   nu 
1. NYU 折射矩陣:  =  
 y′  0 1   y 

 n′u′  1 0  nu 
2. NYU 轉移距陣:  =  
 y ′  t / n 1  y 

Pi = (ni − ni −1 ) / Ri i = 1, 2,3 … & initial condition: ( y 0 , n0 u 0 )


Hw. Camera 採用 Cooke 之透鏡組(triplet)結構如下: 3-10

n0 n1 n2 n3 n4 n5

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5

R1 = 19.4 t1 = 4.29 n1 =1.6110


R2 = -128.3 t2 = 1.63 n0=n2 =1.0
R3 = -57.8 t3 = 0.93 n3 = 1.5744
R4 = 18.9 t4 =12.9 n4 = 1.0
R5 = 311.3 t5 =3.03 n5 = 1.6110
R6 = -66.4 unit: mm
(a) How far behind the last surface must be film place occur to focus paraxial
rays (i.e. s.f.d.)? Also, s.f.l. (Ray tracing by hand and Matlab)
(b) If the second lens is moved 1 mm forward or backward, please calculate
the new focal lengths. (by Matlab)
(c) Place an object (2 m height) in front of the first surface 2 m and to find the
image via the triplet camera lens. (by Matlab)
(d) Please derive the equivalent power of the triplet lens.

* Rigorous Ray Tracing


 NYU ray tracing in paraxial optics

1. Refraction surface
 n′u′ 1 − P  nu  n′ − n
 y′  = 0 1   y 
where P =
   R

2. Translation
 n′u′ 1 0 nu 
 y ′  = t / n 1  y 
    

Now, sin θ ≠ θ , cos θ ≠ 1


 Rigorous NYU ray tracing 3-11

1. Refraction surface
 n′ sin u′ 1 − Pr  n sin u 
 y ′  = 0 1   y 
    

n′ cos θ ′ − n cos θ ( n′2 − n 2 sin 2 θ )1/ 2 − ( n 2 − n 2 sin 2 θ )1/ 2


where Pr = =
R R

2. Translation
 n′ sin u′  1 0 n sin u 
 y′

 = t / n
 r 1   y 

t
where = cos(u )  t = t r cos(u )
tr