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Basics of Measurement

Units for measurement

Physical measurement always requires specification of both a value (i.e., a number
representing “how much”) and a unit (i.e., “of what”). Systems of measurement are
formal strategies for indexing amounts of specified physical quantities.

To express the magnitude of a physical quantity a standard is chosen which is of the
same kind as physical quantity. This standard is taken as reference to measure a physical
quantity which is known as unit.
Therefore the process of measurement of a physical quantity involves.
i) The selection of the unit and
ii) Number of times the unit is contained in that physical quantity
In general,
measure of a physical quantity = numerical value of the quantity X size of its unit

Fundamental and derived units:

Fundamental units are the units, which can be neither derived from one another, nor can
they be further resolved into any other units.
The three fundamental units are
(i) Mass (ii) Length and (iii) Time
Derived units are units of all such physical quantities which can be expressed in terms of
the fundamental units of mass, length and time.
Ex. unit of area = (metre)2
unit of volume = (metre)3
hence all derived units can be obtained by writing it in terms of fundamental units.

System of Units:
The common systems of units are:
(i) CGS system: It was set up in France and is based on centimetre, gram and second as
the fundamental units of length, mass and time respectively. It is a metric system of unit
(ii) FPS system or British system of units: - It is based on foot, pound and second as the
fundamental units of length mass and time.
(iii) MKS system: It was also set up in France and is based on metre, kilogram and second
as the fundamental units of mass, length and time.

SI system of unit:
In 1960 The General Conference of Weights and Measures introduced a new system of,
units known as SI units. It is based on seven basic and two supplementary units given as:

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Base Units:

Name of the Unit of Measurement Symbol

Length “metre” “m”
Mass “kilogram” “kg”
Time “second” “s”
Electric Current “ampere” “A”
Thermodynamic “kelvin” “K”
Amount of “mole” “mol”
Luminous Intensity “candela” “cd”

All properties of interest to a Boiler Engineer can be derived from the above Base and
Supplementary Units as can be seen from the following:
Derived Units:

Name of the Unit of Measurement Symbol

Acceleration “metre per sec2” “m/s2”
Area “square metre” “m2”
Density “kilogram per cubic “kg/m3”
Energy “Joules” “J” = “Nm”
Entropy “Joules per Kelvin” “J/K”
Specific entropy Joule per gram Kelvin J/(g K)
Force “Newton” “N” = kgm/s2
Power (Rate of “Watt” “W” = J/s
Pressure “Pascal” “Pa” = N/m2
Quantity of Heat “Joules” “J” = Nm
Stress (Same as “Pascal” “Pa” = N/m2
Velocity “metre per second” “m/s”
Work “Joules” “J” = Nm
Moment of force Newton meter Nm
specific energy Joule per kilogram J/kg

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Advantage of SI
(i) It is a rational system of units - Its makes use of only one unit for one physical
quantity. Ex. all types of energies are expressed in Joules. Whereas in MKS system
different units are used for different types of energies. For ex. mechanical energy is
measured in Joule, heat energy in calorie and electrical energy in watt hour.
(ii) SI is a coherent system of units i.e all derived units can be obtained by dividing and
multiplying the basic and supplementary units and no numerical factors are introduced
as used to be the case with certain units of the CGS and MKS systems.
(iii) SI is a metric system. The multiples and sub-multiples can be expressed as the
powers of 10.

Important Physical Quantities and their concepts:


The Matter exists in three states:

Solid, Liquid and Vapour.
All matter comprises of atoms and molecules. The extent to which these atoms are
bonded to each other decides the state of the matter. As long as the bonding force
between the atoms is large, the matter remains Solid and retains its shape and tends to
oppose any cause, which tends to change its shape. This is the reason that solids have
the property of elasticity and are stressed if strained. The Bonding Forces are of several
types such as gravitational pull between atoms and Covalent Bonds.
The atoms and molecules of any matter is in a constant state of random vibrations and
the vibrations’ amplitude increases with temperature of the matter. Depending on
temperature the Inter-atomic Distance varies and when the Inter-atomic Distance is such
that force of attraction between tow atoms equals force of repulsion, a threshold state is
reached when state of matter changes from Solid to Liquid and the matter no longer
exhibits the property of elasticity and does not resist a change in its shape.
At a further higher temperature the atoms and molecules reach a state of vibration when
there exist no cohesive force between its atoms or molecules. At such a temperature the
matter changes its state from Liquid to Vapour.
The temperature at which a solid matter changes its state to liquid is called its Melting
Point and the temperature at which the matter in Liquid state changes to Vapour is
called Boiling Point. These temperatures depend upon pressure.
To the extent that the three phases of matter relate to the subject of Boiler Technology
and Engineering, the reader is advised to recall that Water is Solid when it is Ice. When
heated, Ice (which is water in solid state) changes its state to Liquid (Water) and when
further heated, water changes to the third state, which is vapour and called Steam.
Under atmospheric pressure Melting Point of Ice is 0 0C or 320F and Boiling Point of Water
is 1000C or 2120F. However, these points of temperature depend on pressure. The change
in melting point of ice is not relevant to boilers and steam engines and turbines hence
we will not deal with it further. However, the boiling point of water varies greatly with
its pressure.
This matter is covered in greater details under Properties of Steam in this tutorial. The
characteristics of change of state or phase of water to steam are derived experimentally
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and are published by various renowned international bodies (such as ASME) as “Steam
It is considered relevant here to mention that in a boiler just above the surface of water
in the boiler drum, contains tiny particles of water which though suspended above the
surface of water in the drum, is not actually in vapour state and needs to absorb heat in
order to get converted into vapour or steam. That is why the steam just above the water
surface in boiler drums is called “wet steam”. When each and every tiny water particle
has got fully converted into vapour or steam it is called “dry saturated steam”.

Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of
matter they contain.
Strictly speaking, there are three different quantities called mass:
 Inertial mass is a measure of an object's inertia: its resistance to changing its state of
motion when a force is applied. An object with small inertial mass changes its motion
more readily, and an object with large inertial mass does so less readily.
 Passive gravitational mass is a measure of the strength of an object's interaction
with the gravitational field. Within the same gravitational field, an object with a
smaller passive gravitational mass experiences a smaller force than an object with a
larger passive gravitational mass. (This force is called the weight of the object. In
informal usage, the word "weight" is often used synonymously with "mass", because
the strength of the gravitational field is roughly constant everywhere on the surface
of the Earth. In physics, the two terms are distinct: an object will have a larger
weight if it is placed in a stronger gravitational field, but its passive gravitational
mass remains unchanged.)
 Active gravitational mass is a measure of the strength of the gravitational field due
to a particular object. For example, the gravitational field that one experiences on
the Moon is weaker than that of the Earth because the Moon has less active
gravitational mass.
The SI unit for mass is the kilogram (kg), which is equal to the mass of the
international prototype kilogram.

The mole is the amount of substance. The unit is call the mole (mol), and it’s defined as
the number of molecules present in 0.012 kilograms of carbon-12. In other words, 1 mole
of carbon-12 has a mass of 12 grams. 1 kmol = 103 mol

Volume of gas or any substance is defined as the space, which it occupies.
Unit of volume of any substance is cubic centimeter or cubic meter.
The volume is also expressed in litre.
1 liter = 1000 cm3 =106 mm3 = 10-3 m3

Specific volume:
The specific volume of a substance is its volume per unit mass i.e m3/kg.
The unit of specific volume is m3/kg.
One kilogram of air at 00 C and under an absolute pressure of 1.0332 kg/cm2 (760 mm of
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Hg) has volume of 0.7734 m3.

Therefore the specific volume of air under these conditions is 0.7734 m3/kg. It is
denoted by v

Density & Specific Gravity:

Density of a substance signifies how densely it is packed with mass. Mathematically it is
expressed as “mass per unit volume” i.e kg/m3 it also termed as “Mass density” and
denoted by .
Density or Mass density,  = m/v
Depending upon the Units of Measurements, the Density is expressed in various units such
as “gm/cc” r “kg/ m3 or “lb/ ft3”. For example water has a Density of “1 gm/cc” or
“1000 kg/m3” or “62.4 lb/cft”. Thus the numeric value of Density of a substance is
different for the same substance in different Units of Measurements.
The Specific Gravity of a substance is its “density compared with that of water”. Since
Specific Gravity is only a comparison of Density of a substance with the Density of water,
it has no unit and its value remains same irrespective of the Units of Measurement.
Specific Gravity is generally used for liquids.
Concentration is the amount of a substance contained in a given volume. "Amount of a
substance" and "given volume" can take many forms.

When a known number of moles of a substance is dissolved or dispersed in a liquid to
give a known volume of solution or suspension.
Moles per litre (mol/L) and moles per cubic centimetre (mol/cc) express concentration in
the terms of mole per unit volume (mol/v).

When a mass of a substance is dissolved or suspended in a liquid to give a known volume
of solution or suspension.
Kilograms per litre (kg/L), grams per litre (g/L), milligrams per litre (mg/L) and grams
per cubic centimetre ( g/cc) express concentration in the terms of mass per unit volume
which is usually referred to as weight/volume (w/v).

When a mass of substance is dispersed in another mass to give a known resultant mass.
Grams per kilogram (g/kg) and milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) express concentration in
the terms of mass per unit mass, which is usually referred to as weight/weight (w/w).

When a volume of substance is dispersed in another volume of substance to give a known
resultant volume.
Millilitres per litre expresses concentration in the terms of volume per unit volume,
which is usually referred to as volume/volume (v/v).

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Thus, if 80 millilitres of alcohol is diluted to 2000 millilitres with water the result is a
solution of 2000 millilitres or 2 litres.

Parts Per Million (ppm)

A part per million is one of a quantity in one million of another quantity. Parts per
million is abbreviated to "ppm".
To convert a concentration from v/v to ppm the concentration must be in ml/ml, L/L,
etc... and then multiply by 106 to get ppm v/v.
In the same way w/w concentration can only be converted to ppm using the factor "10 6"
if the concentration is expressed in grams per gram (g/g), kilograms per kilograms
(kg/kg), etc.
The volume of a substance in the gaseous form can be equated to the mass of the
substance if the exact volume is known. Thus, the volume /volume concentration of a
substance can be equated to the mass/volume concentration of that substance.

Percent (%) is also used to express concentration much the same as parts per million
(ppm). The difference is that percent relates to one in a hundred compared to ppm,
which relates to one in a million.

Pressure is defined as ‘Force per Unit Area’. Take a jar of glass with a flat bottom, filled
with water and keep it over a table. The weight of water in the jar exerts a force on the
surface of the table. If this force is measured over a unit area of the surface, then it is
called the pressure. Therefore pressure can be defined as the force exerted by an object
over the surface of unit Area.
i.e. pressure = force / area
In practice it is expressed or measured in following units:
N/m2 ; Kg/cm2; Lb/in2 ; bar (1 bar=105N/m2); pascal (1Pascal= 1 N/m2); height of liquid
column (Normally water & Mercury)

Atmospheric Pressure:
The atmosphere, surrounding the earth, exerts a pressure on its surface equivalent to
the weight of air acting over unit area of the earth's surface and it is known as
atmospheric pressure. At sea level, the weight of air over a weight of unit area of earth’s
surface is equivalent to weight of a column of 76 cm (760 mm) of mercury column (Hg) at
00C. It is taken as the standard barometric pressure. This is also known as a physical
atmosphere or barometric atmosphere.
The density of mercury is 13. 595 grams per cubic centimeter
Therefore standard barometric pressure = 76 x 13. 595 = 1033. 32 grams / sq. cm. i.e.
1.03322 kg/
1 ata = 1 metric or technical atmosphere (1 kg/cm2 ab.) = 760 /1.0332 =735.6 mm of Hg
Pressure is also measured in the unit of mm of water column. One Atmospheric pressure
is equivalent to 760x13.595mm of water column. That is 10332.2mm of water. This is
10.332 meter of water.
1kg/cm2 = 735.6mm of Hg = 735.6x13.595 = 10meter of water

We know that the atmosphere exerts pressure as mentioned. However, if we take a

pressure gauge in our hand, it reads Zero, even though the atmospheric pressure is
present. Thus pressure Gauge measures the pressure with reference to Atmospheric
pressure (Ref. Fig.-1). The pressure indicated by the gauge above atmosphere is known
as gauge pressure. The pressure indicated by the gauge when the system pressure is less
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than atmospheric is termed as Vacuum, which is generally measured in mm of water or

mercury column and the gauges are known as vacuum gauges.
Pressure Gauge Reading
Absolute Pressure
= Atm. Pressure + Gauge Pressure Gauge Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure
1.0332 kg/cm2
Vacuum =
Atm. Pressure - Absolute Pressure
Vacuum Gauge Pressure
Absolute Pressure
= Atm. Pressure - Vacuum

Absolute zero Pressure

Fig. 1
Thus the Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure
Pab = Pat + Pg
Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure – Vacuum
Pab = Pat - Vacuum

The barometer is the simplest instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. The
earth's atmosphere at sea level has a weight of 14.7 pounds over a square inch of
surface. This is the weight of a column of air that extends from sea level at the earth's
surface to the edge of the atmosphere. This weight changes as the temperature and
composition of the air mass changes. A barometer uses a substitute column of mercury
fluid in place of the air. One atmosphere in a mercury barometer is equaled by a column
of only 760 mm Hg.

h = 760 mm of

A simple Mercury
The manometer is one of the simplest tools for measuring gas pressure differences. A
manometer is a u-tube. One side of the "U" is open to atmosphere and the other side is
connected to a closed container. The "U" is filled with a fluid. If both sides of the "U"
have the same liquid levels then the pressure inside and the pressure outside are the
same. The difference between the liquid levels equals the pressure difference between
inside and outside.
The mercury level will be lower on the side with greater pressure. The higher pressure
"pushes" the mercury down. The Manometer measures the Gauge pressure. Mercury is
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particularly convenient for use in manometers (and barometers) because at room

temperature it has low vapor pressure, does not wet glass, and has a high density.

h is how much lower

the gas pressure is
than the pressure in
the atmosphere
h is how much
h higher the gas
pressure is than h
the pressure in the
G atmosphere
A Manomet
Properties of Gases
S er S
The Kinetic Molecular Theory
The Kinetic Molecular Theory is the basis of the many properties of gases. The five
postulates to the Kinetic Theory are as follows:

 Gases are composed of molecules whose size is negligible compared to the average
distance between them.
 Molecules move randomly in straight lines in all directions and at various speeds.
 The forces of attraction or repulsion between two molecules in a gas are very weak
or negligible, except when they collide.
 When molecules collide with one another, the collisions are elastic; no kinetic
energy is lost.
 The average kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to the absolute

Boyle's Law
Boyle's Law states the volume of a definite quantity of dry gas is inversely proportional to
the pressure, provided the temperature remains constant.
Mathematically Boyle's law can be expressed as P1V1 = P2V2
 V1 is the original volume
 V2 is the new volume
 P1 is original pressure
 P2 is the new pressure

Charles's Law
Charles's Law can be stated as the volume occupied by any sample of gas at a constant
pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
V / T =constant
 V is the volume
 T is the absolute temperature (measured in Kelvin)

Charles's Law can be rearranged into two other useful equations.

V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 & V2 = V1 (T2 / T1)
 V1 is the initial volume
 T1 is the initial temperature
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 V2 is the final volume

 T2 is the final temperature
Charles's Law only works when the pressure is constant.
Note: Charles's Law is fairly accurate but gases tend to deviate from it at very high and
low pressures.

NTP stands for Normal Temperature and Pressure. NTP is 0o Celcius and 1 atmospheric
pressure. Gases properties can be compared using NTP as a reference.

Combined Law
The combined gas law is a combination of Boyle's Law and Charles's Law; hence its name
the combined gas law. In the combined gas law, the volume of gas is directly
proportional to the absolute temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure.
This can be written as PV / T = constant.
Therefore we can write P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2.
 P1 is the initial pressure
 V1 is the initial volume
 T1 is the initial temperature (in Kelvin)
 P2 is the final pressure
 V2 is the final volume
 T2 is the final temperature (in Kelvin)
Also Vt = V0 { 1 + t / 273 }.
Where ‘V0’ is the volume at 00C and‘t’ is the temperature in 0C

Ideal Gas Law

The ideal gas law is a combination of all the gas laws. The ideal gas law can be expressed
as PV = mRsT.
 P is the pressure in atm
 V is the volume in liters
 m is the mass of the gas considered
 Rs is a constant
 T is the temperature in Kelvin
This equation is known as Characteristic equation of a gas.
Sometimes R is called the Characteristic or specific gas constant.

Universal gas constant:

If the molecular mass of any gas is multiplied by its specific gas constant Rs it will be
found that the product is the same for all gases. This constant is termed as Universal gas
For SI system the value of universal gas constant is 8.3143 kJ/ kmol K.
Thus Ru = MRs = 8.3143, kJ/kmol K.
Where M is the molecular mass of the gas in kg/ kmol.

[It should be noted that in any calculations involving the gas laws, absolute pressures
and absolute temperatures must be used.]
Avogadro's Law:
At a given temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gas contain equal numbers of moles.

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V = constantAL n
For example, It has been found that at NTP, 22.4 m3 of Hydrogen gas has a mass of 2
kg, therefore 1 kmol of Hydrogen.
As per Avogadro’s Law, at NTP 22.4 m3 of all other gas will have the corresponding mass of 1
kmol of that gas.

Perfect Gas: A perfect gas or ideal gas may be considered as one that obeys the laws of
Boyle and Charles and the Characteristic equation of a gas which is obtained by
combining the above laws.
No gas is perfect, but many gases can approach this standard within the temperature
limits of applied thermodynamics.

Temperature is the measure of the relative warmth or coolness of an object. The
temperature of a substance does not measure its heat content but rather the average
kinetic energy of its molecules resulting from their motions. A one-pound block of iron
and a two-pound block of iron at the same temperature do not have the same heat
content. Because they are at the same temperature the average kinetic energy of the
molecules is the same; however, the two-pound block has more molecules than the one-
pound block and thus has greater heat energy.
For measurement of Temperature there are two scales of measurements, one is
“Fahrenheit” and the other is “Centigrade” or “Celsius”. The arbitrary reference taken
is the freezing point of water under atmospheric conditions. This point at which water
freezes to a solid state is considered as ZERO in Celsius or Centigrade Scale. Again the
point of reference of water boiling at atmospheric condition and transforming to vapor
stage is taken as 100 in Celsius or Centigrade Scale. In the Fahrenheit Scale the point
corresponding to temperature at freezing of water is taken as 32, for water boiling point
as 212

In MKS systems, the unit of temperature is degree Centigrade (C)

In FPS system the unit of temperature is degree. Fahrenheit (F)
In SI system the unit of temperature is degree Celsius (C)
10 Centigrade = 10 Celsius.
A temperature reading on one scale can be converted into a reading on the other scale
by the following formula:
C/100 = (F-32)/180 or C=5/9 (F-32) or F= 1.8C+32
where, C is temperature in Celsius or Centigrade and F is temperature in Fahrenheit.

Absolute temperature scale:

We know that temperature is the effect causes by internal energy of a substance due to
random motion of molecules of a substance. A body that is hotter has its molecules
moving more vigorously than that of a body which is colder. Thus, there can be a state
when there is absolutely no random motion of the molecules of a substance. There is one
particular temperature at which the molecular random motion of each substance totally
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stops. This temperature is called ‘Absolute Zero’ because there can not be a
temperature lower than this (since the molecules can not be more stationery than being
in no motion at all).
Absolute zero is the temperature at which all vibratory, translatory and rotational
motions of the molecule of a substance is supposed to cease i.e. when internal energy
becomes zero. A gas on cooling will contract in volume as the temperature falls. Charles
found with perfect gases, the decrease in volume per degree Centigrade decrease in
temperature is 1/273rd of its initial volume at 00C, pressure remaining constant. Thus,
the volume of gas will be zero at temperature –2730C. This temperature 2730 C below 00
C (or -2720C) is called the Absolute Zero of temperature. The absolute temperature is
the temperature measured above the point of Absolute Zero. Absolute temperature is
expressed by the capital latter ‘K’ and the scale using the Absolute Zero is called
‘Kelvin’ Scale. By adding 273 to the temperature in degree Centigrade we get the
temperature in degrees of the Kelvin scale or 0K.
Temperature K = Temperature 0C+ 273
i.e. K = C + 273
Absolute temperature in degree Fahrenheit is known as degree Rankine or 0R and
the Absolute Zero in degree Fahrenheit occurs at –4600F.
Thus, Temperature 0R = Temperature 0F + 460
i.e. R = F + 460
An instrument used for measuring temperature is called a thermometer and is
constructed by using one of the following principles:

 the change of length, such as length of a mercury column,

 the change of volume, such as volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure,
 the change of pressure, such as pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume,
 the change in electric resistance, as in a thermistor,
 the flow of electricity due to Seebeck effect, as in a thermocouple,
 the radiation, as in radiation pyrometers.

Glass Bulb (Mercury thermometer): Most common for measuring air temperature is the
liquid-in-glass thermometer, which consists of a glass tube enlarged at the bottom into a
bulb that is partially filled with mercury(or organic liquid). The tube's bore is extremely
small—less than 0.02 inch (0.5 millimeter) in diameter. Thus a small amount of expansion
or contraction of the mercury in the bulb, caused by heating or cooling, produces a
noticeable rise or fall in its level in the tube.
Bimetal thermometer: Two different metals are bonded together with one end attached
to an indicating needle which aligns with a circular scale on the face of the instrument.
Since the metals expand at different rates, movement occurs depending on the
temperature fluctuation and the needle moves.
Indicating Material: A variety of “crayons” and pellets are available that melt at specific
temperatures. These do not really measure temperature directly, but do indicate the
maximum temperature that a material was exposed to.
Vapor/Gas Filled: Such thermometer operates on a similar principle to the glass bulb
type thermometer.

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Galileo thermometer: These tend to be used in decorative settings around the home or
office. These interesting models operate based on principles of specific gravity.
RTD and Thermistor: These are based on the change in resistance of a conductor when
the temperature of the wire changes. In both the instruments temperatures are digitally
displayed and have better accuracies.
Thermocouple: These operate based on the temperature change that occurs at the
junction of two dissimilar wires. When the temperature changes a small current is
generated by the junction. This current is then compared to a reference junction
(calibrated standard or ice water bath) and converted to a temperature by electric or
electronic means. So the system includes the thermocouple itself, connecting wiring and
some method (Generally a digital meter) to display the temperature reading.
Another significant advantage of the thermocouple is that the indicating instrument can
be a very long distance from the thermocouple environment. Once the system is
calibrated and the current from the thermocouple is captured, a variety of electrical
options are available for getting the information to a display unit.
Pyrometer: It is a non-contacting device intercepting and measuring thermal radiation
emitted from an object to determine surface temperature. Pyrometer is derived from
the Greek word pyro, meaning fire.
The temperature of a material, affects the color. The infrared light spectrum works very
well for this and is the basis for the infrared thermometer or pyrometer. These units do
not require a contact with the material and are available as hand held units. They can
sense a very high range of temperatures.
Some applications of pyrometers
Item Instrument used to measure
Boiler combustion space Optical pyrometer
Economiser, feed water Base metal thermo-couple
heaters and chimney gases
Incandescent filaments Optical pyrometer
Incandescent gas mantels Radiation pyrometer

If a heavy mass is to be moved from one place to other, one has to apply force or spend
energy. The Force applied to a body multiplied by the distance moved is the amount of
work done or amount of energy spent.
Work = Force x distance (traveled in the direction of force)
Work only involves the useful part of a force, namely the part that is effective in causing
the motion.
[Suppose a pail of water weighing 7 N is carried over a distance of 10 m. In order to hold
the pail up against gravity a vertical force of 7 N is exerted on the pail. The motion,
however, is horizontal, and the force exerted does no work, even though one might get
tired of holding the pail after a while.]
In SI system, the unit for work done is Newton-metre (Nm), which is the product of a unit
force (one Newton) acting through a 1-metre distance. This unit of work done is also
called joules (J).
1 J = 1 Nm
1 kg.m = 9.81 Nm = 9.81 Joules (J)
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Work can also be measured in foot pounds or Kg metres.

Suppose a weight is lifted off the floor at a fixed a distance. The work done in this case
would be the product of the force exerted times the distance covered, independent of
how fast the weight was lifted. Now if the same weight is lifted faster that is in lesser
period, then one might be tempted to say that more ``work'' is done. Actually the work
done in both the cases is same and it is the Power that is different.
The power exerted by a force is defined as change in work done over a period.
Power exerted = work / time = force x distance / time = force x velocity.
The SI Unit for Power is “Watt”. In other words Jules/sec = Watt.
In British Units the Unit of Power is “Horse Power” or “HP”, which corresponds to a
rate of work of 550 ft-lb/sec or 1 British HP = 746 Watts.
But unless and other wise mentioned, HP should be considered as Metric HP
1 Metric HP = 75 kg m/ s = 735.75 Watts.

In mechanics is defined as “capacity of doing work”. Units of Energy and Work are same.
Energy exists in two forms, namely, Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy.
Potential Energy is possessed by a body due to its position relative to other body or of
parts of the same body under the action of a force or forces tending to alter their
relative position. For example, a body which is allowed to fall towards earth may be
made to do work; hence before it begins to fall it possesses potential energy, or energy
due to its position relative to earth.

h Gravitational
Fig 4
A compressed spiral spring has potential energy because if it is allowed to resume its
unstrained form it can be made to do work. Likewise compressed air possesses potential
energy. The energy stored in a piece of coal is potential energy, and under favourable
conditions the atoms of the constituents of the coal and atoms of oxygen of the air will
rush together and produce heat which may be converted into work. . If a body of W kg
weight is allowed to fall from an elevation L2 to an elevation L1, the change in potential
∆PE = PE 2 - PE 1 = W (L2 – L1)
The unit of potential energy is Kilograms meter (MKS) and Newton metre (SI)

Kinetic Energy of a body is due to its being in motion with respect to another body. A
kilogram of water at rest at a height of 100 metres above level of the sea possesses 100
kg.m of potential energy and if this water is allowed to fall freely to the level of the sea,
without doing work on the way it will in every position of its fall possess 100 kg.m of
energy, but as it descends its potential energy will diminish, and the remainder of 100
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kg.m will be stored in water as kinetic energy. When the 1kg of water would have fallen
25 metres its potential energy would be reduced by 25 kg.m to be only 75 kg.m and its
kinetic energy would then be 25 kg.m so that total is 75 kg.m (Potential Energy) + 25
kg.m (Kinetic Energy) = 100 kg.m.
A body of weight ‘w’ kg, moving with a velocity ‘v’ possesses a certain amount of kinetic
energy (KE) with reference to earth gravitational force,
K.E = w. v2/2g.
The unit of K.E. is also kg.m in MKS and Newton metre in SIS.
Other forms of energy are also different manifestations of these two forms. For example
Electricity stored in a Capacitor having a Capacitance of C Farads and charged to a
Voltage of V Volts is a Potential Energy and its value is ½CV 2 Joules. Similarly, the Energy
in an Inductor having Inductance of L Henry (and passing an electrical current of I
Amps)has a Kinetic Energy equal to ½LI2 Joules.
All other forms of energy such as Magnetic, Light etc. are similarly explainable in terms
of Potential or Kinetic Energy.

Internal Energy: The molecules of all substances are continuously in motion. The
movement of molecules is more in gases than in liquids. Even when a gas is stored in a
closed vessel and is stagnant, that is not moving, it possesses a considerable amount of
internal Kinetic Energy due to motion of its molecules within the limits of its containing
vessel. In addition of the Internal Kinetic Energy substances also have Internal Potential
Energy due to the relative position of their molecules. Thus, the Internal Energy, E of a
substance may be defined as the algebraic sum of Internal Kinetic Energy and Internal
Potential Energy of its molecules.
The internal energy of substance increases with increases of temperature of substance
due to increases of molecular activity. Thus Internal Energy is a function of Temperature
and its value increases or decreases by adding heat to or subtracting heat from the

Torque is a measure of the 'strength' being used in turning (or attempting to turn)
A common example is that of a spanner being used to move a nut. A force is being
applied at one end of the spanner. That force is multiplied by the distance between it
and the turning-point (which, in this case, is the centre of the nut) to give a measure of
the torque which is being applied. This seems to be the same as for work which is also a
force being multiplied by a distance but look closely, in the definition for torque there is
no mention of the force moving as there is in the full definition for work.
So, they are different things even though the units are the same, and no work is done
until, in this case, the spanner moves - and even then it is a matter of how far the force
moves, and not its distance from the centre.
The SI preferred unit for torque is newton metres [Nm] and for work is joules [J].
Specific Energy :
This is a measure of the amount of energy contained in a unit quantity of some
substance. The unit quantity may be either of mass or of volume. For unit mass, usually
referred to as Specific Energy, Its units are [J/kg] or [kJ/kg]

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For unit volume, usually referred to as Calorific Value, units such as [kJ/m³] or [MJ/m³].
should be used .

Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat: Heat and Work are mutually convertible from one form
into another. In a heat engine the heat produced by combustion of the fuel used is
converted into the work done by the engine. When the brakes are applied to the wheels
of a moving train, in order to bring it to rest, the kinetic energy of the train is converted
into heat at the rubbing surfaces of the brake blocks and wheels, or if the wheels skid
the heat is produced at the rubbing surfaces of wheels and rails. Careful experiments
have shown that a certain definite number J or foot pound of work is equivalent to one
unit of heat.
In British Units J is 778 for 1 Btu.
and in metric units, 4.187 Kilojoules = 1 Kilocalories &
1 Kilocalories = 427 kg-m


Heat is believed to be “a mode of motion”. It is supposed that a body possessing heat has
its particles or molecules in a state of motion, the rate of motion increasing as the body
gets warmer and diminishing as the body cools. As to the character of motion of the
molecules it may be imagined to be an oscillatory motion in the case of solids and
liquids, but in the case of gases it is supposed to be a motion of translation.
It is found that all the phenomenon of Heat may be explained by this theory. For
example, it is well known that in general the effect of heat on matter is to enlarge it. A
piece of iron when heated gets longer, wider and thicker (due to thermal expansion).
Now it is natural to expect that if the molecule of iron have more motion as the iron gets
hotter they will require more room and will therefore push one another further apart and
consequently cause the whole body to get larger, just as a crowd of people take up more
space when they jostle one another than they do when standing still or when jostling to
a less extent.
Different units of measurement of heat are as given bellow.
In British System:
British Thermal Unit (BTU):
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water through
1°F is defined as a BTU.
In MKS Units:
Centigrade Heat Unit (CHU):
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water through
1°C is defined as a CHU.

The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilograms of water
through 1°C is defined as one Kilo-Calorie
Since the amount of heat required per degree centigrade varies at different points on
the temperature scale, a more precise definition is the amount of heat required to raise

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the temperature of one kg of water initially at 14.5c to 15.5c while maintained at

constant pressure of 760mm of hg.
1 Kcal = 2.205 CHU = 3.969 BTU
The unit for heat in SI system is measured in Joules (J)
1 Kcal = 4187 Joules = 4.187 Kilo Joules

Specific Heat of a substance may be defined as the amount of heat that must be
supplied to the substance to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance through
one degree. When a body is heated, the heat energy is used to speed up the internal
motion of its molecules and also to provide the work necessary to expend the body. In a
solid or a liquid, the amount of expansion is very small and the work of expansion is
similarly small. When a gas is heated, expansion is considerably more and values of
specific heat will depend on nature of heating process i.e., whether the heating is at
Constant Volume or at Constant Pressure. Thus gas has a two important types of Specific
Heat, namely:
(1) Specific Heat at constant volume ( Cv)
(2) Specific Heat at constant pressure (Cp)

Specific Heat at Constant Volume: Consider 1 kg of gas being heated in a closed vessel
so that no expansion of gas is allowed. The number of kcal required to raise the
temperature of 1 kg of gas through 10C under these condition is called the Specific Heat
at Constant Volume and is denoted by ‘Cv’.
In this case there is no work due to expansion of gas, because the gas is contained in
closed vessel and all the heat supplied is used only to increase the Internal Energy i.e.
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy of molecules of the gas.
Specific Heat at Constant Pressure: Consider 1 kg of gas being heated in a cylinder
fitted with a movable piston which exerts a constant pressure on the gas. When the gas
is heated it will expand and move the piston through some distance in this case.
Therefore, in this case, in addition to the heat required for increasing the kinetic energy
of the molecules, further heat must be added to perform the work of moving the piston
through the distance. The Specific Heat at Constant Pressure is denoted by ‘Cp’.
The value of the specific heat of gas at constant pressure will therefore always be
greater than that at constant volume by the amount of expansive work done.
The unit of specific heat in MKS System of units is kcal/kg 0C and in the SI system of units
it is kJ/ kg K.
Ratio of specific heats: The ratio of two specific heats, ‘Cp’ and ‘Cv’ of any given gas is
assumed to be constant. It is expressed by the symbol ‘’ (gamma). It is called ‘Gas
Constant’ and is an universal constant for ideal gases. It has no units for measurement.
 = Cp/Cv
For air, Cp = 0.24 kcal/kg 0C or 1.0035 kJ/ kg 0K
and Cv = 0.172 kcal/kg 0C or 0.7165 kJ/kg 0K
hence,  = 0.24/0.172 = 1.4
Enthalpy (H) or Total Heat or Heat Content: Enthalpy is nothing but total heat energy
content in a substance. It is denoted by ‘H’ and is defined as follows:
H = E + (PV) kJ
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Where, E is the Internal Energy in kJ, P is the Absolute Pressure in kPa and V is the
Volume in m3

In Boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels and the heat is
transferred to different fluids in the system and a part of it is lost or left out as
unutilized. It is therefore essential to study the general principle of heat transfer for
understanding the behaviour of boiler in relation to heat transfer during different
conditions of operation.
Let us take an example of a kettle of water being heated under fire. When fire is applied
the water in the kettle gets heated. Heat to water is passed through the metal wall of
the kettle. Now remove fire. The water in the kettle cools down. The heat is now given
to the air which surrounds the kettle.
In this process the heat is transferred from fire to kettle then to the water. On cooling
the transfer has taken place from water to kettle and from kettle to surrounding air. The
transfer of heat first has taken by way of Conduction within the Kettle walls and then
heat by the process of Convection transferred to water in centre of the Kettle from the
water immediately in contact with walls of the kettle. When the fire is put out, the
water started cooling down as transfer of heat in water occurs by Convection from
centre of the Kettle to the water layer immediately in contact with Kettle walls and by
Conduction within walls of the Kettle. Outer surface of the Kettle transfers heat to the
surroundings by way of Convection & Radiation.
In Boiler generally the heat transfer takes place in all the three modes of heat transfer
process namely Conduction, Convection and the Radiation.

Conduction is the process of transfer of heat through solids from one part of the body to
the other, by physical contact, without the molecules moving, but imparting vibration
from one molecule to the neighbouring one.
In a metal the heat transfer takes place by passing on heat from particle to particle by
contact without any physical movement of the particles themselves.
The quantity of heat conducted depends on:
a. the differential temperature between combustion chamber and the water inside
the tube,
b. the thickness of the tube and
c. the characteristics of the metal

This process can occur only in fluids or gases. This process of heat transfer takes place
when the molecules are displaced physically. The fluid or gas when heated expands,
becomes less dense and raises up causing movement and allowing the colder and more
dense gas or liquid to replace it. In the Boiler the heat from tube metal goes to water
flowing inside. Similarly when gas or liquid is heated, it expands, becomes less dense and
rises up causing movement and allowing the colder and denser gas or liquid to replace it.
Mainly in Superheater, Reheater and Economizer the heat from hot gas is getting
transferred to metal outer surface by way of convection process.
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Heat transfer by convection depends on the specific characteristics of the medium i.e.
gas or liquid.

Heat when it travels from source to another substance through an empty space (often
imagined as ether) or through vacuum or gas or air in straight lines, the process of heat
transfer is called radiation. The tube metal surface at the top of the furnace of a Boiler
gets heat by way of radiation. We get heat from Sun by radiation.
All substances emit heat energy by radiation depending on their temperature.

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Useful Reference

The following are some useful conversion, relations between various Physical Quantities
and some useful information. It would not be a bad idea to remember these

1 kg = 2.205 lb
1 kgf = 9.81N (Newton)
1 kg/ cm2 = 0.981 bar; 1 bar = 1.0197 kg/ cm2
1 atm = 760 mm of Hg = 1.033 kg/ cm2 = 1.013 bar
1 bar = 105 N/ m2 (Pa) = 102 kPa = 0.1 MPa
750 mm of Hg = 1 bar
1 kg/ cm2g = 2.033 kg/ cm2 absolute (ata)
1 ata = 1 kg/ cm2 abs
1 mm of water column = 1 kg/ m2
10 m of water column = 1 kg/ cm2
1 kg-m = 9.81 N-m = 9.81 J
1 kcal = 4.187 kJ = 2.205 CHU = 3.969 BTU
1 kcal = 427 kg m (Mechanical work equivalent of heat)
1kg-m/s = 9.81 W
1 HP (metric) = 75 kg-m/ s = 735.75 Watt
1 HP (British) = 33000 ft pound/min = 746 Watt
1 kWh = 3600 kJ = 860 kcal
1 kmol = 6.023 x 1026 numbers of molecules
Mass of 1kmol of any substance = Molecular weight in kg
Molecular Weight of H2 – 2, N2 – 28, O2 – 32, C – 12 and S - 32
Specific Gravity of Mercury = 13.6
1 nm3 of gas = 1 m3 at NTP (Normal Temperature and pressure)
1 sm3 of gas = 1 m3 at STP (Standard Temperature and pressure)
NTP – Temperature 273 K; Pressure 101.3 kPa
STP - Temperature 288 K; Pressure 101.3 kPa
Density of air at NTP = 1.293 kg/ m3
Density of any gas at NTP = Its molecular weight/ 22.4 (kg/ m3)
Gas Equations:
P1V1/ T1 = P2V2/ T2 (P & T – absolute pressure and temperature and V - volume)
PV = nRT, n = number of kmol (mass/ molar mass), R – Universal Gas Constant –
8.3143 kJ/ kmol K
Pressure exerted by liquid column = h x ρ x 10-4 kg/ cm2; h in m and ρ in kg/ m3
Velocity head = 10-4 x ρv2/ 2g, in kg/ cm2; v in m/ s, or ρv2/ 2 Pa
Specific heat of water = 4.187 kJ/ kg K
Specific heat of air = 1.00 kJ/ kg K
Specific heat of ice and superheated steam = 2.09 kJ/ kg K
Specific heat of coal ash = 0.84 kJ/ kg K
Sensible Heat
Hydraulic Power required to move fluid (kW) = pressure (kPa) x discharge (m3/ s)

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If you have any doubt in these examples, then please ask the faculty in the virtual
class room. Go to the chapter forum; select the chapter, page number and question
number and post your query. Do not forget to check out what the others have asked
there before posting your query.

1. Question: Defined absolute temperature scale

 Absolute temperature scale or Kelvin temperature scale is based on absolute zero of
 Absolute zero, or 00K, is the temperature at which molecular energy is a minimum
and it corresponds to a temperature of −273° on the Celsius temperature scale.
 At absolute temperature a perfect gas is considered to have a zero volume.
 Absolute temperature is expressed by the capital latter ‘K’ and at this scale the
freezing point of water (0°C) is 273 K, and the boiling point of water (100°C), is
373K, respectively.

2. Question: The temperature of water while entering an economiser is 20ºC, while

leaving the economiser is 80ºC. If the rate of flow of water is 500 kg per minute, how
much quantity of heat is supplied in the economiser? Specific heat of water may be taken
as 4.182 kJ/ kg.

Quantity of water flowing m = 500 kg/minute
Rise in temperature of circulating water Δt = 80 – 20 = 60ºC.
Specific heat of water CP = 4.182 kJ/kg
Therefore, quantity of heat supplied to water in the economiser per minute
mCP Δt = 500 x 4.182 x 60 = 125460 kJ/minute i.e. 125.46 MJ/minute.

3. Question: A certain gas occupies 3 cubic metres at a temperature of 150ºC. The

pressure of the gas is 7 bar. The gas expands in such a manner that the volume becomes
9 cu metre and the temperature is 10ºC. What is the pressure of the gas?

Considering the pressure given in absolute,
P1 = 7 bar Ab.; V1 = 3 cu meter; V2 = 9 cu meter
T1 = 150 + 273 = 423 K and T2 = 273 + 10 = 283 K
Using the relation P1V1/ T1 = P2V2/ T2
or, (7 x 3) / 423 = P2 x 9 / 283
Or P2 = 1.561 bar Ab.

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4. Question: The compression ratio of an engine is 12 to 1, the pressure at the

commencement of the compression stroke is 100 kN/m2 and the temperature 115ºC.
Calculate the absolute pressure at the end of compression stroke if the temperature has
then risen to 180ºC.

From the relation
P1V1/ T1 = P2V2/ T2
We have,
P1 = 100 kN/m2 (considering pressure given in Absolute);
T1 = 115 + 273 = 388 K; T2 = 180 + 273 = 453 K
V2 = V1/12
On substitution of values, we get
100 x V1/ 388 = P2 x V1/ (12 x 453)
or P2 = 1401 kN/m2 (14.01 bar) absolute

5. Question: Calculate the molecular volume of all gases at 200 kN/ m2 and 30ºC.
According to the characteristic equation of a gas we have pV = mRT where p is the
pressure of the gas in N/m2, V is the volume of mass m kg of gas in cu metre, R is the
characteristic gas constant and T is the absolute temperature of the gas in Kelvin.

If ‘m’ is the molecular mass, then V will be molecular volume of the gas and
mR = 8.3143 kJ/ kg mole K
We have, P = 200 kN/ m2; T = 273 + 30 = 303 K
Therefore, 200 x V = 8.3143 x 303
V = (8.3143 x 303) / 200 =12.596 m3

6. Question: A steel cylinder of 77 litres of capacity contains CO 2 at 27 Deg. C and

pressure of 110 ata. Calculate the weight of gas contained in the steel cylinder.

Solution: Here,
Volume = 77 liters = 77 x 10-3 m3
Pressure = 110 ata = 110 kg/cm2 ab = 110 x 0.981 = 107.91 bar ab.
= 107.91 x 10 kN/ m2

Temperature = 27o C = 27 + 273 = 300 K

We know MR = 8.3143 kJ/kg mol K and M of CO2 = 44 kg

 Sp. Gas constant R of CO2 = 8.3143/44 = 0.189 kJ/ kg K

From the relation PV = mRT,

107.91 x 102 x 77 x 10-3 = m x 0.189 x 300
or, m = (107.91 x 102 x 77 x 10-3)/ (0.189 x 300) = 14.65 kg

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7. Question: Define a new temperature scale, say oD in which the boiling and freezing
points of water are 300oD and 100oD respectively. Correlate this scale with the
Centigrade scale. The oD reading on this scale is a certain number of degrees on a
corresponding absolute temperature scale. What is this absolute temperature at oD?

Solution: Here, the freezing point and the boiling point are 100 oD and 300oD

Comparing it with centigrade scale, we see a rise of 100 oC (100oC – 0oC) will be equal to
a rise of 200oD (300oD – 100oD) in the new scale.

So for every 1o rise in the centigrade scale, there will be 2o rise in the new scale.
Again 0oC = 100oD
Therefore the relation between these two scales will be
D = 100 + 2C

For example 25oC will read in the new scale as 100 + 2 × 25 = 150oD
We can write the above relation as C = (D-100)/ 2
In absolute scale, the absolute 0 will be at 100 – 2 x 273 = - 446 oD,
Therefore the absolute scale in this scale would read as oD + 446

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Examples for practice

1. Question: i) Differentiate between the manometer & barometer.

ii) Differentiate between pressure gauge and vacuum gauge.

4. Question: (a) Convert the following reading of pressure to ‘bar’.

(i) 800 kPa, (ii) 10 atm (iii) 2 Mpa (iv) 112000 N/m2 (v) 200 KN/m2
(b) (i) A vacuum guage on condensers reads 620 mm of mercury and at the same time
barometer reads 740 mm of mercury. What is the absolute pressure in the condenser in
(ii) Find the heat equivalent of work done in KJ, when a weight of 500 kg is raised
through height of 6000 cms.
(iii) A pressure gauge reads 2.3 Mpa and barometer reads 90 Kpa, calculate absolute
pressure in pascal.

5. Question: A locomotive engine having weight of 3500 kg running at 72 kmph posses

certain stored energy due to the motion. Determine the stored energy in kJ.
(b) A train weighing 1450 MT is pulled up a 2% degraded 4475 KW engine. Train resistance
is 8750 Kg. At what speed the train is running.

6. Question: The pressure of a gas supplied to an engine is measured as 100mm of water

gauge when barometer reads 756 mm of mercury. Determine the volume of 1.5kg of this
gas if it’s temp. is 850C. The gas constant of the gas is 0.686 kJ kg K.

7. Question: A body weights 50kg on earth. Find its weight on the (a) Moon where
gravitational acceleration is 1.7M/sec2 (b) Sun where gravitational acceleration is 270

8. Question: A thermometer immersed in fluid the value of temperature in F and C

shows same what will be value of temp.? Express this value of temp. in deg.R & deg.K.

9. Question: A vacuum gauges reads the vacuum in a chamber as 300 MM of Hg, what is
the absolute pressure in the chamber if the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm of Hg. The
specific weight of mercury at this temp. is 13550 kg/M3

10. Question: A manometer joined to a gas cylinder indicates 20 kPa, while the
barometer reads 760 mm of mercury. What will be the reading of the manometer if the
barometric pressure drops to 730 mm mercury?

11. Question: A steam power plant develops 4460 kW. What is the equivalent of this
power in thermal unit?

12. Question: The gas used in gas engine trial was tested in a Boy’s calorimeter. The
pressure of gas supply was 70 mm of water column. What is the absolute pressure of the
gas if the barometric pressure is 760 mm of mercury?

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The general equation for heat flow rate by any of the above three modes of heat transfer
from one media to other may be written as
q = US ∆t
Where q = heat flow rate in K.Cal/hr
S = Surface area involved in the heat transfer in m2
∆t = Temperature difference causing heat flow in °C
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient in°C
= 1/R where R is overall resistance

If a flat plate is heated on one side and cooled on other side, heat will flow from hot side
to the cold. The heat flow rate q can be expressed as below:

q = KS (t1 – t2) / l
Where q = rate of heat flow – K.Cal/hr
K = Thermal conductivity for 1 cm thickness –°C
S = Heating surface in m2
t = temperature difference causing heat flow (t1 – t2) in °C
l = length or thickness of the plate in cm.

K/l is expressed as conductance and hence l/K is the resistivity.

Heat transfer by convection between a fluid and a solid such as in a boiler tube is
expressed as below:

qc = Uc S ∆t .. (3)
Where qc = rate of heat flow by convection in K.Cal/hr
U = Convection film conductance in°C
S = heat transfer surface in m2
∆t = temperature difference between fluid bulk temperature
and solid surface temperature in °C.

Radiation emitted by a body depends upon its surface area and temperature. The
relationship between them is given by Stefan-Boltzman law
q = σ S T4
q – rate of heat flow
σ – Stefan-Boltzman constant
S – surface area of body
T – absolute temperature of the emitter

For bodies other than black bodies whose emissivity will be less than 1, the formula will
be changed as
q = σ ES T4
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where E is emissivity of the body

If we consider two parallel planes of infinite size and they are black bodies, then heat
transfer from the hot plane (at T1 °K) to the other plane (at T2 °K) is given by the
q = σ S (T14 – T24)

If all the radiation emitted by one does not fall on the other it is essential to introduce
an angle factor in the formula
In boiler the radiation becomes luminous by entrained particles such as pulverised coal,
soot etc. and calculation of luminous radiation is complex. The gases such as oxygen and
nitrogen absorbs or emit only slight amount of radiation. But water vapours, carbon
dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide which are part of flue gases in the boiler
also absorb and emit. They emit and radiate only in certain wave length bands that lie
outside of the visible range and are called as non-luminous gas radiation.

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Miscellaneous Numerical Problems on Elementary Concepts

Example:1 A vertical tank contains water. The height of cylindrical tank is 120 cm and
diameter is 30 cm. The tank is 3/4TH full of water. If a cubic piece of iron of 10cm sides
is dropped in the tank, calculate the rise in height of water level and final height of
water in the tank.

Solution: As the tank is ¾ th full, the height of water in tank = 120 × ¾ = 90 cm.
Radius of the cylindrical tank r = d/ 2 = 30/ 2 = 15 cm
Volume of cubic piece of iron = 10 × 10 × 10 = 1000 cm3
The cubic piece of iron, when dropped in the tank will displace its equal volume of
If the height of the water rises by say h cm after the piece of iron is dropped,
The increased volume of water in the cylinder =  × r2 × h =  ×152 × h
= 706.86 × h cm3
Now 706.86 × h cm3 = 1000 cm3
Or, h = 1.41 cm
And final height of water in a tank = 90 + 1.41 = 91.41 cm

Example:2 A fuel storage tank is in the form of a cylinder 2.6 m dia. with one end
hemisphere and the other end plain. Calculate the capacity of tank in litre and in kg, if it
contains oil having Sp. gravity 0.90. Length of the cylindrical portion is 6.0 m. Also
determine the area of the sheet metal used in construction.

Solution: Given ,
Dia. of cylinder = 2.6 m, r = 1.3 m
Length of cylindrical portion = 6 m
One end hemisphere & one end plain.
Specific gravity of oil = 0.9

Volume of hemispherical end = ½ × (4/3) r3 = 2/3 r3

Volume of cylindrical portion =  r2 L

Total volume =  r2 L + 2/3  r3

=  (1.3)2 × 6 + (2/3)  (1.3)3
= 31.86 + 4.60
= 36.46 m3
The capacity of the tank = 36.46 × 1000 = 36460 liters.
Now specific gravity = density of oil/ density of water
 Density of oil = specific gravity × density of water
= 0.9 × 1000 kg/ m3
= 900 kg/ m3
The capacity of the tank = 36.46 × 900 = 32814 kg
Area of shell metal used = Area of hemisphere + Area of cylindrical portion + Area of
plain end.
= 2r2 + 2rL + r2
= 2(1.3)2 + 2 × 1.3 × 6 + (1.3)2
= 10.62 + 49.00 + 5.31 = 64.93 m2
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Example:3 What will be the volume of earth removed by digging the well of 2.5 metre.
The dia. of the well is 10 metre. If the earth is uniformly spread over an area of 150 m 2.
What will be rise in level ? Assume the area to be square.

Solution: Volume of earth removed = ( / 4) × d2 × h

= ( / 4) × 102 × 2.5 = 196.35 m3
Let us assume the rise in level is h m, when the earth is uniformly spread.
The volume of the earth = Area × height = 150 × h
150 h =196.35
or, h = 196.35/150 =1.309 m.

Example:4 Calculate the area of an elliptical manhole having major axis of 60 cm and
minor axis of 50 cm.

Solution: Area of ellipse =  × a × b,

Where a = semi major axis and b = semi minor axis.
Given, major axis = 60 cm and minor axis = 50 cm
Semi major axis a = 30 cm and semi minor axis b = 25 cm
Area =  × 30 × 25 = 2356.20 cm2

Example:5 A heap of coal is in the form of cone base diameter of which is 50 meter &
height is 12 meters. Find out the Tonnage of coal in the heap as coal is having bulk
density of 1.1 tons / 1.5 m3.

Solution: Here,
Base diameter of conical heap of coal = 50 m
Height of conical heap of coal = 12 m
Bulk density = 1.1 Tons / 1.5 m3
Volume of cone = Area of base × Perpendicular height/ 3
= /4 ×502 × 12/ 3 = 7853.98 m3
 Weight of the coal heap = (1.1/ 1.5) × 7853.98 = 5759.58 Tons

Example:6 A steel pipe 3.4 meters long with an outside diameter of 31.75 mm and
thickness of 5.25 mm. If density of materials is 7.6 gm/ cc. Find out the mass of pipe.

Solution: Here
Length of pipe = 3.4 m = 340 cm
Outside diameter of pipe = D = 31.75 mm = 3.175 cm
Thickness of pipe = 5.25 mm
Inside diameter of pipe d = 31.75 – 2 × 5.25 = 21.25 mm = 2.125 cm.

Volume of pipe material = (π/4) × L × (D2 - d2) = (π/4) × 340 × (3.1752 – 2.1252) =
1486.05 cm3
Density of the material = 7.60 g/ cc
 Mass of the pipe = 1486.05 × 7.60 = 11293.98 g = 11.294 kg
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Example:7 A horizontal return tabular boiler is 180 cm in diameter and 600 cm long
contains 75 tubes of 75 mm OD × 70 mm ID. Find the boiler heating surface area, where
heat transfer may be taken as inner surface area of all tubes, half the area of boiler shell
and 2/3rd of the tube plates less the area of the tube holes.

Length of the shell ( L )= 600cms = 6.0 m
Dia of shell (D) = 180cms = 1.8 m
I D of tube (DI) = 70 mm = 0.07 m
O D of tubes = 75 mm = 0.075 m
No.of tubes = 75

Now Inner heating surface area of 75 no. of tubes S1 = 75 ×  × 0.07 × 6

= 98.96 m2
Half surface area of shell ( heating surface area of shell cylindrical portion) S2
= ½ ×  × 1.8 × 6 = 16.96 m 2
Area of tube plate S3 (2 nos in case of horizontal return tubular boiler)
= 2 × 2/3 × [( /4) × 1.802 – 75 × ( /4)(0.075)2]
=2.951 m2
Total heating surface area = S1 + S2 + S3 = 98.96 + 16.96 + 2.951 = 118.871 m2

Example:8 An immersion heater of 1500 watt is immersed in 200 kg of water. If no heat

loss is assumed, find the time taken to heat the water from 30 deg. C to 80 deg. C. Find
also the units of electricity consumed.

Solution: Given, Heater capacity = 1500 Watt = 1.5 kW = 1.5 kJ/ sec
Mass of water m = 200 kg
Initial temp. of water = tI = 30oC
Final temp. of water = t0 = 80oC
Increase in temperature Δ t = 80 – 30 = 50oC
We know that specific heat of water CP = 4.187 kJ/ kg oC
 Heat received by the water = mCP Δ t = 200 × 4.187 × 50 = 41870 kJ
 Time taken to heat the water @ 1.5 kJ/ sec = 41870/ 1.5 = 27913.33 sec
= 27913.33/ 3600 = 7.753 hour
Units of electricity consumed = 1.5 × 7.753 = 11.63 kWH

Power of a pump:
The power of a pump driven by steam, water or air is to be found out as under.
We know that Power = rate of work done, where work = force × distance, where force =
Pressure × area
In a pump, the piston is driven by the working substance (i.e. steam or water or air)
under a pressure through the length of the cylinder.
Therefore the force acting on the piston with an area A, driven by the working substance
under a pressure P = P × A.
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Now the work done by the piston while it moves through the length of the cylinder L in a
single stroke = force × distance = P × A × L
If the pump makes N working strokes per minute, then the power of the pump = the rate
of work done per minute = P × A × L × N
In SI units, if P is in N/ m2, L is in m, A is in m2 and N is in number of the strokes per
minute, then rate of work done P × A × L × N will be in N × m2 × m = N-m/ min
m2 × min
= J/ min = J/ 60 sec = W/60 (J/ sec = Watt)
So we can see that the above relation when expressed as P × A × L × N/ 60 will give us
the power of the pump in Watt. If P is taken in kN/ m2, then the result will be in kW.
To find out the horse power of a pump, we can find out the power in Watt and then find
out the HP from the relation 1 HP = 735.75 Watt.
Alternatively we know that 1 HP = 75 kg-m/ sec.
Now if the pressure P is taken in kg/ cm2, Length L in m, area A in cm2 and N is in
number of strokes per minute, then rate of work done P × A × L × N/ 60 will be in
kg × cm2 × m = kg-m/ sec
cm2 × sec
So we can see that the above relation when expressed as P × A × L × N/ (60 × 75) or
P × A × L × N/ 4500 will give us the power of the pump in HP. (as 1 HP = 75 kg-m/ sec)

[Unless HP is asked, while finding out the power of a pump or an engine, always
work out in SI unit and find out the power in Watt or kilo Watt]

Example:9 What is the horse power developed in a simple steam pump cylinder 200 mm
diameter 300 mm stroke, with pump making 50 working strokes per minute, with steam
pressure 7 kg/cm2 g.

Solution: Given,
Dia. of piston = 200 mm = 20 cm.
Length of stroke =300 mm = 0.30 m
N =50 strokes /min.
Pressure P = 7 kg/ cm2g = (7 + 1.033) = 8.033 kg/ cm2, assuming atmospheric pressure as
1.033 kg/ cm2
We know HP = P × A × L × N / 4500
Here area A = π × d2/ 4 = π × 202/ 4 = 314.16 cm2
HP = 8.033 × 314.16 × 0.30 × 50/ 4500 = 8.41 HP

Example:10 Find the HP at the shaft of the pump required to lift 50000 lit. of water per
hour through a total head of 100 meter. The efficiency of the pump is 60%.Find the HP of
the motor which driven a pump, if the efficiency of the motor is 80%.

Here pump discharge Q = 50000 l/ hr = 50 m3/ hr
= 50/ 3600 = 0.0139 m3/ s,

H = hρ = 100 × 1000 = 105kg/ m2

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Pump eff. Pump = 60%

 HP at the shaft of the pump = HQ/ 75 Pump

= (0.0139 × 105)/(75 × 0.60) = 30.89 HP

since motor eff. motor = 80%

 HP of motor = 30.89/ 0.80 = 38.61 HP

Example:11 1360 Litres of water is pumped into tank per minute under pressure of 1.41
kg/cm2 by pump. Find the H.P. required for pumping the water. Assume no loss and
pump efficiency is 85%.

Solution: Here,
Q = 1360 litres/minute = 1.36 m3/ min = 1.36/ 60 = 0.023 m3/sec.
H = 1.41 kg/cm2 = 1.41 × 104 kg/ m2
 = 85 %

 H.P. = (Q × H) / 75 ×  = (0.023 × 1.41 × 104) / 75 × 0.85 = 5.09

Example:12 Determine the work in forcing 5 litres of water into a vessel against a
pressure of 1.2 MN / m2.

Solution: As we know,
Work = Quantity of water in m3 × pressure in N/ m2
Given, 5 litres of water = 0.005 m3 & Pressure = 1.2 MN/m2 = 1.2 × 106 N / m2
 Work = 0.005 × 1.2 × 106 = 6000 N-m

Example:13 A duplex feed pump supplies water to a boiler working at pressure14 bar.
The loss of head of the water in feed lines economies etc. of 20% of the boiler working
pressure. The diameter and length of the stroke for the pump are 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm
respectively. The pump runs at 60 strokes per minute. Find the brake horse power to
drive the pump if the pump efficiency is 65%. Neglect the loss due to leakage and

Given , Boiler working pressure = 14 bar = 14  102 kN/ m2
Dia. of plunger = 5 cm = 0.05 m.
Length of stroke = 8 cm = 0.08 m
N = 60 strokes per minute
pump = 65 %
Total loss of head is 20 % of boiler working pressure.
 Required pressure for the pump to deliver water in boiler = 14 × 1.2
= 16.80  102 kPa
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Since work out put of a duplex pump is double the single cylinder pump,
Break Power required to drive the pump = 2  PLAN/ 60  0.65
= 2  1680  0.08  (π/4) 0.052  60/ 60  0.65 = 0.812 kW
BHP = 0.812  103/ 735.75 = 1.10

Pressure P = 14  1.0197 = 14.27 kg/ cm2
Required pressure to deliver water in boiler = 14.27 × 1.2 = 17.124 kg/ cm2
Dia. of plunger = 5 cm, area A = (π/4) 52 = 19.63 cm2
Length of stroke L = 8 cm = 0.08 m
And pump = 65 %

BHP = 2  PLAN/ 4500  pump = 2  17.124  0.08  19.63  60/ 4500  0.65

= 1.10 HP

Example:14 A steam pipe of internal dia. 12 cm carries steams at 12 kgf/cm 2 ab. It is

lagged to a radius of 12 cm with asbestos of thermal conductivity of 1 Kcal / m-hr deg.C.
The temp. of the surrounding is 25 deg. C and the loss from the lagging surface is 12 Kcal
/ m2 .hr deg.C. Calculate the loss in Kcal per meter length of the pipe. The heat loss
through an insulated pipe per meter length is given by

Q =2K
Log e (r2/r1)

= 2  K (T1-T2)/ 2.3 log10(r2/r1)

where T1 & T2 are inner and outer surface temp. of insulated pipe and r 1 & r2 are the
inner and outer radius of insulation and K is the conductivity of insulating material.

Solution: At 12 kg / cm2 ab. pressure.

T1 = temp. of dry saturated steam = 187.08 deg.C (From steam table)
T2 = 25 deg.C
r2 = 12 cm = 0.12 m
r1 = 6 cm = 0.06 m

Q = 2  K  (T1-T2) / { 2.3 log10(r2/r1) }

= 2  ×1  (187.08-25) / { 2.3 log10(0.12/.06) }

= 2  × 162.08/ 0.692
= 1471.64 Kcal / m hr

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Example:15 Train “X” 125 metre Long is running at a speed of 80 Km per hr. In what
time will it pass another train “Y” 80 metre long running at 45 Km per hr. When
(i)Moving in opposite direction, (ii) Moving in same direction and (iii)Y Standing on a

Solution: Given, Train X length = 125 m, Speed of train = 80 km/hr.

Train Y length = 80 m, Speed of train = 45 km/hr.
Case – I
When trains moving in the opposite direction
V= relative velocity = 80 + 45 = 125 km/hr. = 34.722 m/sec.
S = Distance to be traveled = 125 + 80 = 205 m.
Using the relation, S = Vt
34.722 × t = 205,
 t = 205 /34.722 = 5.90 sec.

Case – II
When trains moving in the same direction.
V= relative velocity = 80 - 45 = 35 km/hr. = 9.722 mt/sec.
S = Distance to be traveled = 125 + 80 = 205 mt.
Using the relation, S = Vt
9.722 × t = 205
 t = 205 /9.722 = 21.09 sec.

Case - III
When train Y standing on station.
V = relative velocity = 80 + 0 = 80 km/hr. = 22.22 m/sec.
S = Distance to be traveled = 125 + 80 = 205 mt.
Using the relation, S = Vt , 22.22 × t = 205
 t = 205 / 22.22 = 9.23 seconds

Example:16 Two trains whose lengths are 100 m and 50 m respectively are moving on
parallel tracks and take 5 seconds to cross each other completely. If the shorter train is
moving with double the speed of the longer one find the speed of the train.
(i) When bath the trains are moving in the same direction.
(ii) When the trains are moving in opposite direction.

Solution: Here,
Length of Train A = 100 m.
Length of Train B = 50 m
Let speed of train `A’ is x m/sec
Speed of train `B’ = 2 x m/sec

Case – I
When both Trains are moving in same direction, then relative velocity of train `B’
= 2x – x = x m/sec
To cross the train `A’, distance is required to be traveled by train B = 100 + 50 = 150 m
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From the relation S = Vt

150 = x × 5, or x = 150/ 5 = 30 m/ sec.
 Speed of train A = 30 m/ sec.
And speed of train B = 60 m/ sec

Case – II
When both Trains are moving in the opoosite direction, then relative velocity of train `B’
= 2x + x = 3x m/sec
To cross the train `A’, distance is required to be traveled by train B = 100 + 50 = 150 m
From the relation S = Vt
150 = 3x × 5, or x = 150/ 15 = 10 m/ sec.
 Speed of train A = 10 m/ sec.
And speed of train B = 20 m/ sec

Example:17 Two train A & B leaves the same station on parallel lines. A starts with
uniform acceleration of 1/ 6 meter/ sec 2 and attain a speed of 25 km/ hr. When the
speed is reached to maintain the speed of A train constant at 25 KM/ hr. B train leaves
40 sec after A train left with uniform acceleration of 1/3 meter/ sec 2 to attain a
maximum speed of 50 km /hr.. When will B train overtake A train.?

Given, Train A
fA = uniform acceleration = 1/6 m /s2
vA = Final speed = 25km/hr = 6.944 m/ sec
u = Initial speed = 0 m/sec.
Train B
fB= uniform acceleration = 1/3 m /s2
vB = Final speed = 50 km/hr = 13.888 m/ sec
u = Initial speed = 0 m/sec.

We know that, v = u + ft
Therefore the time taken by train A to attain its final speed is
tA = vA/ fA = 6.944×6 = 41.66 sec and
at a distance SA = 6.944×41.66/2 = 144.64 m

Similarly, the time taken by train B to attain its final speed

tB = 13.888×3 = 41.66 sec and SB = 13.888×41.66/2 = 289.28 m

Let us consider the time T = 0, when train A starts from the station. It reaches its final
speed when T = 41.66 s and at time T=81.66 sec the train B reaches its final speed.
By the time train B reaches its final speed, the train A moves [144.64(during 41.66 sec) +
6.944×40 (during 40 sec at cont. speed)] = 422.40 m away from the station.
Position of both the train at T= 81.66 sec is
422.4 m

289.28 m 133.12 m
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Train B is 133.12 m behind the train A and both the trains are traveling at their
corresponding uniform speed.

Let us assume they meet at a distance after time t,

The relative speed of train B with respect to train A will be 13.888 – 6.944
= 6.944 m/ s.
Therefore 6.944 x t = 133.12, or t = 133.12/6.944 = 19.17 s
The train B will overtake the train A after 81.66 + 19.17 = 100.83 sec after train A
leaves the station

Example:18 A Train is uniformly accelerated and passes successive kilometer stones with
velocity of 18 KMPH and 36 KMPH respectively. Calculate the velocity when it passes the
third kilometer stone. Also find out the time taken for each of these two intervals of one
kilometer stone.

Solution: Using the relation, between first and second kilometer stone
S = {(U + V)/2} × t
S = 1 km = 1000 m
U = 18 KMPH = 18/ 36 = 5 m/ s
V = 36 KMPH = 36/ 36 = 10 m/ s
1000 = ½ x (5 + 10) × t, or t = 1000/7.5 = 133.33 seconds
We can find uniform acceleration using the relation
V = u + ft, where f = acceleration in m/ s2
10 = 5 + f × 133.33, f = 5/133.33 = 0.0375 m/ s2
Now between second and third stone
U = 10 m/s
S = 1000 m
And f = 0.0375 m/s2
We get can find out velocity at 3rd stone by using the relation
V 2 = U2 + 2 f S
V2 = 102 + 2 × 0.0375 × 1000
V2 = 175, or V =  175 = 13.29 m/s = 13.29 × 3600/ 1000 = 47.84 kmph

Again, using the relation, S = {(U + V)/2} × t

Where t is the time taken to travel from 2nd stone to 3rd stone.
U = 10 m/ s
V = 15.81 m/s
1000 = (10 + 13.29) × t, or t = 42.94 seconds

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Example for practice

Example:1 A fuel storage tank is in the form of cylinder with hemispherical ends. The
diameter of cylinder is 2.7 Mtrs. The length of cylinder is 4.7 Mtrs. The tank is required
to contain oil of specific gravity of 0.91. Determine the capacity of the tank in Ltrs. and
kg. of oil. Also determine the length of welding as the tank is fabricated by welding
process. Hemispherical end is made of deep forged hat process. (Ans: 37,220 l, 33870.2
kg, 30.15 m)

Example 2: A cylindrical vertical tank contains water. The height of the tank is 135 cms
and inside diameter is 33 cms. The tank is 2/3 full of water. If can iron cube of 13 cms is
dropped in the water. Calculate the raise in the height of water level and final height of
water in the tank if the tank is fabricated from 8 mm thick M.S.plate find the total
weight of the tank with water and iron cube. Assuming tank is open at top and sp.
gravity of M.S. as 7.85. (Ans: 0.026 m, 0.926 m, 189.71 kg)

Example:3 Find out the shaft horse power required to lift 90000 liters of water per hour
to a pressure of 1.60 bar. Assume the efficiency of feed pump is 87 %. Find out also the
horse power of electric motor with efficiency as 82.5%. (Ans: 6.25 HP, 7.58 HP)

Example: 4
a) Calculate the specific weight, specific mass and specific gravity of a liquid having a
volume of 6 m3 and weight of 44KN. (Ans: 7.33 kN/ m3, 747.54 kg/ m3, 0.747)
b) A mixture of gases expands from 0.03 m3 to 0.06 m³ at a constant pressure of 1 MPa
absorbs 84 kJ of heat during the process. Find out the change in internal energy of the
mixture. (Ans: 54 kJ)

Example: 5
A feed pump supplies 135 m³/hr feed water to a boiler at a pressure of 135 bar. The
pump is operated by an electrical motor of 90% & pump is operated at 83% efficiency.
Determine the power required to drive the pump. If the cost of electricity is 4.5 Rs./
kWH. Calculate the total cost of power for running feed pump for 24 hrs. (Ans: 677.71
kW, Rs.73192.77)

Example: 6
A feed water tank is 10 meter in dia. and 15 meter in height is supplying water to boiler
through a deaerator 5 m dia. & 5 m long, both ends hemispherical. If the water level in
feed tank remains full & in deaerator at half level, what is the quantity of feed water in
storage of both? If a boiler of 15 MT/ hr is running on this system with 10 MT/ hr
extraction condensing plant & if condenser extraction pump is supplying water directly
to deaerator, how much time plant can be operated safely if DM supply is totally
stopped. (Ans: 1259.90 m3, 117.8 h)

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Example: 7
(a) A force fan supplies air to the furnace of the boiler at the head of 40mm water
column. Determine the absolute pressure of the air supply if the barometric reading is
760 mmHg. (Ans: 1.017 bar)
(b) A pump delivers 1200 liters of water per hour against constant head of 328 ft.
Calculate the work done per hour in heat unit. (Ans: 1177.20 kJ)