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Understanding Colors and Gamut Contact Tektronix:

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MPEG-2 Transport Stream
ISO/IEC 13818-1 International Standard

ISO/IEC 13818-1 Transport Packet

24 bits 8 bits
16 bits
System Time Table (STT)
Syntax Bits Format Syntax
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC)
Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) for Terrestrial Broadcast and cable (Doc. A//65B and A/69)

Rating Region Table (RRT)

Bits Format
Direct Channel Change Table (DCCT)
Syntax Bits Format
ISO/IEC 13818-2 Video Levels and Profiles
4:2:0 4:2:2 4:2:0, 4:2:2
MPEG Poster Mexico, Central/South America & Caribbean 52 (55) 56 04 50 90
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rating_region_table_section(){ directed_channel_change_table_section(){ 1920x1152 1920x1088 1920x1152
Packet PES Optional system_time_table_section(){ High
Syntax No. of bits Start Code
Packet PES PES Packet Data Bytes table_id 8 0xCD table_id 8 0xCA table_id 8 0xD3
80 Mb/s
300 Mb/s
100 Mb/s
Id section_syntax_indicator 1 ‘1’ section_syntax_indicator 1 ‘1’ section_syntax_indicator 1 ‘1’
transport_packet(){ Prefix Length HEADER private_indicator 1 ‘1’
private_indicator 1 ‘1’ private_indicator 1 ‘1’ 4:2:0 4:2:0 4:2:0, 4:2:2
synch_byte 8 reserved 2 ‘11’ reserved 2 ‘11’
reserved 2 ‘11’ section_length 12 uimsbf High-1440 1440x1152 1440x1152 1440x1152
transport_error_indicator 1 section_length 12 uimsbf table_id_extension {
section_length 12 uimsbf 60 Mb/s 60 Mb/s 80 Mb/s
table_id_extension 16 0x0000 I,P,B I,P,B I,P,B
payload_unit_start_indicator 1 2 bits 2 bits 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 8 bits 8 bits m*8 bits table_id_extension { 16 0x0000 reserved 8 0xFF
reserved 2 ‘11’ rating_region 8 uimsbf reserved 2 ‘11’
transport_priority 1 version_number 5 uimsbf 4:2:0 4:2:0 4:2:0 4:2:0 4:2:0, 4:2:2
PES Data PES Stuffing version_number 5 ‘00000’ }
PID 13 PES Original Original current_next_indicator 1 ‘1’ reserved 2 ‘11’ current_next_indicator 1 ‘1’ Main 720x576 720x576 720x608 720x576 720x576
‘10’ Scrambling Alignment Copyright 7 Flags Header Bytes 15 Mb/s 15 Mb/s 50 Mb/s 15 Mb/s 20 Mb/s
transport_scrambling_control 2 Control
or Copy
Data Length
(0xFF) section_number 8 0x00 version_number 5 uimsbf section_number 8 0x00
adaptation_field_control 2 last_section_number 8 0x00 current_next_indicator 1 ‘1’ last_section_number 8 0x00

This poster provides a

protocol_version 8 uimsbf section_number 8 uimsbf protocol_version 8 uimsbf
continuity_counter 4 last_section_number 8 uimsbf dcc__vc_count 8 uimsbf
4:2:0 4:2:0
system_time 32 uimsbf Low 352x288 352x288
if(adaption_field_control==’10’ II adaptation_field_control==’11’){ 33 bits GPS_UTC_offset 8 uimsbf
protocol_version 8 uimsbf for(i=0;i<dcc_vc_count;i++){ 4 Mb/s 4 Mb/s
adaptation_field() 33 bits 42 bits 22 bits 8 bits 7 bits 16 bits rating_region_name_length 18 uimsbf reserved 4 ‘1111’ I,P,B I,P,B
daylight_savings 16 uimsbf rating_region_name_text() var
} for(l=0;l<N;i++){ dcc_from_major_channel_number 10 uimsbf
dimensions_defined 8 uimsbf dcc_from_minor_channel_number 10 uimsbf Level
DSM Previous
if(adaptation_field_control==’01’ II adaptation_field_control==’11’){ PTS
PES descriptor() for(i=0;i<dimensions_defined;i++){
reserved 4 ‘1111’ Simple Main 4:2:2 SNR Spatial High
for (i=0;i<N;i++){ DTS Rate Copy Info Extension } dimension_name_length 8 uimsbf Profile
Mode CRC CRC_32 32 rpchof dimension_name_text() var dcc_to_major_channel_number 10 uimsbf Profile
data_byte 8 } rserved 3 ‘111’ dcc_to_minor_channel_number 10 uimsbf
} graduated_scale 1 bslbf dcc_start_time 32 uimsbf
values_defined 4 uimsbf dcc_end_time 32 uimsbf

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for (j=0;j<values_defined;j++){ dcc_selection_count 8 uimsbf
abbrev_rating_value_length 8 uimsbf for (j=0;j<dcc_selection_count;j++){
abbrev_rating_value_text() var dcc_selection_type 8 uimsbf
Optional rating_value_length 8 uimsbf dcc_selection_id 64 uimsbf
5 Flags rating_value_text() var
Fields reserved 6
} ‘111111’
dcc_descriptors_length 10 uimsbf
DCC Selection Code Table (DCCSCT)
reserved 6
188 bytes
for (k=0;k<N;k++){ Syntax Bits Format
Transport 128 bits 8 bits 8 bits 16 bits 7 bits descriptors_length 10 uimsbf descriptor() dcc_selection_code_table_section(){
for (i=0;i<N;i++){ }
Packet Header Payload Header Payload Header Payload
PES Packet PES PES descriptor()
Program Packet P-STD
Stream Private Header
Sequence Counter Buffer
Extension Extension }
CRC_32 32 rpchof
reserved 6
private_indicator 1 ‘1’
Data Field Field Length Field Data reserved 2 ‘11’
} ‘111111’ section_length 12 uimsbf
8 bits 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 13 bits 2 bits 2 bits 4 bits descriptors_length 10 uimsbf table_id_extension 16 uimsbf
for (j=0;j<N;j++){ reserved 2 ‘11’

quick graphical reference to

Transport Payload Transport Adaptation descriptor() version_number 5 uimsbf
Sync Transport Continuity Adaptation }
Error Unit Start PID Scrambling Field current_next_indicator 1 ‘1’
Byte Priority Counter Field }
Indicator Indicator Control Control section_number 8 0x00
reserved 6 last_section_number 8 0x00
111111’ protocol_version 8 uimsbf
Program Association Section (PAT) additional_descriptors_length 10 uimsbf selection__categories_defined 8 uimsbf
Syntax No. of bits for (i=0;i<N;i++){ for(i=0;i<selection_categories_defined;i++){
additional_descriptor() selsection_category_code 8 uimsbf

Norway 800 16098

8 bits 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 5 bits program_association_section(){
selsection_category_name_length 8 uimsbf

table_id 8 selsection_category_name_text() var
Adaptation Random Elementary section_syntax_indicator 1
Discontinuity 5 Flags Optional Stuffing reserved 6
Field Access Stream Priority ‘0’ 1
Indicator Fields Bytes ‘111111’
Length Indicator Indicator reserved 2 (Defined) base_PID STT descriptors_length 10 uimsbf
section_length 12 PID=0x0000 RRT for (j=0;j<N;j++){
transport_stream_id 16
reserved 2 }
version_number 5 }
42 bits 42 bits 8 bit 8 bits 8 bits 3 bits
current_next_indicator 1 reserved 6 Abbreviations
section_number 8 ‘111111’
Transport Transport Adaptation additional_descriptors_length 10 uimsbf
PCR OPCR Splice 3 Flags Optional last_section_number 8
Private Data Private Field Extension for (i-0;i<N;i++){ ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee
Countdown Fields for (=0;j<N;j++) {
Length Data Length additional_descriptors() BMP Basic Multilingual Plane
Table Hierarchy for the Program }
CRC_32 32 rpchof bslbf bit serial, left bit first
if (program_number==‘0’){
and System Information Protocol DCCSCT Master Guide Table (MGT) CAT Conditional Access Table
1 bit 15 bits 2 bits 22 bits 4 bits 33 bits network_PID 13 CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
(PSIP) Syntax Bits Format CVCT Cable Virtual Channel Table

understand the fundamentals

Itw_valid Itw Piecewise Splice else {
DTS_next_au master_guide_table_section(){
Flag Offset Rate type program_map_PID 13 DTV Digital Television
table_id 8 0xC7
} section_syntax_indicator 1 ‘1’ EIT Event Information Table

MGT private_indicator 1 ‘1’ EPG Electronic Program Guide

People’s Republic of China 400-820-5835

CRC_32 32 reserved 2 ‘11’
} section_length 12 uimsbf Table Timing Intervals EMM Entitlement Management Message
table_id_extension 16 Table PID Max ETM Extended Text Message
0x0000 Type Interval ETT Extended Text Table
reserved 2 ‘11’ GPS Global Positioning System
1 2 2 32 Conditional Access Section (CAT) VCT version_number 5 uimsbf PAT 0x0 100 ms
bit bits bits current_next_indicator 1 ‘1’ CAT 0x1 100 ms MGT Master Guide Table
8 bits 1 bit 12 bits 16 bits bits 5 bits 1 bit 8 bits 8 bits PID=0x0002 EIT-3 EIT-2 EIT-1 EIT-0
Syntax No. of bits for channel x section_number 8 0x00 TSDT 0x2 100 ms MPAA Motion Picture Association of America
Section Transport Current Last source_id source_id source_id source_id source_id last_section_number 8 0x00 MGT 0x1FFB 150 ms MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
Section Version Section N CRC CA_section() { protocol_version 8 uimsbf
Table ID Syntax ‘0’ Stream Next Section TVCT 0x1FFB 400 ms
Length Number Number Loop 32 table_id 8 tables_defined 16 uimsbf NIT Network Information Table
Indicator ID Indicator Number

CVCT 0x1FFB 400 ms
section_syntax_indicator 1 for(i=0;i<tables_defined;i++){ NVOD Near Video On Demand
STT 0x1FFB 1000 ms
‘0’ 1 table_type 16 uimsbf OOB Out of Band
reserved 2 for channel y reserved 3 ‘111’ RRT 0x1FFB 60000 ms
3 3 source_id source_id source_id source_id source_id PMT ALL 400 ms PAT Program Association Table
section_length 12 table_type_PID 13 uimsbf
16 bits bits 13 bits 16 bits bits 13 bits EIT ALL 500 ms
reserved 18 reserved 3 ‘111’ PCR Program Clock Reference
Program Program Program version_number 5 table_type_version_number 5 uimsbf PES Packetized Elementary Stream
Network number_bytes 32 uimsbf
Number Number Map current_next_indicator 1 PID Packet Identifier
PID reserved 4 ‘1111’
0 i PID i section_number 8 PID=0x10 to 0x1FFE table_type_descriptors_length 12 uimsbf PMT Program Map Table
last_section number 8
for (i=0;i<N;i++) { for (k=0;k<N;k++){ Stream Type Assignments PSIP Program and System information Protocol

of the MPEG Transport and

} Value Description PTC Physical Transmission Channel


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} SCTE Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers
} 0x00 ITU-T I ISO/IEC reserved
reserved 4 ‘1111’
CRC_32 32
Extended text Tables (ETT’s) Defined to descriptors_length
for (I-0;I<N;I++){
12 uimsbf 0x01-0x7F As specified in Table 2.29 (Stream type assignments)
System Information
Synchronous Serial Interface for MPEG-2 transport
1 2 of ISO/IEC 13818-1
8 bits 1 bit bit bits 12 bits 18 bits 5 bits 1 bit 8 bits 6 bits bits Carry Text Messages for Describing Virtual descriptor() streams at 19.392658 and 38.785317 Mbps
} [Used in other systems]
Section Version
Last N
Channels and Events CRC_32 32 rpchof
0x80 STD System Target Decoder

Table ID Syntax ‘0’ Next Section Loop Transport Stream Description Section (TSDT) } 0x81 ATSC A/53 audio STT System Time Table
Length Number Number Descriptors 32
Indicator Indicator Number 0x82-0x84 [Used in other systems] rpchof remainder polynomial coefficients, highest order first
Syntax No. of bits
PID=0x0010 MGT 0x85 UPID (ATSC A/57 Program/Episode/Version Identification) RRT Rating Region Table
TS_Description_section() { TS Transport Stream
PID-X PID-Y PID-Z 0x86-0xBF Reserved
table_id 8 TSDT Transport Stream Description Table
section_syntax_indicator 1 0xC0-0xFF User Private

TVCT Terrestrial Virtual Channel Table
‘0’ 1 PID-V
1 2 2
Coordinated Universal Time
8 bits 1 bit bit bits 12 bits 16 bits bits 5 bits 1 bit 8 bits 8 bits bits 13 bits bits reserved 18
(Optional) ETT-0 ETT-1 ETT-2 uimsbf unsigned integer, most significant bit first
version_number 5 text messages text messages text messages
Section Program Version
PCR current_next_indicator 1 ETT-V for EIT-0 for EIT-1 for EIT-2 Terrestrial Virtual Channel Table (TVCT)
VCT Virtual Channel Table. Used in reference
Table ID ‘0’ section_number 8 to either TVCT or CVCT
Length Number Number
PID text messages
last_section number 8 for VCT
for (i=0;i<N;i++) { Syntax Bits Format

Portugal 80 08 12370
descriptor() terrestrial_virtual_channel_table_section(){
12 bits 32 bits } table_id 8 0xC8 Table ID Ranges and Values

Service Information.
CRC_32 32 section_syntax_indicator 1 ‘1’
Loop N } Cable Virtual Channel Table (CVCT) private_indicator 1 ‘1’ Table ID
Value (hex) Tables PID
CRC_32 reserved 2 ‘11’
Length Descriptors Loop Syntax Bits Format section_length 12 uimsbf ISO/IEC 13818-1 Sections:
cable_virtual_channel_table_section(){ transport_stream_id 16 uimsbf
table_id 8 0xC9 reserved 2 ‘11’ 0x00 PROGRAM ASSOCIATION TABLE (PAT) 0
3 4 section_syntax_indicator 1 ‘1’ version_number 5 uimsbf 0x01 CONDITIONAL ACCESS TABLE (CAT) 1
8 bits bits 13 bits bits 12 bits Transport Stream Program Map Section (PMT) Private Section private_indicator
current_next_indicator 1 bslbf 0x02 TS PROGRAM MAP TABLE (PMT) per PAT
Syntax No. of bits section_number 8 uimsbf [ISO Reserved]
Stream Elementary
ES N Syntax No. of bits section_length 12 uimsbf
last_section_number 8 uimsbf
Info Loop transport_stream_id 16 uimsbf
Type PID
Length Descriptors TS_program_map_section() { private_section() { Event Information Table (EIT) reserved
User Private Sections:
table_id 8 table_id 8 0x40-0xBF [User Private]
section_syntax_indicator 1 section_syntax_indicator 1
Syntax Bits current_next_indicator 1 bslbf for(i=0;i<num_channels_in_section;i++){
section_number 8 uimsbf
short_name 7*16 Unicode™
‘0’ 1 private_indicator 1 Format last_section_number 8 uimsbf Other Documents:
reserved 2 event_information_table_section(){ protocol_version 8 uimsbf BMP
reserved 2 0xC0-0xC6 [ATSC coordinated values which are defined
section_length 12 table_id 8 0xCB num_channels_in_section 8 uimsbf reserved 4 ‘1111’
private_section_length 12
section_syntax_indicator 1 ‘1’ for(i=0;i<num_channels_in_section;i++){ major_channel_number 10 uimsbf in other standards]
program_number 16 if(section_syntax_indicator==‘0’){ short_name 7*16 Unicode™
for(i=0; i<N; i++){
private_data_byte 8
reserved 8 ‘1111’
uimsbf PSIP Tables:
2 section_length 12 uims- carrier_frequency 32 uimsbf 0xC7 MASTER GUIDE TABLE (MGT) 0x1FFB
current_next_indicator 1 } major_channel_number 10 uimsbf
8 bits 1 bit 1 bit bits 12 bits bf minor_channel_number 10 uimsbf channel_TSID 16 uimsbf

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source_id 16 uims- modulation_mode 8 uimsbf program_number 16 uimsbf
last_section number 8 else { Extended Text Table (ETT) bf carrier_frequency 32 uimsbf ETM_location 2 uimsbf 0xC9 CABLE VIRTUAL TABLE CHANNEL (CVCT) 0x1FFB
ID Indicator reserved 3 table_id_extension 16 zero 2 ‘00’ channel_TSID 16 uimsbf access_controlled 1 bslbf 0xCA RATING REGION TABLE (RRT) 0x1FFB
Indicator Length PCR_PID 13 reserved 2 Syntax Bits Format version_number 5 uims- program_number 16 uimsbf
reserved 4 bf ETM_location 2 uimsbf
version_number 5 extended_text_table_section(){ access_controlled 1 bslbf reserved 2 ‘11’
program_info_length 12 current_next_indicator 1 ‘1’ 0xCC EXTENDED TEXT TABLE (ETT) per MGT
current_next_indicator 1 table_id 8 0xCC hidden 1 bslbf hide_guide 1 bslbf
for (i=0;i<N;i++) { section_number 8 section_number 8 uims- path_select 1 bslbf reserved 3 ‘111’
section_syntax_indicator 1 ‘1’ bf
descriptor() last_section_number 8 private_indicator 1 ‘1’ out_of_band 1 bslbf service_type 6 uimsbf 0xCE-0xD2 [ATSC coordinated values which are defined
last_section_number 8 uims- hide_guide 1 bslbf
} for (i=0;i<private_section_length-9;i++){ reserved 2 ‘11’ bf source_id 16 uimsbf in other standards]
reserved 3 ‘111’
N Private Data Bytes for (i=0;i<N;i++) { private_data_byte 8 section_length 12 uimsbf protocol_version 8 uims- service_type 6 uimsbf reserved 6 ‘111111’
stream_type 8 descriptors_length 10 uimsbf
table_id_extension 16 0x0000 bf source_id 16 uimsbf
reserved 3 } reserved 2 ‘11’ num_events_in_section 8 uims- reserved 6 ‘111111’ for (i=0;i<N;i++){ 0xD4 DIRECTED CHANNEL CHANGE SELECTION 0x1FFB
elementary_PID 13 CRC_32 32 version_number 5 uimsbf bf descriptors_length 10 uimsbf descriptor() CODE TABLE (DCCSCT)
2 current_next_indicator 1 ‘1’ for(j=0;j<num_events_in_section;j++){ for (i=0;i<N;i++){ }
16 bits bits 5 bits 1 bit 8 bits 8 bits 32 bits reserved 4 } descriptor() 0xD5-0x0D5 [ATSC coordinated values which are defined
ES_info_length 12 section_number 8 0x00 reserved 2 ‘11’ } }
} event_id 14 uims- reserved 6 ‘111111’ in other standards]
Table Current Last N for (j=0;j<N2;j++) { last_section_number 8 0x00 }
Version Section CRC protocol_version 8 uimsbf bf reserved 6 ‘111111’ additional_descripors_length 10 uimsbf 0xE0-0x0E5 [Used in other systems]
ID Next Section Private descriptor()
Number Number 32 ETM_id 32 uimsbf start_time 32 uims- additional_descripors_length 10 uimsbf for (j=0;j<N;j++){ 0xE6-0x0FE [Reserved for future ATSC use]
Extension Indicator Number Data } bf for (j=0;j<N;j++){
} extended_text_message() var additional_descriptor()
reserved 2 ‘11’ additional_descriptor() } Tables defined in this PSIP Standard, and any created as user extensions to it are considered
CRC_32 32 CRC_32 32 rpchof }
} ETM_location 2 uims- CRC_32 32 rpchof “private” with respect to ISO/IEC 13818-1. Table types 0x40 through 0xBF are user defined
bf CRC_32 32 rpchof
} (outside the scope of this PSIP Standard). Russia & CIS +7 (495) 7484900

South Africa +27 11 206 8360
To order your free copy of this poster, please visit:
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Switzerland* 00800 2255 4835
Taiwan 886 (2) 2722-9622
United Kingdom & Ireland* 00800 2255 4835
USA 1 (800) 833-9200

* If the European phone number above is not accessible,

please call +41 52 675 3777

Contact List Updated 10 February 2011

For Further Information

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Copyright © 2012, Tektronix. All rights reserved. Tektronix products are

covered by U.S. and foreign patents, issued and pending. Information in this
publication supersedes that in all previously published material. Specification
and price change privileges reserved. TEKTRONIX and TEK are registered
trademarks of Tektronix, Inc. All other trade names referenced are the service
marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.

04/12 EA/FCA 25W-15618-5

Understanding Spearhead Display
The newest gamut display from Tektronix is the
Spearhead display, which shows the artistic
metrics of color saturation and color value or
lightness combined with RGB gamut limits.
The Spearhead display is constructed by plotting
the maximum of the R', G', and B' color values
for each sample versus the minimum of the
three values. The resulting area is a triangle
G ain
The Spearhead display can be used to quickly make color
adjustments. The setup or black level is easily set by
adjusting the image dot locations for alignment to the
lower corner of the Spearhead triangle. The RGB White or

Colors and Gamut

This allows a colorist to adjust live video 50% that represents the full RGB color gamut. This Gain affects the image dot locations near the upper side

monochrome axis
signals in the HSV (Hue, Saturation, 75%
triangle is rotated and scaled such that the of the triangle, increasing or decreasing the color Value or
Value) space within the valid signal 75%
vertical axis (max + min / 2) represents Lightness Adjust intensity. The RGB black-level controls affect the image
gamut range. Gamma & Adjust
and the horizontal axis (max – min) represents 100% dot locations near the lower side of the Spearhead triangle
50% 100% Gray-Scale Chroma
non-normalized Saturation. increasing or decreasing color Saturation. A chroma level

change stretches or compresses the image dot locations

Science Behind the Technology Diamond Display 25%


ck L
along the horizontal axis, changing both Saturation and
Value. Lastly, the gray-scale balance of the RGB gamma
) Setup B Bla controls affects the alignment of the monochrome
e (H RG
u 0% ust components of the image to the left side of the
Black Adj
The television color specification is based on standards defined by the CIE The primary colors, red, green and blue, can be mapped onto a three-dimensional Valid color gamut is defined as all colors represented by all possible Black Spearhead.
(Commission Internationale de L’Éclairage) in 1931. The CIE specified an idealized color cube. All colors can be represented within the bounds of the R'G'B' combinations of legal values of an R'G'B' signal. Signals in other formats Correct Diamond Display
set of primary XYZ tristimulus values. This set is a group of all-positive color cube. may represent colors outside valid gamut, but still remain within their
values converted from R'G'B' where Y is proportional to the luminance of legal limits. These signals, when transcoded to the R'G'B' domain,
the additive mix. This specification is used as the basis for color within today's will fall outside legal R'G'B' limits. This may lead to clipping, Correct Spearhead Display
video standards. crosstalk, or other distortions. 1
Figure 1. CIE xy Diagram with color
A valid signal will remain legal when translated to R'G'B' or
coordinates used by NTSC, SMPTE other formats. A valid signal is always legal, but a legal 1 2 3
and Rec. 709 signal is not necessarily valid. Signals that are not valid
will be processed without problems in their current
The CIE standardized a procedure for format, but may encounter problems when
normalizing XYZ tristimulus values to translated to another format.
obtain a two-dimensional plot of values
(x and y) of all colors for a relative value
of luminance (Y) as specified by the Using the equations in Table 3 and Table 4 to convert the color values from
following equations: R'G'B' space to Y'P'bP'r space limits the range of colors. Only about
x = X / (X + Y + Z) 25% of all possible signal values in the Y'P'bP'r domain are used to
present the complete gamut of colors in the R'G'B' domain. Care
y = Y / (X + Y + Z) must be taken when translating between formats to ensure that the
z = Z / (X + Y + Z) dynamic gamut of the signal is not exceeded.
The Tektronix Diamond display is generated by combining R', G', and B' signals. If the video signal is in another format, the
x+y+z=1 components are converted into R', G', and B'. (R'G'B' can be converted into a valid, legal signal in any format that can handle
Rec. 601 Rec. 709 100% color bars.) To predictably display all three components, they must lie between 700 mV to 0 V. Picture monitors handle
The Tektronix Diamond display provided on the WFM/WVR Series. This rainbow pattern generated on the TG700 test signal A Hue error added to the rainbow pattern will A green gamma error has been added to the test
A color gamut is the complete range of colors allowed for a specific color space. Y’ 0.299 R' + 0.587 G' + 0.114 B' 0.2126 R' + 0.7152 G' + 0.0722 B' excursions outside the standard range (gamut) in different ways. For a signal to be in gamut, all signal vectors must lie within the G-B
The 0 to 700 mV signal range of a 100% color bars signal falls exactly generator contains a set of colors that completely fill the valid cause the text marker to blur. This type of color pattern, resulting in distortions in the text identifier.
This range is bounded by the xy coordinates of the primary red, green, and blue P’b (B’ – Y’) / 1.772 (B’ – Y’) / 1.8556 and G-R diamonds. If a vector extends outside the diamond, it is out of gamut. Errors in green amplitude affect both diamonds equally,
within the graticule. The 100% color bars signal is said to be within the while blue errors affect only the top diamond and red errors affect only the bottom diamond. Using a color bars test signal, timing errors RGB gamut. Each line in the pattern spans the full range of correction adjustment will also show as a rotation on Additionally, the points on the Lightness axis (from the
colors within the color space. The xy coordinates for these primary colors is given P’r (R’ – Y’) / 1.402 (R’ – Y’) / 1.5748 gamut of R'G'B' color space. the vector display.
can be seen as bending of the transitions. color hues for a fixed Value and Saturation, with ramps monochrome step-scale portion of the test pattern)
for several different gamuts in Table 1, and the range of each gamut is shown by
from red to yellow to green to cyan to blue to magenta are bowed inwards, since these points now have
the bounding triangle in Figure 1.
Table 3. Definition of luminance and color-difference signals to red. The lines in the top portion of the pattern all some color. Proper gamma adjustment will remove the
have 100% Value, and range from 0% Saturation tint from monochrome parts of the image.
Gamut Illuminant Red Green Blue
10-bit 12-bit (white) to 100% Saturation (primary colors).
SMPTE D65 x = 0.630 x = 0.310 y = 0.155
Y’, R’, G’, B’ L’D = Round (876 L’ + 64) L’D = Round (3504 L’ + 256) The middle set of lines all have 100%
y = 0.340 y = 0.595 y = 0.070
Saturation, and range from 100% Value
Rec. 709 D65 x = 0.640 x = 0.300 y = 0.150 C’b, C’r C’D = Round (896 C’ + 512) C’D = Round (3584 C’ + 2048)
(primary colors) to 0% Value (black).
y = 0.330 y = 0.600 y = 0.060
The bottom portion of the image
PAL/SECAM D65 x = 0.640 x = 0.290 y = 0.150 Table 4. Digital quantization of analog component signals 2 3 4 5 contains a text identification
y = 0.330 y = 0.600 y = 0.060
pattern and a monochrome
NTSC (1953) C x = 0.670 x = 0.210 x = 0.140 Gamut is the range of colors allowed for a video signal. step pattern.
4 5
y = 0.330 y = 0.710 y = 0.080
A legal signal stays within the voltage limits specified for all
Table 1. CIE xy Coordinate Values for Various Color Gamuts signal channels for a given format. The allowed range for
R'G'B' channels is 0 to 700 mV, while allowed ranges
The white point of the system within each format is defined by the for Y'P'bP'r are 0 to 700 mV for the luma (Y')
addition of red, green, and blue in equal quantities. The CIE defined several channel, and ±350 mV for the color difference
standard sources in 1931 as shown in Table 2. (P'b/P'r) channels.

Source A: A tungsten filament lamp with a color temperature of 2854K

Source B: A model of noon sunlight with a color temperature of 4800K
Source C: A model of average daylight with a color temperature of 6504K

Illuminant C (Source C) was used in the original definition of NTSC. The CIE later This image shows how the Spearhead display After correction, the colors appear vibrant but not
defined a series of daylight illuminants, called the Daylight D series. Illuminant D65 The color bars signal exceeds both the upper and lower diamonds Here, the Tektronix Diamond display shows an error only in the The Tektronix Split Diamond display is a special version of the The Diamond displays can be used for monitoring both standard definition can be used effectively by a colorist. Before excessively bright. The trace in the Spearhead display
with a color temperature of 6504K, and slightly different x, y coordinates, is along the G' axis. Therefore there is an amplitude error within the lower display along the R' axis. This indicates an amplitude error Diamond display that separates the upper and lower components and high definition formats. In this example using a high definition format, the correction, this image has too much shows a wider range of color saturation, with lightness
predominately used today. green channel and the signal gain should be corrected so that the within the red channel. The gain of the red channel should be facilitating observation of gamut errors within the black region. NTSC SMPTE color bars signal is not legal when converted to R'G'B' color near-white brightness and relatively and color values kept within the 75% targets desired
Table 2. White Points for Various waveform falls within the graticule. Note that the B' and R' adjusted to fall within the graticule. Similarly if only the upper space. The waveform exceeds the graticules in several areas. This is due to unsaturated colors. The thumbnail by the colorist.
illuminant A x = 0.4476 y = 0.4075 components fall within the graticule and are therefore within correct waveform falls outside the limits along the B' axis, this would the –I patch having a red component at –144.6 mV, the +Q patch having a display of the picture shows that
illuminant B x = 0.3484 y = 0.3516 Illuminants
limits. indicate a blue amplitude error. green component at –97.9 mV, and the –4% black patch of the pluge area the flowers and lily pads appear
illuminant C x = 0.3101 y = 0.3162 having all three components at –28 mV.
illuminant D65 x = 0.3127 y = 0.3290
"washed out".

6 7 8 9 10

Lightning Display
Tektronix developed the Lightning display to provide both amplitude and interchannel timing
information for the three channels of a component signal – within a single display. This unique
Arrowhead Display
display requires only a single test signal, standard color bars, to make definitive measurements.
Plotting luma versus P'b in the upper half of the screen and inverted luma versus P'r in the lower half –
like two vector displays sharing the same screen – generates the Lightning display. The bright dot at the
center of the screen is blanking (zero signal level). Increasing luma is plotted upward in the upper half of
the screen and downward in the lower half.

Correct Lightning display

The Diamond and Split Diamond displays can be used for This signal shows an error indicating a green color imbalance. The
1 both live signals and test signals and provide unsurpassed
This signal has a significant red imbalance and falls outside the
lower diamond graticule. Note also that the trace is offset to the
This signal has a significant blue imbalance and falls outside the
upper diamond graticule. Note that the trace is offset to the right in signal is offset to the left in both upper and lower diamonds
The Rainbow pattern generated on the TG700 test signal
generator contains the complete range of high definition
ability to simplify R'G'B' gamut monitoring. In this signal, right in the lower diamond. The red imbalance is caused by an the upper diamond. The blue imbalance is caused by an offset in the indicating a green setup error within the black region. Color colors. This color range completely fills the graticules of
there is a minor violation along both the upper and offset in the black level of the red channel and should be color black level of the blue channel and should be color corrected. correction of the signal is necessary to correct the imbalance. the Split Diamond display.
lower G’ axes. The operator can decide if this corrected. The black offset adjustment should be made before the
The Lightning condition is acceptable for their requirements. gain level correction. EBU R103 provides the recommended tolerance
display is an ideal With the WFM and WVR Series, the user can for illegal colors in television. Tektronix
tool for performing select gamut threshold limits appropriate for waveform monitors have configurable gamut
tape alignments quickly their production standards. limits, including a preset for R103 values.
and easily. With a standard 11 12 13 For RGB, these are 5% to 105% (–35 Tektronix developed the Arrowhead display to show out-of-gamut conditions in composite color space, without requiring a composite encoder. The
Arrowhead display plots luma on the vertical axis, with blanking at the lower left corner of the arrow. The magnitude of the chroma subcarrier at each
color bars signal at either 75% mV to 735 mV) and for the luma
signal the limits are –1% to 103%. luma level is plotted on the horizontal axis, with zero subcarrier at the left edge of the arrow. The upper sloping line forms a graticule indicating 100% color
or 100%, select the appropriate bars total luma + subcarrier amplitudes. The lower sloping graticule indicates luma + subcarrier extending toward sync tip (maximum transmitter power). An
scale on the waveform monitor and adjustable modulation depth alarm setting offers the capability to warn the operator that the composite signal may be approaching a limit.
ensure that all the color components
fall within the boxes.
Correct Arrowhead Display
The NTSC Arrowhead
display shows the
The upper half of this Lightning display constructed luma and chroma 1
amplitudes of a 100% color bars
2 3 shows an error for a standard definition
signal. Notice that the 120 IRE alarm
signal: the traces are not within the graticule
boxes. Specifically, this indicates a P’b threshold is exceeded by the 100%
amplitude error requiring adjustment of the P’b color bars. Within NTSC color space a
channel gain until each trace fits within the 100% color bars signal is not suitable for
appropriate box. transmission and will saturate the system.
The Diamond display can be an essential tool for simplifying In this case, the camera has a red imbalance that is shown by the With the lens of the camera capped, the signal should be black Typically, therefore, 75% bars (such as SMPTE
Similarly, if only the lower half of the display was in error, then camera balancing. When the value of R'=G'=B', this produces deviation of the lower diamond from the vertical axis toward the red and the Diamond display should show a dot at the center of the color bars) are used for NTSC systems. The
this would point to a gain error within the P’r channel. Using a a gray value. A resulting gray scale will therefore produce a axis. The camera should be adjusted to correct for this imbalance. graticule. In this case, the capping produces a trace along Arrowhead display can be used for standard definition
color bars signal, and assuming correct gain and amplitude in the vertical line in both upper and lower diamonds, provided the red axis in the lower diamond, indicating that the red and also for high definition video signals which may
green-magenta transitions, the Lightning display can be used for the signal is aligned correctly. Any deviation can easily channel has a setup error and should be adjusted until be down-converted to standard definition for broadcast
interchannel timing measurement. On the screen there are nine cross- be observed within the Diamond display. a dot is displayed at the center of the display. or distribution.
hair graticules positioned spanning each green-magenta transition that 14
can be used for timing measurements.
An NTSC SMPTE color bars signal has been applied to the
If the color-difference signal is not coincident with luma, the transitions between Arrowhead display. In this case, the signal is within the limits of the
color dots will bend. The amount of this bending represents the relative signal delay graticule and will be passed easily through the transmission system.
between luma and color-difference signal. The upper half of the display measures the Note that the display indicates that SMPTE color bars are out of
P'b to Y' timing, while the bottom half measures the P'r to Y' timing. If the transition bends gamut within R'G'B' color space.
This example shows a luma amplitude error: both the upper and
in toward black, the color-difference signal is delayed with respect to luma. If the transition
lower traces fall outside the individual graticules boxes and are
bends out toward white, the color difference signal is leading the luma signal.
stretched vertically. Decrease the amplitude of the luma signal until
each components fits within the boxes. If the trace was distorted The PAL
horizontally this would indicate a Chroma error within the signal. Arrowhead
display has
3 4 5
different graticule
This example shows Here the trace is bowing inward from the center in the upper half of the display limits due to the
4 a bowing outward from
the center in the
5 indicating a timing error in the P'b channel. The P'b signal is delayed with respect
to the luma signal. The trace intersects the markers between the second and third
different color space
used. In this case, a PAL
upper half of the cross-hairs and indicates a timing error of about 55 ns. In the lower half of the display, the 100% color bars signal is within
display. This indicates green-magenta transition crosses the center crosshair, thus there is no timing error between the 930 mV level of the graticule.
a timing error in the the luma and P'r signals. The WFM and WVR Series provide simple indication of Gamut The WFM and WVR Series have a
P'b channel where errors within the status bar display at the bottom of the instrument Set Threshold range of 90 IRE to 135.7
the P'b signal is leading screen. The type of errors can be identified by viewing the video IRE for NTSC and 630 mV to 950 mV for
the luma signal. The Graticule HD Signal SD Signal session display. Lower case and uppercase letters indicate which PAL. Additionally, the WFM and WVR Series
transition crosses the gamut limits have been exceeded. For instance the image above allow for adjustment of setup between 0% and
Center Aligned Aligned
third cross-hair and shows the status bar with Luma, RGB and Composite gamut errors 7.5% to suit the broadcast format. In this case,
indicates a timing error 1st Mark 2 ns 20 ns highlighted in red. Viewing the video sessions display shows the user set a threshold of 840 mV.
of 74 ns, or one luma 2nd Mark 5 ns 40 ns Rr--Bb. The uppercase letters “R---B” show the upper limit of
sample. In the lower gamut have been exceeded for red and blue and the lowercase
3rd Mark 13.5 ns (1 luma sample) 74 ns (1 luma sample)
half of the display, letter “-r---b” shows that the lower gamut limit has been exceeded
the green magenta 4th Mark 27 ns (1 chroma sample) 148 ns (1 chroma sample) for the red and blue channel. In the case of composite and luma
transition crosses the The Arrowhead display can be used for both test signals and live The WFM and WVR Series incorporate a pseudo-composite
gamut errors upper case “L” and “C” indicate the Luma or
center mark–there is no Timing Cross-Hair Positions on Lightning Display. content. In this case, a threshold of 120 IRE has been set and this waveform mode that digitally recreates the composite signal
Chroma limit have been exceeded and lower case
timing error between the signal exceeds valid composite NTSC color space. The level of the waveform from the digital input. This feature allows the operator to
letters “l” and “c” indicate the lower limit have been
luma and P'r signals. signal should be adjusted to prevent clipping within NTSC visualize the familiar composite signal.
exceeded. The user can use this information
transmission systems.
to make adjustment of the appropriate
component in error.