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Refinery Terminology

Posted on April 28, 2013


by Adhi Budhiarto

Some of Refinery Terminology are as follows:

Absorption

Hydrocarbon liquid or gas refining process to remove impurities by dissolving the impurities
into an absorbent (usually liquid) so that the impurities are absorbed in the absorbent.

ADO (Automotive Diesel Oil)

Refinery product which is the result of diesel and gas oil blending. It is simply called as diesel
oil.

Adsorption

Hydrocarbon liquid or gas refining process to remove impurities by adsorbing the impurities
into an adsorbent (usually solid, such as activated carbon or catalyst).

Air Cooler/ Fin Fan Cooler

Heat exchanger which is used to chill or to condense fluid by using air as cooling medium. Air
is blew by a blower. Tubes of air cooler are equipped with fins in order to increase surface area
of heat transfer.

Air Pre-heater

Part of fired heater/furnace which is used to heat up combustion air by utilizing the furnace
flue gas as heating medium.

Amine Regeneration Unit (ARU)

Refinery processing unit which is designed to recover amine solution from rich amine solution
usually coming from Vacuum Gas Oil Hydro Treating Unit (VGO-HDT), Fluid Catalytic Cracking
Unsaturated Gas Plant, or Sour Water Stripping Unit. Amine solution is used in those
processing units to remove sulphur compound. Recovered amine, usually called as lean amine,
is routed back to those processing units. If the amine concentration is less than its minimum
limitation, make up of amine solution is done. Some amine solutions which are often used in
refinery are Mono Ethanol Amine (MEA), Diglycol Amine (DGA), Diethanolamine (DEA),
Diisopropanol Amine (DIPA), Triethanol Amine (TEA), and Methyl Diethanol Amine (MDEA).

Amine Unit

See Amine Regeneration Unit definition.

API Gravity

API stands for American Petroleum Institute. API Gravity is a definition for gravity of
hydrocarbon liquid defined by American Petroleum Institute. API Gravity = (141.5/SG –
131.5). SG is Specific Gravity.

Aromatic Extraction

Extraction process to produce BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) or to reduce aromatic content of
kerosene and jet fuel. Dimethyl formanide (DMF), N-formyl morpholine (NF),
Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), Sulfolane, and Ethylene Glicol are used as solvent.

ARU

See Amine Regeneration Unit definition.

Atmospheric Residue/Long Residue

Bottom product of Crude Distillation Unit (CDU). This product has very low economic value so
that it should be processed to get higher economic value.

Atomizing Steam

Steam which is used to atomize fuel oil to fired heater/furnace through burner to result in good
combustion and goon flame pattern.

Automotive Diesel Oil

See ADO definition.

Avgas
It stands for Aviation Gasoline. Avgas is typically used in aircraft that
use reciprocatingor wankel engines. It is also used as fuel for racing cars.
Avtur

It stands for Aviation Turbine fuel. It is also commonly called as aviation kerosene, jet fuel, Jet
A-1, or ATK (Aviation Turbine Kerosene). It is used as fuel for aircraft or turbine engines or
compression ignition engines.

Axens

French company which is an international provider of technologies (process


licenses), products (catalysts and adsorbents) and services (technical assistance, training,
consulting) to the refining, petrochemical, gas and alternative fuels markets.
Backwash

Process to clean or remove impurities in the filter by inverting fluid flow so that impurities can
be removed from the filter. Backwash is usually done when filter pressure drop nearly reaches
its maximum limit.

Barrel Standard Refinery Fuel

Unit of measurement which is used to measure fuel consumption of a heater or a refinery


processing unit. BSRF = TSRF x 6.531. See TSRF definition.

Battery Limit

Area in the plant boundary which is a boundary between one processing unit to the other
processing unit. In this area, feed to the plant or product from the plant is connected from
upstream process or.to downstream process/storage.

Bearing

Part of rotating equipment which is used to maintain shaft/rotor to rotate at its axis and to
avoid any slope caused by rotation load and radial/axial force.

Bed Temperature

Temperature which is measured at catalyst bed of a reactor.

Benfield Process
Gas treating to remove acid compound by using Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) and activating
agent DEA (Diethanol Amine). Benfield solution is comprised of K2CO3 (25-27 wt%),
KVO3/V2O5 (0.7-0.8 wt%), and DEA as activating agent (3 wt%). The reactions are as follows:
CO2 + R2NH <——-> R2NCOOH
R2NCOOH + KOH <——-> R2NH + KHCO3
BFW (Boiler Feed Water)

Water to be fed to Boiler. Before being fed to Boiler, the water is previously processed in
demineralization plant for external treatment (to remove anion-kation) and for internal
treatment (by chemical like hydrazin, phosphate, and amine).

BHP (Brake Horse Power)

Power results from motor to rotate pump or compressor shaft.

BL

See Battery Limit definition.

Blackout

Condition in the refinery which is all utility, such as electricity, steam, and instrument air were
tripped altogether so that all refinery plants are emergency shutdown.

Block Valve

Valve which is used to isolate an equipment or a control valve. It is installed in the upstream
and/or in the downstream of the equipment.

Blowdown

Drain of a vessel or steam generator or boiler to maintain level or pressure or to discharge


impurities from the system. In the steam regenerator or boiler there are 2 kinds of blowdown,
continuous blowdown and intermittent blowdown. Continuous blowdown is usually around 5
vol% of feed to maintain boiler water quality, whereas intermittent blowdonw was done
intermittently based on its necessity.

Blower

A device to route air or gas. A blower is usually used to route combution air in a fired
heater/furnace or to route air as a cooling media in an air cooler.
Boiler

Equipment which is similar to fired heater/furnace having tubes insides to produce steam.

Boiler Feed Water

See BFW definition.

Brake Horse Power

See BHP definition.

Bromine Number

The amount of bromine in grams absorbed by 100 grams of a sample. The number indicates the
degree of unsaturation. The Bromine Number is useful as a measure of aliphatic unsaturation
in gasoline samples. The data showed that the Bromine Number of gasoline is about 2.4 times
the olefin content. A gasoline with Bromine Number of 30 would then have an olefin content of
about 12.5 percent by volume.
Burner

Equipment which is a part of fired heater/furnace or boiler where fuel oil or fuel gas is burnt to
get fire/flame to heat up fluid inside tube.

Calcined Coke

One of Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) products which can be further processed to be
anode. Calcined Coke is processed from Green Coke whose quality is increased by processing it
in a calciner to remove water content (reduce moisture content), reduce volatile matter, and
increase Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD).

Carbonate Process

Gas treating process to remove acid compounds by using Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3). The
reactions are as follows:
K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O <——> 2KHCO3
K2CO3 + H2S <——> KHS + KHCO3
COS + H2O <——> CO2 + H2S
Catalyst
A substance which accelerates reaction in a reactor. Catalyst is used in a conversion refinery
plant which has specific process. Catalyst types are varied such as sphere, 3-lobe, 4-lobe, fluted
ring, cylinder, and ring.

Catalyst Regeneration

Process to renew catalyst performance by burning carbon which is adsorbed in the catalyst
surface. There are 2 regeneration process types, in-situ regeneration and ex-situ
regeneration. In-situ regeration is regeneration process which is done at site without
unloading the catalyst, whereas ex-situ regeneration is regeneration process which is done
outside by unloading the catalyst first (it is usually done by other company speciallizing in
catalyst regeneration). For small refinery plant, like hydrobon or small hydrotreating unit, or
for fixed bed catalytic reforming unit, regeneration process is usually done by in-situ
regeneration, whereas for big refinery plant, like Hydrocracker Unibon, regeneration process is
usually done by ex-situ regeneration (it depends on economical evaluation).

Catalyst Sulfiding

Process to activate new catalyst which is usually bought from catalyst vendor in inactive form
(oxide form). In the catalyst sulfiding, catalyst is reduced from oxide form to sulfide form.

Catalyst Unloading

An activity to unload catalyst from a reactor. Used/spent catalyst that is already not performed
well is unloaded from a reactor to be replaced by new or regenerated catalyst.

Catalyst Loading

An activity to load catalyst to a reactor. After unloading process, a reactor is cleaned and new
or regenerated catalyst is loaded to the reactor.

Catalytic Cracking

Cracking process of hydrocarbon liquid with the use of catalyst. Examples of catalytic cracking
are Hydrocracker Unibon (HCU), Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC), Residual Catalytic Cracking
(RCC), Residual Fluid Catalytic Cracking (RFCC), and High Olefine Fluid Catalytic Cracking
(HOFCC). The difference among FCC, RCC, RFCC, and HOFCC is mainly in the feed properties.

Catalytic Reforming/Platforming

Refinery processing unit which processes heavy naphtha from Naphtha Hydro Treating Unit
(NHDT) to be converted to LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) and reformate (or commonly called as
High Octane Motor Gasoline Component/HOMC) by using specific catalyst. In the early
generation, it comprised of fixed bed reactors (usually 1 reactor for feed preparation, usually
called as hydrobon reactor, and 3 reactors for Catalytic Reforming process) with catalyst
regeneration every 1 or 2 years and with complete change out of catalyst usually after around 7
times of catalyst regeneration. Catalyst regeneration is usually conducted at site (in-situ
regeneration). Nowadays, Catalytic Reforming/Platforming is designed with Continuous
Catalytic Regeneration (CCR). It comprises of fluidized reactors (usually 3 reactors) and 1
regenerator for Continuous Catalytic Regeneration. “Platforming” is Catalytic Reforming unit
trade mark of UOP (Universal Oil Product).

Caustic Wash

It is common washing process in refinery to remove impurities by using caustic (NaOH). It can
be used to remove impurities, such as mercaptan, H2S & CO2, phenol, fatty acid, naphthenic acid,
HCl & HCN, and COS. Usually caustic concentration is from 5 to 15%. There are 2 kinds of
Caustic Wash in refinery, Merox Process and Solutizer Process.
Cavitation

The formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid
falls below its vapor pressure. Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behavior:
inertial (or transient) cavitation, and non-inertial cavitation. Inertial cavitation is the process
where a void or bubble in a liquid rapidly collapses, producing a shock wave. Such cavitation
often occurs in control valves, pumps, propellers, impellers, and in the vascular tissues of
plants. Noninertial cavitation is the process in which a bubble in a fluid is forced to oscillate in
size or shape due to some form of energy input, such as an acoustic field. Such cavitation is
often employed in ultrasonic cleaning baths and can also be observed in pumps, propellers, etc.
CCR (Continuous Catalytic Regeneration)

See Catalytic Reforming/Platforming definition.

CCR (Conradson Carbon Residue) Test

A destructive-distillation method for estimating carbon residues in fuels and lubricating


oils. Carbon residue is the quantity of carbon produced from a lubricating oil heated in a closed
container under standard conditions.

CDU (Crude Distillation Unit)/Topping Unit

Refinery plant that processes crude oil to be lighter product by distillation process (based on
its each fraction boiling point). CDU produces Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene,
Light Gas Oil (LGO), Heavy Gas Oil (HGO), and atmospheric residue.

Centrifugal Compressor
Compressors using a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of
the impeller, increasing the velocity of the gas.
CFR (Combined Feed Ratio)

Ratio between total fresh feed and recycle feed volumetric flows to fresh feed flow (for
Hydrocracker Unibon) or ratio between total fired heater volumetric flow to fresh feed
volumetric flow (for Delayed Coking Unit).

Change Out of Catalyst (COC)

An activity of unloading and loading of catalyst. Please refer to Catalyst Unloading and Catalyst
Loading terminologies. Catalyst change out is usually done every 1 to 5 years depending on
catalyst performance and economical evaluation.

Charge Heater

Fired Heater/Furnace which is used to increase temperature of refinery processing unit


feed/charge.

Check Valve

Valve which is used to avoid back flow in the piping system.

Claus Reaction

Reaction to produce elemental sulphur. It is the most important Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU)
reaction. The reaction is as follows:

2 H2S + SO2 <——-> 3/x Sx + 2 H2O + Heat


Clay Treating

Treating process to upgrade color of hydrocarbon fractions, such as lube oil. There are 3 types
of Clay Treating, Percolation (coarse clay), Contact in high temperature (powder clay), and
contact at vapor phase (packed clay).

COC

See Change Out of Catalyst definition.

Coke Calcining Unit


Refinery processsing unit which is used to convert green coke to be calcined coke to reduce
water content (moisture content), to reduce volatile matter, and to increase Vibrated Bulk
Density (VBD) by processing it in a calciner in Delayed Coking Unit (DCU).

Coke Chamber

Vessel or chamber where thermal cracking of heavy oil takes place to be converted to coke (this
cracking process is comonly called as coking process). Coke chamber exists in a Delayed
Coking Unit.

Column/ Distillation Column/Fractionation Column

Vessel that is used for distillation or fractionation process to separate hydrocarbon fractions
based on its each fraction boiling point.

Combined Feed Ratio

See CFR definition.

Compressor

A mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. There are 2
types of compressors that are commonly used in a refinery, centrifugal compressor and
reciprocating compressor.
Condensate

The liquid hydrocarbon resulting from cooling vapors or water resulting from steam
condensation after being used for turbine generator or heating media. The last term is usually
called steam condensate.

Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) Test

See CCR (Conradson Carbon Residue) Test definition.

Control Room

A place where console operators monitor and control operating condition by using Distributed
Control System (DCS).

Control Valve
A valve which is used to control operating condition in a refinery plant. It is used to control
flow (Flow Control Valve/FCV), temperature (Temperature Control Valve/TCV), and pressure
(Pressure Control Valve/PCV). Control valve is usually controlled from control room by using
Distributed Control System (DCS).

Convection Section

A part of fired heater/furnace where cold fluid is initially heated up or where steam is
produced. The heating media in the convection section is the flue gas of the fired
heater/furnace.

Cooling Down

An activity to reduce temperature of reactor or fired heater/furnace or refinery plant system


gradually based on plant shutdown procedure. Temperature reduction rate must not too fast
that can damage refractory or catalyst or equipment. Safe temperature reduction rate is 40
degC/hour.

Cooling Water

Fresh water which is used as cooling media in heat exchangers.

Cracking

A process to crack or break of chemical bond of hydrocarbon liquid to produce higher value
products. Generally, there are 2 types of cracking process, catalytic cracking and thermal
cracking. Term “cracking” is also used for unexpected cracking process of crude oil in Crude
Distillation Unit. Commonly, if crude oil is heated up to more than 370 degC at atmospheric
pressure, the crude oil experiences cracking process.

Crude Distillation Unit

See CDU definition.

Crude Oil

Hydrocarbon compound which comes from a conversion of animal (plankton) fossil millions of
years ago. Crude oil has different physical properties and specification depending on the place
that it is collected. Based on its chemical bond, crude oil is commonly classified as 4 types,
which are Parafinic, Olefinic, Naphthenic, and Aromatic.

Damper
A device that damps as a valve or plate in a fired heater/furnace. It is a part of fired
heater/furnace to adjust combution air rate (in the burner side) or to regulate the draft (in the
flue gas stack side).

DCS (Distributed Control System)

A process control system to monitor field operating condition in a console. It is operated by


console operator/panelman.

DCU (Delayed Coking Unit)

Refinery processing unit that processes short residue/vacuum residue of Vacuum Distillation
Unit (VDU) based on thermal cracking principle to produce LPG, naphtha, Light Coker Gas Oil
(LCGO), Heavy Coker Gas Oil (HCGO), and green coke or calcined coke.

Debutanizer

Fractionation column which is used to remove butane and lighter hydrocarbon


fraction. Butane and lighter hydrocarbon fraction is then routed to LPG Plant to produce LPG.

Delayed Coking Unit

See DCU definition.

Depressure

An action to reduce pressure of a refinery processing unit system. It is usually done during
emergency condition or unit shutdown. It is usually done in a refinery processing unit that has
high or medium pressure process and that involves reaction, like in Hydrocracker Unibon or
Hydro Treating Unit. Depressure is done to reduce reaction so that temperature excursion or
temperature runaway can be avoided.

Desalter

Liquid Treating to remove salts contained in hydrocarbon fraction (usually crude


oil). Common salts contained in crude oil are chloride & sulphide salts (sodium, magnesium,
and calcium), and nickel & vanadium salts.

Desuperheater

A device that is used to reduce temperature of steam product to produce saturated steam.
DHDT (Distillate Hydrotreating Unit)

A refinery processing unit that processes Light Coker Gas Oil (LCGO) from Delayed Coking Unit
(DCU) to be Light Kerosene and Heavy Kerosene. In this unit, impurities is removed by
hydrotreating process. Reactor effluent is separated to be Light Kerosene and Heavy Kerosene
in a Stripper-Splitter column.

Discharge

A part of a pump or a compressor where fluid is routed out after being pressed up by impeller
or piston.

Displacer

A device to measure liquid height in a vessel. The measurement reading is sent to control room
so that it can be monitored and controled in Distributed Control System (DCS).

Distillate Hydrotreating Unit

See DHDT definition.

Distillation/Fractionation

A process to separate hydrocarbon fractions based on its each fraction boiling point. It is
usually equipped with reboiler (or stripping steam), overhead condenser, and side streppers to
get good quality products.

Distillation Column

See Column definition.

Distributed Control System

See DCS definition.

Distributor

A device that is used to distribute fluid flow entering to a vessel so that flow distribution is
uniform.
Doctor Treatment

Washing process to upgrade gasoline quality. In this process, mercaptan is converted into
disulphide compound by active substance sodium plumbit; elemental sulphur is then added to
complete the process. The reactions are as follows:

2 RHS + Na2PbO2 —> (RS)2Pb + 2NaOH


(RS)2Pb + S —-> R2S2 + PbS
Drain

A pipe that is used to drain or empty a system (piping, pump, or vessel) from liquid. A drain
pipe is usually located at low point, opposed to Venting. See Venting definition.

Draw off/Side Draw

Hydrocarbon liquid which is taken out or pumped out from distillation column to be taken as a
product or to be returned back to distillation column (after being cooled down) as a
pumparound to control drawoff temperature to get appropriate product.

Dry out

A heating process in a fired heater/furnace to remove water contained in refractory or castable


to dry it out. Dry out process is done gradually. An example of dry out process is as follows:
fired heater/furnace is heated up to 100-110 oC at a rate of 20 oC/hour, hold it for 8 hours, then
it is further heated up to 220 oC at a rate of 20 oC/hour, hold it for 10 hours, then it is furter
heated up at a rate of 40 oC/hour to a certain operating temperature (for example 1250 oC for a
Reaction Furnace), hold it for 15 hours, then cooling down at a rate of 30 oC/hour until fired
heater/furnace temperature is 40 oC, then fired heater/furnace is open to inspect the result of
the dry out process.
Edeleanu Process

Extraction process to remove impurities by using SO2. Aromatic compounds and unsaturated
hydrocarbon dissolve perfectly in liquid SO2, while paraffin and naphtha do not dissolve in
liquid SO2. Therefore, they can be extracted. Edeleanu Process can also be used for kerosene
desulphurization and for kerosene smoke point quality upgrade.
EIV (Emergency Isolation Valve)

A valve which is used to isolate a system in an emergency situation. Recently, EIV is also
connected to Safety Instrumentation System (SIS) to provide safer operation of a refinery
processing unit. In the SIS, some EIVs can be included in a sequence so that they can be
energized by clicking the sequence in DCS.

Emergency Isolation Valve


See EIV (Emergency Isolation Valve) definition.

Emergency Shutdown Device (ESD)

An instrumentation device which is used to shutdown or to trip an equipment (such as pump,


compressor, fired heater/furnace, control valve, or Emergency Isolation Valve (EIV)) or to trip
a refinery processing unit if a certain operating condition is achieved to avoid dangerous
impact to the equipment or the unit.

End Point (EP)

The highest temperature when a specified portion of hydrocarbon liquid is completely boiled
off. It is also commonly called Final Boiling Point (FBP).

ETC (Estimated Time Completion)

Estimated time that an activity is planned to be completed.

ESD

See Emergency Shutdown Device (ESD) definition.

Estimated Time Completion (ETC)

See ETC (Estimated Time Completion) definition.

Euroclaus Reaction

One of Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) reactions to convert acid gas into elemental
sulphur. Euroclaus is a trademark of Jacobs Nederland BV. The reactions are as follows:

SO2 + 2 H2 ——-> 1/x Sx + 2 H2O


SO2 + 3 H2 ——-> H2S + 2 H2O
SO2 + 2 CO ——-> 1/x Sx + 2 CO2
Exhaust Steam

Steam which is produced by turbine after being used to rotate turbine rotor. Exhaust steam is
cooled down and condensed in a surface condenser. The steam condensate is then sent back to
the utility section to be reused as Boiler Feed Water (BFW).

Fan
A device to route air or gas. Fan is usually used to route combution air in a fired
heater/furnace or to route air as a cooling media in an air cooler. If it is used in area of fired
heater/furnace, there is 2 types of fan, induced draft fan and forced draft fan.

FDF (Forced Draft Fan)

A fan which is used to produce positive pressure. The fan is located at a point where air or gas
enter the unit.

Final Boiling Point (FBP)

See End Point (EP) definition.

Fin Fan Cooler

See Air Cooler definition.

Fire Brick/Refractory

A brick which is fire proof. It is used in a fired heater/furnace as an isolation inside the fired
heater/furnace to avoid heat loss from fired heater/furnace cabin.

Fired Heater/Furnace

An equipment which is used to heat up fluid flowing inside tubes. Heating media of fired heater
is hot gas which is produced by burning fuel oil or fuel gas.

Flag Sheet/Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

A diagram showing process flow in a refinery processing unit. It is usually a simple diagram
which does not include detail note like P&ID. Flag Sheet can include mass balance or important
operating condition like flow, temperature, and pressure.

Flange

A device which is used to connect 2 pipes by using bolt and nut. Gasket is used between 2
flanges to avoid any leakage.

Flare Stack
A stack which is used to burn flue gas from refinery processing unit to fulfill emission
environmental standard. Generally, there are 2 kinds of flare, sour flare (or acid flare) and
sweet flare. Sour flare is used for burning gas containing acid (mainly hydrogen sulfide, carbon
dioxide, and ammonia), whereas sweet flare is used for burning free acid gas.

Flash Drum

A vessel which is used to separate process fluid into 2 fractions, which are lighter fraction and
heavier fraction. Lighter fraction is produced as top product in vapor phase, whereas heavier
fraction is produced as bottom product in liquid phase.

Flash Point

Specific temperature which is hydrocarbon will flash. It is usually used as a quality parameter
of refinery product like kerosene and diesel.

Flash Zone

A part of distillation/fractionation column where the feed enters after being heated up at heat
exchanger or fired heater/furnace.

Flue Gas

Gas which is produced by fuel oil or fuel gas burning process in a fired heater/furnace which is
discharged to atmosphere through stack. Sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide are 2 main
components of flue gas. Flue gas is usually hot, so that it is often utilized as heating media in
fired heater/furnace convection section to heat up hydrocarbon liquid or to produce steam or
to heat up combution air.

Flushing Oil

Hydrocarbon liquid which usually has similar specification such as gas oil from Crude
Distillation Unit (CDU). It is usually used to swap refinery processing unit system from heavy
hydrocarbon liquid in the beginning of the unit start up after the unit shutdown. It is also used
to wet catalyst in reactor.

Forced Draft Fan

See FDF definition.

Fractionation
See Distillation definition.

Fractionation Column

See Column definition.

Freezing Point

Specific temperature which is hydrocarbon liquid will freeze. It is usually used as a quality
parameter of refinery product like aviation turbine fuel (avtur).

Fresh Feed

Feed to refinery processing unit which is taken from tank or directly from other refinery
processing unit (straight run feed).

Fuel Gas

Gas which is used as fuel for fired heater/furnace or boiler. Fuel gas is usually in the form of off
gas product of refinery processing unit or Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG).

Fuel Oil

Hydrocarbon liquid which is used as fuel for fired heater/furnace or boiler. Fuel oil is usually
in the form of Low Sulphur Waxy Residue (LSWR) or atmospheric residue.

Furnace

See Fired Heater definition.

Gas Freeing/Purging

An activity in the beginning of start up or in the shutdown process to remove gasses, such as
oxygen, hydrogen, and hydrocarbon, from the refinery processing unit system. Gas freeing is
done in the beginning of the start up to avoid unexpected situation, such as explosion, because
of any remained gas exists in the system. Gas freeing is done during shutdown to ensure that
the system is gas free so that equipment, such as drum or distillation column, can be open
safely during shutdown for maintenance.

Gasket
A device that is installed between 2 flanges to avoid any leakage around the connection.

Gas Oil

Hydrocarbon fraction which is heavier than kerosene having boiling point between 310 to
371 oC. Gas oil is produced from some refinery processing units, such as Crude Distillation
Unit/CDU (Light Gas Oil/LGO and Heavy Gas Oil/HGO), High Vacuum Unit/HVU or Vacuum
Distillation Unit/VDU (Light Vacuum Gas Oil/LVGO and Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil/HVGO),
Hydrocracker Unibon (Diesel Oil), and Delayed Coking Unit (Light Coker Gas Oil/LCGO and
Heavy Coker Gas Oil/HCGO).
Gas Treating

Refinery process to dry out gas or to remove acid compounds. Gas Treating to dry out gas is
usually used in LPG plant, LNG plant, Air Separation Unit, and Gas Distribution area. It is used
to remove compounds which are possible to plug at very low temperature, such as H2O and
CO2. Gas Treating to remove acid compounds (such as H2S, CO2, and Mercaptan) is usually used
in Gas Plant, Refinery, and Refinery Product Distribution area. Some gas treating process are
Amine Unit, Carbonate Process, Benfield Process, Seaboard Process, and Girbotol Process.
GCV (Gross Calorific Value)

See HHV (Higher Heating Value) definition.

Girbotol Process

Gas treating process to remove acid compounds by using Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) and an
inorganic compound as activating agent. The reactions are as follows:

6CO2 + 2K3AsO3 + 3H2O <——-> 6KHCO3 + As2O3


CO2 + K2CO3 + H2O <——-> 2KHCO3
Green Coke

One of Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) products which results from thermal cracking of heavy
hydrocarbon fraction. Green coke is in solid form like coal. Green Coke can be sold to be used
as fuel like coal or can be further processed to be Calcined Coke. Cancined coke is further
processed to be anode. To produce Calcined Coke, Green Coke is processed in a calciner to
remove water content (reduce moisture content), reduce volatile matter, and increase Vibrated
Bulk Density (VBD).

Gross Calorific Value (GCV)

See HHV (Higher Heating Value) definition.

Hammering
Loud sound which results from condensate which volume expands because of high
temperature. At 100 oC, water expands 1700 times its original volume. That is why
condensate in the steam system must be avoided. It is avoided by equipping steam system by
steam trap to separate condensate from steam system.

HCGO (Heavy Coker Gas Oil)

One of Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) products which is taken from main fractionation column.

Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE)

A term which is used for any matter concerning with Health, Safety, and Environmental. In
some refineries, there is a specific department named Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE)
department which handles all Health, Safety, and Environmental issues/matters. In some other
refineries, HSE is sometimes split into 2 departments, Environmental and Health Department
(EHD) and Security, Information & Technology, and Safety (SIS) or in some refineries create
Corporate Safety and Fire Protection Department (CSFD) instead of SIS.

Heavy Coker Gas Oil

See HCGO definition.

HCU (Hydro Cracker Unibon)

A refinery processing unit which processes heavier hydrocarbon liquid by using catalytic
cracking principle to produce lighter products, such as LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas), Light
Naphtha, Heavy Naphtha, Light Kerosene, Heavy Kerosene, and Diesel. HCU feed can be
Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, or Gas Oil. If its feed is naphtha, then the product will be LPG. If its
feed is Kerosene, then the product will be LPG and Naphtha. If its feed is Diesel, then the
product will be LPG, Naphtha, and Kerosene. If its feed is Gas Oil, then the product will be LPG,
Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Lube Based Oil.

Heat Exchanger

An equipment which is used as heat exchange between 2 fluids. Generally, there are 2 types of
heat exchanger which are often used in a refinery, shell & tube exchanger and fin fan cooler.

Heating up

An activity to increase temperature (usually for reactor or fired heater/furnace or refinery


processing unit) gradually depending on Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). It is usually
done during unit start up or fired heater/furnace dry out process. Heating up rate of each
refinery processing unit is different. Common rate for heating up of a fired heater/furnace is
20-30 oC/hour to avoid any shock of temperature change which possibly cause problem to its
refractory. For Hydro Cracker Unibon (HCU) reactor, common rate for heating up is 17 oC/hour
up to 290 oC, 10 oC/hour from 290 to 370 oC, and 1 oC/hour from 370 oC to operating
temperature (around 400 oC).
Heavy Naphtha

See Naphtha definition.

Heavy Kerosene

See Kerosene definition.

HHV (Higher Heating Value)

Unit of Measurement of fuel, which is the amount of heat released by combusting a specified
quantity (initially at 25 °C or another reference state) and returning the temperature of
the combustion products to 150 °C. HHV calculations assume that all of the water in a
combustion process is in a liquid state after a combustion process, opposed to LHV. It is also
called Gross Heating Value (GHV) or Gross Calorific Value (GCV). LHV is much more often to be
used in calculation compared to HHV, because usually condensation of the combustion
products is impratical or heat at a temperature below 150 °C cannot be put to use.
Higher Heating Value (HHV)

See HHV (Higher Heating Value) definition.

High Octane Motor Gasoline Component (HOMC)

Gasoline component which has high octane (> 90). High Octane Motor Gasoline Component is
usually produced by Catalytic Reforming (Platforming) unit. It is also called as reformate.

High Vacuum Unit (HVU)/Vacuum Distillation Unit (VDU)

A refinery processing unit which processes Atmospheric Residue from Crude Distillation Unit
(CDU) based on distillation principle at low pressure to produce Light Vacuum Gas Oil (LVGO),
Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil (HVGO), and Short Residue. It is operated by the same principle like
Crude Distillation Unit (CDU), but with different operating pressure range. It is operated at
vacuum pressure (15-35 mmHgA), whereas Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) is operated at
atmospheric pressure.

HOMC
See High Octane Motor Gasoline Component (HOMC) definition.

Hook Up

Piping connection which is usually used to measure fluid pressure in a system so that it can be
read by transmitter or pressure gauge. It is also used as a term for piping connection which is
installed in some specific levels (usually in 2 positions, upper and lower level) to measure
liquid level in a vessel.

HSE (Health, Safety, and Environmental)

See Health, Safety, and Environmental definition.

HVU (High Vacuum Unit)

See High Vacuum Unit (HVU)/Vacuum Distillation Unit (VDU) definition.

Hydraulic Horse Power

Power which is needed to pump fluid in a pump or a compressor.

Hydrobon

See Catalytic Reforming/Platforming definition.

Hydrocarbon

Chemical compound which comprises of carbon and hydrogen bonds as its main components.

Hydro Cracker Unibon

See HCU (Hydro Cracker Unibon) definition.

Hydrogen to Hydrocarbon Ratio

Ratio of mass flow of hydrogen contained in recycle gas to mass flow of hydrocarbon liquid
(feed). This ratio is usually used in refinery processing units which use hydrogen to convert
feed to be products.

Hydrogen Plant
A refinery processing unit which converts treated gas from Amine Unit to be hydrogen product
which has high purity. In some other refineries, hydrogen feed is taken from Ethane Cracker. If
Hydrogen Plant uses Benfield system, the Hydrogen product purity is around 97%, whereas if
Hydrogen Plant uses Pressure Swing Absorber (PSA), the Hydrogen product purity can reach
99.99%. Hydrogen product is used in some refinery processing units, such as Hydro Cracker
Unibon (HCU), Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), Hydro Treating Unit (HTU), etc.

Hydro Treating

Treating of hydrocarbon fluid by using hydrogen and catalyst. Two common Hydro Treating
processes in refinery are Naphtha Hydro Treating, Distillate Hydro Treating. In HCU, there is
also Hydro Treating process, which is usually happened in the first step before Hydro Cracking
process to treat hydrocarbon before Hydro Cracking process.

IBP (Initial Boiling Point)

According to American Society for Testing and Materials petroleum-analysis distillation


procedures, IBP is the recorded temperature when the first drop of distilled vapor is liquefied
and falls from the end of the condenser.

Impeller

Part of a pump whose shape is like propeller equipped with blade to give force to the fluid by
centrifugal force so that it can increase fluid energy.

Incinerator

Fired heater/furnace which is used to burn organic substance to convert it into ash, flue gas,
and heat. The flue gas can be used to generate electric power or to produce steam. According
to the European Waste Incineration Directive, incineration plants must be designed to ensure
that the flue gases reach a temperature of at least 850 °C (1,560 °F) for 2 seconds in order to
ensure proper breakdown of toxic organic substances.
Induced Draft Fan

A fan that is used to produce mechanical draft. The fan is located at a point where air or gas
leave the unit.

Initial Boiling Point

See IBP definition.

Instrument Air
It is like plant air with pressure around 6 kg/cm2 but with lower water content. It is used in a
refinery for instrumentation system such as energize control valve to open and close, energize
Emergency Isolation Valve (EIV), etc.

Intermediate Tank

A tank which is used as a temporary storage of a refinery processing unit product which later
will be processed in other refinery processing units.

Isometric Drawing

3D drawing which shows position, dimension, and shape of equipment or piping system like
actual condition in the field.

JP-5

It stands for Jet Propellant-5. It is used by military as aircraft fuel. JP-5 is the US Navy’s
primary jet fuel.

JP-8

It stands for Jet Propellant-8. It is used by military as aircraft fuel. JP-8 is one of the jet fuels
used by the U.S. Air Force.

Kerosene

Refinery product, fraction heavier than Naphtha, which usually has distillation range between
150 and 310 oC. In a distillation column like in HCU (Hydro Cracker Unibon) or in a Splitter like
in DHDT (Distillate Hydro Treating Unit), Kerosene can be split into Light Kerosene (which has
API gravity around 49 and distillation range between 150 and 220 oC) and Heavy Kerosene
(which has API gravity around 42 and distillation range between 200 and 310 oC). Kerosene can
be split into Like Kerosene and Heavy Kerosene. Kerosene is produced from CDU (Crude
Distillation Unit), HCU (Hydro Cracker Unibon), and DHDT (Distillate Hydro Treating Unit).
Knock Out Drum (KOD)

A drum which is used to separate liquid (which may be contained in gas) from gas to avoid any
liquid carry over to downstream which may be harmful for downstream processes. Liquid is
separated at the bottom of the drum, whereas gas is routed out from top of the drum.

LCGO (Light Coker Gas Oil)


It is one of DCU (Delayed Coking Unit) products. It has API gravity around 43 and it has
distillation range between 140 and 350 oC.
Let Down

See Steam Let Down definition.

Level Glass

A device to measure liquid level of a vessel or a drum or a distillation column. It is installed to


know actual level in the field to be compared with measurement by displacer which is shown in
DCS.

LHV (Lower Heating Value)

Unit of Measurement of fuel, which is the amount of heat released by combusting a specified
quantity (initially at 25 °C or another reference state) and returning the temperature of
the combustion products to 150 °C. LHV calculations assume that the water component of a
combustion process is in vapor state at the end of combustion, opposed to the Higher Heating
Value (HHV). It is also called Net Heating Value (NHV) or Net Calorific Value (NCV). LHV is
much more often to be used in calculation compared to HHV, because usually condensation of
the combustion products is impratical or heat at a temperature below 150 °C cannot be put to
use. See HHV (Higher Heating Value) definition.
Light Coker Gas Oil

See LCGO definition

Light Naphtha

See Naphtha definition.

Light Kerosene

See Kerosene definition.

Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Light fraction which mainly comprises of C3 and C4. At room temperature and atmospheric
pressure, LPG is in gas phase. Therefore, LPG is usually stored in high pressure and/or low
temperature. LPG specification to market usually contains C2 < 0.2 vol% and C5 < 2 vol%; the
rest is C3 and C4.

Liquid Treating
Refinery process to purify products by contacting it with other substances. Some examples of
Liquid Treating in refinery are Doctor Treatment, Caustic Wash (Merox Process or Solutizer
Process), Edeleanu Process, Solvent De-asphalting, Aromatic Extraction, Methyl Ethyl Ketone
treating, Solid Bed Sweetening (Sponge Process or Molecular Sieves), Clay treating, and
Desalter.

Long Residue

See Atmospheric Residue definition.

Lower Heating Value

See LHV (Lower Heating Value) definition.

Low Sulphur Waxy Residue (LSWR)

Refinery by product. It is residue which has low sulphur content. It is mostly Long Residue and
Vacuum Residue mixed with little Diesel to meet specification.

LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas)

See Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) definition.

LSWR (Low Sulphur Waxy Residue)

See Low Sulphur Waxy Residue (LSWR) definition.

Lube Base Oil

Lube Base Oil plant product to which other oils or substances or additives are added to
produce lube oil or lubricant.

Lube Oil

In refinery it is used at a pump and a compressor to lubricate the rotating part like shaft or
rotor.

Main Control Room (MCR)


A room where consoles are placed. It is the place where DCS (Distributed Control System) is
located. From this place all important operating condition can be monitored and controlled by
console operator.

Make Up Gas

Hydrogen rich gas, usually with purity more than 90%, which is usually used as make up to be
injected to a system to increase hydrogen purity in recycle gas. Make up gas is also used to
maintain system/reactor pressure.

Manhole

A hole attached to vessel side or top where persons can enter to clean it up or to inspect it
during its maintenance.

MBCD (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

It is a unit of measurement to indicate a refinery processing unit capacity for each calendar
day. It is usually used for hydrocarbon liquid.

MBSD (Thousand Barrels per Stream Day)

It is a unit of measurement to indicate a refinery processing unit capacity for each day of
operation. It is usually used for hydrocarbon liquid.

MCR

See Main Control Room (MCR) definition.

Mechanical Seal

Part of rotating equipment which is used to seal off pump system to avoid leakage of fluid from
its casing.

MEK (Methyl Ethyl Keaton) Treating

Liquid treating process to absorb paraffin wax from hydrocarbon fraction (usually lube oil
feedstock).

MMSCFD (Million Standard Cubic Feet per Day)


It is a unit of measurement to indicate a refinery processing unit capacity for each day of
operation. It is usually used for hydrocarbon gas.

Mogas (Motor Gasoline)

Mogas stands for motor gasoline. It is gasoline used for vehicle.

Molecular Sieves

Liquid treating, which is classified as Solid Bed Sweetening, using adsorbent to remove H2S, CO2,
mercaptan, and H2O even they are already in low concentration.
Naphtha

One of refinery products, fraction heavier than LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) and lighter than
Kerosene, which usually has API gravity between 60 to 70 and usually has distillation range
between 50 to 165 oC. In CDU (Crude Distillation Unit) and DCU (Delayed Coking Unit) it is
produced as one stream Naphtha which is sent to NRU (Naphtha Rerun Unit) or NHDT
(Naphtha Hydro Treating Unit) to be split into Light Naphtha (which has API gravity around 70
and has distillation range between 40 to 165 oC) and Heavy Naphtha (which has API gravity
around 60 and has distillation range between 70 to 170 oC). HCU (Hydro Cracker Unibon) also
produces Light Naphtha and Heavy Naphtha. Light Naphtha is taken as final product to be used
as one of gasoline blending component. Heavy Naphtha is usually further processed in a
catalytic reforming (platforming) unit to convert it into high octane motor gasoline component,
commonly called as reformate (octane number > 90; usually 92 or 95 or 98).
Naphtha Hydro Treating Unit (NHDT)

A refinery processing unit which treats naphtha to be used as feed of a Catalytic Reforming
(Platforming) unit (it reduces naphtha sulphur content, nitrogen content, metal content, and
other impurities). The unit also splits Naphtha into Light Naphtha and Heavy Naphtha. Light
Naphtha is taken as final product to be used as gasoline blending component, whereas Heavy
Naphtha is sent to a Catalytic Reforming (Platforming) unit to produce High Octane Motor
Gasoline Component (HOMC), commonly called as reformate, which has octane number > 90
(usually 92, 95, or 98).

Naphtha Rerun Unit (NRU)

See Naphtha Hydro Treating Unit (NHDT) definition.

NCV (Net Calorific Value)

See
LHV (Low Heating Value) definition.
Net Calorific Value (NCV)

See LHV (Low Heating Value) definition.

Net Heating Value (NHV)

See LHV (Low Heating Value) definition.

NHDT (Naphtha Hydro Treating Unit)

See Naphtha Hydro Treating Unit definition.

NHV

See Net Heating Value (NHV) definition.

NRU (Naphtha Rerun Unit)

See Naphtha Hydro Treating Unit (NHDT) definition.

Nitrogen Plant

A refinery processing unit that produces Nitrogen by separating air to be Nitrogen and
Oxygen. In a refinery, Nitrogen is used during start up, shutdown, and normal
operation. During start up, it is used to purge system, reactor, or vessel; it is also used during
the first time of compressor start (in Hydro Cracker Unibon, it is used to press up pressure
system up to 35 kg/cm2). During shutdown, it is used during catalyst skimming. During
normal operation, it is used to balance reaction in a reactor (in Catalytic
Reforming/Platforming Unit or in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit); it is also used for sweeping in
case of temperature excursion or temperature runaway in a reactor (mainly in Sulphur
Recovery Unit reactors).

Octane Number

It is quality parameter for gasoline product. The octane number of a fuel is measured in a test
engine, and is defined by comparison with the mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane(iso-octane)
and heptane which would have the same anti-knocking capacity as the fuel under test: the
percentage, by volume, of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane in that mixture is the octane number of the
fuel. For example, petrol with the same knocking characteristics as a mixture of 90% iso-octane
and 10% heptane would have an octane rating of 90.[1]This does not mean that the petrol
contains just iso-octane and heptane in these proportions, but that it has the same detonation
resistance properties. Because some fuels are more knock-resistant than iso-octane, the
definition has been extended to allow for octane numbers higher than 100.
Off Gas

Refinery unit process product which is in gas phase (in room temperature). It usually
comprises of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and ethane. It can be used as Fuel Gas or as
feed to Hydrogen Plant.

On Stream

A term which is used to indicate that a refinery processing unit is already in normal operation
(after completing start up process) and all products are already on-specification. Usually, a
refinery processing unit needs 2 to 5 days to get on-stream in a unit start up process.

Operating Manual

Manual which contains brief description about basis of design (process overview, material
balance, feed and product specification, and Battery Limit condition), general description
(process flow description, utilities/chemical/catalyst, control system, and general HSE system
and equipment), operating procedures/instruction, and equipment & instrumentation list.

Orifice

A device to measure fluid flow in a piping system. The form of orifice is a round plate with a
small hole in the center. Orifice measurement is based on pressure difference which results
from orifice plat/hole. This pressure difference is measured by transmitter and then it is
converted to 4-20 mA signal so that it can be shown in Distributed Control System (DCS).

Overhead Receiver

A vessel which is used to collect liquid resulted from vapor condensation in a distillation
column top. From overhead receiver, liquid can be taken as product or can be returned back to
column as a reflux.

Overhead Temperature/Pressure

Temperature/Pressure at top of distillation/fractionation column. In distillation process,


overhead temperature and pressure are important parameters to produce stable process and
on-spec products.

Peak Temperature
Peak Temperature

The highest temperature measured in the reactor bed or the highest reactor bed temperature.

Peephole

A hole at the side of fired heater/furnace which is used to see inside fired heater/furnace cabin
to monitor flame pattern, burner condition, and tube condition.

PFD (Process Flow Diagram)

See Flag Sheet definition.

Pilot Gas Burner

Small auxiliary gas burner which provides a flame to ignite a larger gas burner or to maintain
flame stability.

P&ID (Piping & Instrumentation Diagram)

Diagram or drawing which contains drawing of refinery processing unit equipment and piping
system completed with its instrumentation, control system, and piping size.

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

See P&ID definition.

Plant Air

Air with around 6 kg/cm2 which is routed to refinery processing unit to be used for utility,
such as to continuously purge flame scanner, to balance reaction in a reactor, or to do
pneumatic test in the field.

Platforming

See Catalytic Reforming/Platforming definition.

Plot Plan
2 dimension drawing which shows position or location of equipment in a refinery processing
unit as per actual condition in the field.

Pour Point

The lowest temperature at which it will still pour or flow under prescribed conditions. It is a
rough indication of the lowest temperature at which oil is readily pumpable. It is also defined
as a measure of the ability of a diesel fuel to operate under cold weather conditions. It is
usually used as one of diesel fuel quality parameters. It can be different from one country to
another, depends on the country condition. Even in one country, it can also be different
between summer and winter specification. For example, in a tropical country, 65 oF as
maximum limitation of Pour Point is acceptable. Nevertheless, in Rocky mountain, Pour Point
limitation is different between Summer and Winter season, 10 oF as maximum limitation of
Pour Point during Summer season and -30 oF as maximum limitation of Pour Point during
Winter season.
Pressure Gauge

A device to measure system or fluid pressure. It is usually installed in the field and it is not
connected to Distributed Control System (DCS). If it is connected to DCS, it is called Pressure
Indicator (PI).

Pressure Indicator

A device to measure system or fluid pressure. It is connected to Distributed Control System


(DCS), so that it can be seen from console.

Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)

A device which is used to discharge system pressure if there is over pressure in the system
which will endanger the system. It is also commonly called Pressure Safety Valve (PSV). It is
actuated by inlet static pressure and designed to open during an emergency or abnormal
conditions to prevent a rise of internal fluid pressure in excess of a specified value. The device
may also be designed to prevent excessive internal vacuum. API Recommended Practice 520
Part I & II are international standards which are usually followed for PSV sizing, selection, and
installation.

Pressure Vessel

A vessel/container (cylindrical or spherical) which is capable of withstanding pressure.

Pre-wetting
One of refinery processing unit start up procedures which is used to wet catalyst inside
reactors by using flushing oil. Pre-wetting is conducted in refinery processing units using
catalyst in their operation. The main purpose of pre-wetting is to have uniform flow
distribution in the reactor later after the unit is operated with designed feed.

PIM (Plant Instruction Manual)/SOP (Standard Operating Procedure)/WI (Work


Instruction)

Manual which contains a detail procedure of refinery processing unit start up/shutdown
(normal and emergency) or equipment start up/shutdown or fired heater/furnace dry out or
catalyst loading or normal operating condition or equipment handover from operation to
maintenance, etc. The difference between PIM and Operating Manual is that Operating Manual
is usually manual which is given by contractor/licensor which is usually general in describing
instruction, while PIM usually contains detail instruction about what field operators/console
operators/shift supervisors should do individually or in coordination one another or in
coordination with other sections or with Shift Superintendent. It is also usually completed with
check list so that all procedures/instructions can be done correctly and in order.

PIMS (Plant Information Management System)

A system to collect and integrate information about a production process from different
sources. Examples of PIMS are Aspentech IP21, Osisoft PI, Honeywell PHD, Yokogawa
Exaquantum, Wonderware Historian, and GeFanuc iHistorian.

Plant Information Management System (PIMS)

See PIMS definition.

Plant Instruction Manual

See PIM definition.

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

See Flag Sheet definition.

Project Specification

A book which includes data of equipment, such as vessel, pump, compressor, heat exchanger,
instrumentation, catalyst and chemical, etc., in a refinery processing unit which is preliminary
design data that is later made in detail in data sheet or technical data book.
Pump

Equipment to transfer liquid from one place to other places by giving pressure to the liquid. In
a refinery, there are 2 common types of pump, centrifugal pump and reciprocating
pump. Centrifugal pump is usually used to transfer hydrocarbon liquid, whereas reciprocating
pump is used for chemical injection.

Pumparound

Hydrocarbon liquid which is taken from distillation column liquid collector/drawoff returned
back to the distillation column to be used as cooling media of hydrocarbon vapor inside the
distillation column. Usually, pumparound is taken from distillation column and is routed to
some heat exchanger to be used as heating media, so that its temperature is much lower and it
can be used as cooling media of hydrocarbon vapor inside the distillation column to adjust
product specification, such as Final Boiling Point (FBP) and Pour Point.

Purging

See Gas Freeing definition.

Quench Gas

Recycle gas which is routed to reactor system to cool down reactor effluent before it enters
another reactor. It is also used to control the next reactor inlet temperature. During
emergency situation, like temperature excursion or runaway, it can be used to cool down
reactor to drastically reduced temperature simultaneously with depressuring the system
pressure to cut out reaction.

Radiation Section

Part of fired heater/furnace where fluid is heated up by using flame radiation of the burner.

Reaction Furnace

Thermal Stage of Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) process. It is used to convert acid gas (H2S) to
elemental sulphur by using high temperature. The reactions are as follows:
H2S + 3/2 O2 ——-> SO2 + H2O + Heat
2H2S + SO2 <——-> 3/2 S2 + 2 H2O – Heat
Reaction Furnace temperature is around 1000 oC (for processing amine acid gas, which mainly
contains H2S and CO2) or around 1250 oC (for processing SWS gas, which mainly contains H2S
and NH3). Higher temperature for processing SWS gas is needed for ammonia decomposition.
Reactor
Vessel which comprises one or two or three catalyst beds where the chemical reaction, like
cracking, treating, desulphurization, and Claus reaction, takes place. Usually reactors are
cylindrical and vertical, such as in NHDT, NRU, HCU, Catalytic Reforming/Platforming, FCCU,
and Hydrogen Plant. Nevertheless, in Sulphur Recovery Unit, it is usually built cylindrical and
horizontal divided into 3 or 4 sections for each type of Sulphur Recovery reaction.

Reactor Effluent

Hydrocarbon fluid from reactor which results from chemical reaction or conversion in the
reactor. Then, usually, reactor effluent is condensed and fractionated to be products by
distillation.

Reboiler

Equipment which is used to heat up hydrocarbon liquid bottom of distillation/fractionation


column in order to produce vapor to be returned back to the distillation/fractionation column
to be used as distillation/fractionation column heating media. In the distillation/fractionation
column, there is a contact between vapor produced by reboiler and hydrocarbon liquid
resulted from feed flashing which will then increase the separation degree.

Reciprocating Compressor

A compressor using pistons driven by a crankshaft. It can be either stationary or portable, can
be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
Recycle Feed

Portion of product which is rerouted back as feed. The purpose of having recycle feed is to
increase reactor severity and simultaneously to decrease reactor load because recycle feed is
actually already converted into product.

Recycle Gas

Hydrogen rich gas which is circulated continuously within reactor system by using recycle gas
compressor. Recycle gas hydrogen purity is usually maintained as high as possible (around
90%) to have high reaction conversion and to extend catalyst lifetime. Recycle gas is usually
used as reactant in refinery processing units using catalyst for treating and cracking, such as in
HCU and NHDT.

Refractory

See Fire Brick definition.


Regenerated Catalyst

Catalyst which is already regenerated. See Catalyst Regeneration definition.

Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP)

Quality measurement of light fraction hydrocarbon which indicates extent of vaporization. It is


used for Light Naphtha, Reformate or HOMC (High Octane Motor Gasoline Component), and
LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas).

Reflux

Hydrocarbon liquid which is returned back to distillation/fractionation column. It can be


hydrocarbon liquid which is gained from vapor condensation at the top of the column and
returned back to the column as cooling media of hydrocarbon vapor at the top of the column in
order to adjust/control product quality (which is usually called as top reflux). It can also be
pumparound (which is usually called as internal reflux).

Safety Instrumented System (SIS)

A form of process control usually implemented in industrial processes, such as those of a


factory or an oil refinery. The SIS performs specified functions to achieve or maintain a safe
state of the process when unacceptable or dangerous process conditions are detected. Safety
instrumented systems are separate and independent from regular control systems but are
composed of similar elements, including sensors, logic solvers, actuators and support systems.
Seaboard Process

Gas treating process to remove acid compounds by Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3). The reactions
are as follows:
Na2CO3 + H2S <——-> NaHS + NaHCO3
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O <——-> 2NaHCO3
Sea Water

It is used as cooling media in heat exchangers.

Sea Water Cooler

Heat exchanger which is used as cooler by using sea water as its cooling media.

Sequence of Events (SoE)


List of Events related to Emergency Shutdown Device (ESD) or Safety Instrumentation System
(SIS). The SoE records any ESD/SIS which is activated. It is used to track the root cause of
Equipment/Unit trip.

Separator

Vessel which is used to separate process fluid to be gas phase, liquid phase, or sour water. It
can be High Pressure Separator (in HCU, it has operating pressure around 170 kg/cm2g) or
Medium Pressure Separator (in HCU, it has operating pressure around 25 kg/cm2g) or Low
Pressure Separator (in HCU, it has operating pressure around 7 kg/cm2g).
Sequence of Events (SoE)

Recorded events related to Emergency Shutdown Device. All signals related to Emergency
Shutdown Device are sent to SIS (Safety Instrumentation System) and recorded in Sequence of
Events.

SG (Specific Gravity)

Ratio of the density of a substance to that of a standard substance. For solids and liquids, the
standard substance is usually water at 39.2°F (4.0°C), which has a density of 1.00 kg/liter.
Gases are usually compared to dry air, which has a density of 1.29 g/liter at 32°F (0°C) and 1
atmosphere pressure. Because it is a ratio of two quantities that have the same dimensions
(mass per unit volume), specific gravity has no dimension. For example, the specific gravity of
liquid mercury is 13.6, because its actual density is 13.6 kg/liter, 13.6 times that of water.

Shaft

Part of rotating equipment (pump or compressor) which is used to distribute mechanical


energy resulted from motor or turbine to impeller so that it can increase fluid energy.

Short Residue/Vacuum Residue/Vacuum Bottom

Bottom product (residue) of Vacuum Distillation Column of High Vacuum Unit (HVU)/Vacuum
Distillation Unit (VDU).

Shutdown

Activity to stop a refinery processing unit. Shutdown procedure or detail instruction is written
in a Plant Instruction Manual (PIM)/Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)/Work Instruction
(WI) completed with check list so that all procedure can be done correctly and in order. There
are 2 kinds of Shutdown, Normal Shutdown and Emergency Shutdown. Normal Shutdown is
conducted if the Shutdown is previously planned, while Emergency Shutdown is conducted if
the Shutdown is previously unplanned because of emergency situation to safe the unit
operation.

Side Draw

See Draw off definition.

Side Stripper

Vessel which is a part of distillation/fractionation column which is used to purify product from
distillation/fractionation column. In the Side Stripper, steam (usually Low Pressure Steam) is
injected as heating media to fractionate lighter fraction from the product. The lighter fraction
is routed back to distillation/fractionation column. Side Stripper is usually used to
adjust/control product quality. For example, Diesel Side Stripper is used to adjust/control
flash point of Diesel product, while Diesel pour point is controlled by controlling Diesel draw
off temperature.

Sight Glass

A device which is used to ensure that fluid in the piping system is flowing. It is also commonly
used to measure lube oil level of a pump.

Skin Temperature

Temperature measurement at tube surface (in the fired heater/furnace) or at vessel/reactor. It


is used to identify the tube surface or reactor wall temperature so that their mechanical design
limitations are not exceeded.

Skimming

A term for partial catalyst unloading. During operation, catalyst usually experiences coking
because of operation upset, such as less Hydrogen to Hydrocarbon Ratio (less Hydrogen purity
in recycle gas or less recycle gas flow because of recycle gas compressor low performance) or
temperature excursion/temperature runaway. Catalyst is also used for desulphurization,
denitrification, and demetalization. Catalyst also sometimes adsorbs impurities, such as water
carry over. These all catalyst deactivation process (coking, desulphurization, denitrification,
demetalization, impurities adsorption) are happened worse in the top layer of the catalyst. If
this catalyst deactivation is happened so fast compared to normal catalyst deactivation, catalyst
skimming can be alternative instead of change out of catalyst. Catalyst skimming is usually
conducted in inert environment. Reactor is injected with nitrogen (to avoid catalyst oxidation
which will deactivate catalyst and which will possibly cause fire because of pyrite contained in
the catalyst); catalyst is skimmed from top, usually around top 30 to 50 cm layer catalyst is
skimmed, depending on catalyst condition.
Slop Oil

Off specification product results from a refinery processing unit. During start up or shutdown
activities or unit upset, there is possible to have off specification products. These off
specification products are sent to Slop Oil tank. Slop Oil tank also receives oil from Oil
Separator in Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP). Oil Separator receives oil and water from
refinery processing units through Oil and Water Sewer (OWS). This oil is usually from
sampling points or drains. Slop oil from Slop Oil tank can be reprocessed in Crude Distillation
Unit (CDU) with maximum of 5 vol% on feed of CDU in order to maintain the unit stability,
mainly related to water content of Slop Oil.

Smoke Point

The maximum flame height in millimeters at which kerosene or jet fuel or aviation turbine fuel
will burn without smoking, tested under standard conditions. It is used as a measure of the
burning cleanliness of jet fuel and kerosene.

Snubber

Vessel which is used to maintain gas flow continuity and also to separate water from the
gas. Snubber is usually a part of reciprocating compressor, installed at suction and discharge of
the compressor.

Snuffing Steam

Steam which is used to sweep flammable gas from fired heater/furnace. Snuffing Steam line is
usually installed in parallel with fuel gas to burner. After a burner is stopped, then snuffing
steam is open for a while to sweep flammable gas around the burner. Snuffing Steam lines are
usually also operated/open during fired heater/furnace trip or emergency shutdown.

SoE (Sequence of Events)

Recorded events related to Emergency Shutdown Device. All signals related to Emergency
Shutdown Device are sent to SIS (Safety Instrumentation System) and recorded in SoE.

Solid Bed Sweetening

Liquid treating which uses solid laid in bed/vessel to remove H2S, O2, CO2, and H2O. Molecular
Sieves and Sponge Process are two Common Solid Bed Sweetening processes in refinery. See
Molecular Sieves definition and Sponge Process definition.
Solvent De-asphalting
Extraction process to remove asphaltenes from Lubricating Oil. Propane, Butane, Pentane, or
Hexane are used as solvent.

SOP (Standard Operating Procedure)

See PIM (Plant Instruction Manual) definition.

Soot Blower

A device which is used to clean soot or carbon on the surface of convection section tubes by
spraying steam (usually Low Pressure Steam) into the convection section for short period of
time (15-30 minutes). It is usually done regularly (once or twice a week).

Sour Water

Waste water resulted from refinery processing units. Sour Water from each refinery
processing unit is re-processed in Sour Water Stripping Unit (SWS) to remove H2S and
ammonia. The stripped water can be directly sent to Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) or
can be re-use as cooling water in a water cooler or can be re-use as wash water in NHDT or
HCU. In WWTP, oil is separated from the Stripped Water. From WWTP the water then is sent
to the sea/river and the oil is sent back to Slop Oil tank to be reprocessed in CDU.
Sour Water Stripping Unit (SWS)

Refinery processing unit which processes sour water from all refinery processing units by
removing its impurities, such as H2S and ammonia.
Specific Gravity (SG)

See SG (Specific Gravity) definition.

Spillback

Fluid which is recycled from pump discharge to pump suction. It is used to maintain minimum
flow of the pump so that design minimum flow can be achieved.

Splitter

Fractionation column which is used to separate 2 different hydrocarbon fractions which have
small different in boiling range. An example of Splitter is Kerosene Splitter, which is used to
separate Light Kerosene and Heavy Kerosene. See Stripper definition for the difference
between Splitter and Stripper.

Sponge Process
Liquid treating, which is classified as Solid Bed Sweetening, to remove H2S and O2 by using
sponge Ferro. The reactions are as follows:

2Fe2O3 + 6H2S ——-> 2Fe2S3 + 6H2O


2Fe2S3 + 3O2 ——-> 2Fe2O3 + 6S
Stack

Part of fired heater/furnace or boiler which is used to discharge flue gas to atmosphere. The
term “Stack” is also used for flare, it is called Flare Stack (see Flare Stack definition).

Standard Operating Procedure

See PIM (Plant Instruction Manual) definition.

Standing Order (SO)

Daily operation instruction which is written by Refinery Processing Unit Chief/Head. It


comprises of instruction to adjust/control operating condition (increase/decrease feed, mode
of operation, etc.), manpower management, and other valuable information needed by
operation personnel. Usually for refinery processing unit load/feed flow, Refinery Processing
Unit Chief/Head will refer to instruction given by Production Planning Department.

Start up

Activity to start a refinery processing unit. Start up procedure is written in Start up PIM (Plant
Instruction Manual)/SOP (Standard Operating Manual)/WI (Work Instruction). It must be
followed correctly and in order.

Steam

Pressurized steam which results from boiler or steam generator. It is used to generate turbine
or as heat exchanger heating media or as steam tracing or as reactant in Hydrogen Plant. In a
refinery, steam is classified based on its pressure; High Pressure Steam is usually Steam with
pressure around 40 kg/cm2g or 60 kg/cm2g (depends on the refinery necessity on the steam),
Medium Pressure Steam is usually Steam with pressure around 11-13 kg/cm2g), and Low
Pressure Steam is usually Steam with pressure around 3.5 kg/cm2g).

Steam to Carbon Ratio

Ratio of steam flow to total carbon in the feed gas. This parameter is used in Hydrogen
Plant. Actual Steam to Carbon Ratio in Hydrogen Plant must always be higher than its
minimum limit to avoid coking at the catalyst surface, mainly for steam reformer catalyst.
Steam Generator

One type of heat exchangers which is used to produce steam (usually High Pressure Steam and
Medium Pressure Steam). The heating media is usually hydrocarbon liquid (from
pumparound) or hydrocarbon gas (like in Hydrogen Plant).

Steam Let Down

System to reduce steam pressure, usually from High Pressure Steam to Medium Pressure
Steam.

Steam Tracing

Steam coil or tubing which is wound around a pipe to avoid fluid frozen inside the pipe. The
service fluids inside the pipe are usually heavy hydrocarbon and liquid sulphur.

Steam Trap

A device which is used to separate condensate from steam flow to avoid any condensate in the
steam system which may cause hammering.

Steam Turbine

Turbine which utilizes High Pressure Steam or Medium Pressure Steam as energy source to
produce power. Power resulted from steam turbine can be used as driver for pump or
compressor or electric power generation.

Storage Tank

Tank which is used to store refinery processing unit feeds and products. General types of
storage tank in a refinery are Fixed Roof Tank which is used for non-volatile hydrocarbon
liquid, Floating Roof Tank which is used for volatile hydrocarbon liquid, and Spherical Tank
which is used for LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas).

Straight Run

Hydrocarbon fractions resulted from CDU (Crude Distillation Unit) without chemical reaction
or molecular modification. This term is often used for Naphtha, Straight Run Naphtha.

Stripper
Fractionation column which is used to strip lighter fraction from heavier fraction, such as Light
Naphtha Stripper (to strip LPG/Liquid Petroleum Gas from Light Naphtha product). Another
type of Stripper is Side Stripper (see Side Stripper definition). The difference between Stripper
and Splitter is that Stripper is used to separate 2 different hydrocarbon fractions which have
big different in boiling point range (for example LPG and Light Naphtha), while Splitter is used
to separate 2 different hydrocarbon fractions which have small different in boiling range (for
example Light Kerosene and Heavy Kerosene).

Stripping Steam

Steam which is injected into distillation column bottom or side stripper bottom. It is used as
heating media to reduce hydrocarbon partial pressure so that light fractions can be evaporated
at lower temperature.

Suction

Upstream part of rotating equipment (pump or compressor) which sucks service fluid to be
transferred.

Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU)

Refinery processing unit which converts acid gas (Amine Acid Gas and SWS Gas) into elemental
sulphur. It can only comprises of 2 stage of process, thermal stage (Reaction Furnace) and
Claus reactor, or it can also comprises of more than 2 stage of process (added by Euroclaus
reactor and Superclaus reactor, which are trademarks of Jacobs Nederland BV). See Reaction
Furnace definition for thermal stage reaction and see Claus Reaction definition for Claus
Reaction.

Superclaus Reaction

One of Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) reactions to convert acid gas into elemental
sulphur. Superclaus is a trademark of Jacobs Nederland BV. The reaction is as follows:

H2S + 0.5 O2 ——-> 1/x Sx + H2O


Superheater

A device which is used to heat up saturated steam in order to get superheated steam.

Surface Condenser

Air Cooler which is used to condense exhaust steam from turbines in the refinery processing
units.
Surge Drum

Vessel which is used to store hydrocarbon liquid before being processed. It is used to avoid
any feed fluctuation which may be happened in the upstream unit or from feed tank so that
feed to the unit can be stable. Surge Drum is also used to settle water content which may be
carried over from upstream unit or feed tank.

Sweeping

An activity to push out liquid from system (usually reactor). Sweeping is usually done in
refinery processing units having reactors. It is usually done by circulating hydrogen rich gas or
recycle gas. It is very useful mainly to make catalyst unloading easier because there is already
no liquid in the reactor/catalyst.

Technical Data Book

Book which comprises of refinery processing unit equipment data (datasheet, material test
data, detail drawing, etc.).

Temperature Excursion/Temperature Runaway

Situation where catalyst bed temperature is rapidly increased suddenly exceeding maximum
operating design temperature and maximum design delta temperature limit. Delta
temperature is the difference between reactor bed peak temperature and reactor inlet
temperature. For example in Hydrocracker Unibon with Amorphous catalyst, maximum
operating design temperature is 454 oC and maximum design delta temperature is 28 oC (in
Fresh Feed reactor) or 14 oC (in Recycle Feed reactor). In this case, temperature excursion or
temperature runaway is the situation where there is one or more reactor bed temperatures
more than 454 oC and delta temperature more than 28 oC (in Fresh Feed reactor) or more than
14 oC (in Recycle Feed reactor).
Thermal Cracking

Refinery process which utilizes heat for cracking hydrocarbon. Two famous refinery processes
utilizing thermal cracking process are Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) and Visbreaker.

Thermal Oxidizer

Fired heater/furnace which is used to burn remain acid gas to convert it into flue gas and heat
so that it is safe to discharge it to atmosphere. The flue gas can be used to generate electric
power or to produce steam. It is one of Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) equipment. Its normal
temperature is around 750 oC.
Thermocouple
A device to measure fluid temperature of inside distillation/fractionation column, fired
heater/furnace cabin, heat exchanger inlet/outlet, etc. Thermocouple can be connected to
Distributed Control System (DCS), then it is called Temperature Indicator/Temperature
Controller, so that it can be monitored or controlled by console operator.

Ton Standard Refinery Fuel (TSRF)

Unit of measurement which is used to measure fuel consumption of a heater or a refinery


processing unit. TSRF = calorie (in kcal)/9800000.

Topping Unit

See Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) definition.

Transmitter

A device which is used to send signal from a refinery processing unit field to Distributed
Control System (DCS) so that it can be monitored or controlled by console operators. It can be
used for flow, temperature, or pressure. Transmitter works by transmitting pneumatic
measurement (pressure difference) to 4-20 mA signal.

Tray

Part of distillation/fractionation column where vapor phase and liquid phase are in contact in
order to separate light fraction from heavy fraction. Tray types are various, such as sieve tray,
valve tray, bubble cap tray, and packing tray.

Treating

Hydrocarbon process to remove impurities from refinery products. There are many treating
processes in refinery, but in general it can be classified into 3 categories, namely Hydro
Treating, Liquid Treating, and Gas Treating (See Hydro Treating definition, Liquid Treating
definition, and Gas Treating definition).

Trip

Situation when equipment (pump, compressor, fired heater/furnace, control valve, or


Emergency Isolation Valve) is immediately stopped. Trip can be happened because of overload
or Emergency Shutdown Device (ESD) system activation. See Emergency Shutdown Device
(ESD) definition.

TSRF
See Ton Standard Refinery Fuel definition.

Universal Oil Product (UOP)

American company which is an international provider of technologies (process


licenses), products (catalysts and adsorbents) and services (technical assistance, training,
consulting) to the petroleum refining, gas processing, petrochemical production and major
manufacturing industries.
Vacuum Bottom

See Short Residue definition.

Vacuum Residue

See Short Residue definition.

Vacuum Distillation Unit (VDU)

See High Vacuum Unit (HVU) definition.

Valve

A device to adjust fludi flow or pressure. Common types of valves to be used in refinery are
Gate Valve, Globe Valve, and Butterfly Valve. Valve can be connected to Distributed Control
System (DCS), which is called Control Valve. See Control Valve definition.

Venting

Pipe which is used to vent or to empty a system (piping, pump, or vessel) from gas. Venting is
usually located at highest point of the system, opposed to Drain. The difference between
Venting and Drain is that Venting is for gas, while Drain is for liquid. See Drain definition.

Vessel

Equipment which is not only used as container, but also as other refinery
purposes. Distillation/fractionation column, Knock out Drum (KOD)/flash drum, overhead
receiver, surge drum, separator, side stripper, Stripper, Splitter, and Debutanizer are classified
as Vessel.

VM (Volatile Matter)
Substance which is very easy to evaporate. It is commonly used as Coke (Green Coke or
Calcined Coke) quality parameter/specification. Coke (Green Coke or Calcined Coke) is one of
Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) products. Volatile matter is determined by heating the coal to
950 oC under carefully controlled conditions and measuring the weight loss, excluding weight of
moisture driven off at 105 oC.
Volatile Matter (VM)

See VM (Volatile Matter) definition.

Waste Heat Boiler

Boiler which is used to produce steam (usually High Pressure Steam) by utilizing heat from
reactor/fired heater flue gas, such as flue gas from Steam Reformer (in Hydrogen Plant), or acid
gas from Reaction Furnace (in Sulphur Recovery Unit), or flue gas from fired heater/furnace (in
other refinery processing units).

Water Boot

Part of separator which is used to collect sour water or process water resulted from separation
in the separator. The water is then routed to Sour Water Stripping Unit.

WI (Work Instruction)

See PIM definition.

Work Instruction

See PIM definition.