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Tutorial 7

1. Regression methods were used to analyze the data from a study investigating the relationship
between roadway surface temperature (xoC) and pavement deflection (y). The data follow.
Temperature xoC Deflection y Temperature xoC Deflection y

70.0 0.621 72.7 0.637


77.0 0.657 67.8 0.627
72.1 0.640 76.6 0.652
72.8 0.623 73.4 0.630
78.3 0.661 70.5 0.627
74.5 0.641 72.1 0.631
74.0 0.637 71.2 0.641
72.4 0.630 73.0 0.631
75.2 0.644 72.7 0.634
76.0 0.639 71.4 0.638

i. Estimate the intercept and slope regression coefficients. Write the estimated
regression line.
ii. Show that
iii. Compute the coefficient of determination, R2. Comment on the value.
iv. Construct the ANOVA table and test for significance of regression.
v. Predicted the pavement deflection for temperature 75o

Solution:
i. = 0.3935, = 0.0033, Y = 0.3935 + 0.0033X
ii. SST = 0.002127, SSR = 0.001373, SSE = 0.000754
iii. R2 = 64.5%.
iv. ANOVA:
Source df SS MS F
Regression 1 0.001373 0.001373 32.75974
Residual 18 0.000754 4.19E-05
Total 19 0.002127
v. Y = 0.3935 + 0.0033(75) = 0.641
2. The following data were collected on 8 lung cancer patients where x measures the number of
years the patient smoke cigarette (or any form of nicotine product) and y is the physician’s
subjective evaluation of the extent of lung damage on a scale of 0 to 10

x (years) 25 35 22 15 48 39 42 31

y (0-100) 55 60 50 30 75 70 71 55

i. Determine the slope and intercept of the estimated line, Yˆ    X .


ii. Find the coefficient of determination, R 2 .
iii. Predict the evaluation of the extent of lung damage for 20 years.

Solution:
i. = 17.8807, = 1.2566, Y = 17.8807 + 1.2566X.
ii. R2 = 91.5%.
iii. Y = 17.8807+1.2566(20) = 43.

3. The following measurements of the specific heat of a certain chemical were made in order to
investigate the variation in specific heat with temperature.
o
Temperature C (X) 54 61 65 68 72 75 78

Specific heat (Y) 16.5 14.3 15.1 13.5 11.2 12.6 11.8

i. Estimate the regression line of specific heat on temperature.


ii. Find the coefficient of determination, R 2 .
iii. Estimate the value of the specific heat when the temperature is 70oC.
iv.
Solution:
i. = 27.2706 = -0.2027, Y = 27.2706 - 0.2027.
2
ii. R = 81.2%.
iii. Y = 27.2706 – 0.2027(70) = 13.1

4. An article in Optical Engineering (“Operating Curve Extraction of a Correlator's Filter,” Vol. 43,
2004, pp. 2775–2779) reported the use of an optical correlator to perform an experiment by
varying brightness and contrast. The resulting modulation is characterized by the useful range of
gray levels. The data are shown as

Brightness (%): 54 61 65 100 100 100 50 57 54


Contrast (%): 56 80 70 50 65 80 25 35 26
Useful range (ng): 96 50 50 112 96 80 155 144 255
i. Fit a multiple linear regression model to these data.
ii. Predict the useful range when brightness = 80 and contrast = 75.
Solution:
i. Y=238.56 + 0.334X1 - 2.717X2
ii. Y = 238.56 + 0.334(80) - 2.717(75) = 61.505

5. The table below shows the result of a regression analysis that was carried out for a given data
set.

Solution:

Predictor Coef SE Coef T


Constant 6.188 2.704 2.29
X1 9.6864 0.4989 19.42
X2 -0.3796 0.2339 -1.62
X3 2.9448 0.2354 12.51

S = 0.923 R - squared = 0.908

Analysis of Variance
Source Df SS MS F
Regression 3 363.01 121 142
Residual Error 43 36.62 0.852
Total 46 399.63

(i) Find all the missing values?


(ii) What is the sample size? n = 47
(iii) Write the estimated regression line. Y = 6.188 + 9.6864X1 - 0.3796X2 + 2.9448X3
(iv) Test for significance of regression at 5% significance level.
Since F=142 very large compared to f0.05, 2,44= 3.23, then the regression is significance.

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Tutorial Part II/RR/Sept. 2013