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To pic V : Heat Transfer

1. Liquid nitrogen at 77 I< is stored in au uni11sulated 4. A concrete wall is 20 cm thick and has an overall
1 .0 m diameter spherical tank. The tank is exposed to thernwl resistance of 0.2 m2 ·°C/W. The temperature
ambient. air at 285T< . The thermal resistance of the ta11J< difference between the two waJl surfaces is 5°C. What
material is negligible. The convective heat transfer is most nearly the heat t.ransf'er t,hrough the wall?
coefficient of the lank exlerior is 30 W /m2·K. The initial (A) 1 .5 W/m2
heat transfer from the air to the tank is most nearly
(B) 2.5 W/m2
(A) 4.9 kW
(C) 13 W/m2
(B) 9.8 k\V
(D) 25 W /m2
(C) 1 6 kW
(D) 20 kW 5. 50°C water flows through a 1 .5 m long copper pipe.
The t.hennal conductivity of the copper is 350 W /m·°C.
2. The exterior walls of a bow;e are 3 m high, 0.14 m The internal diameter of the pipe is 20 mm, and the pipe
thick, and 40 Ill in total length. The thermal conduct.iv­ wall is 5 mrn thick. The temperature outside of t.he pipe
ity of t.he walls is 0.038 W/m·°C. The i nterior of the is 20°C. 'What is most nearly t.he heat transfer through
walls is maintained at 20°C when the exterior (outdoor) the pipe?
wall temperature is 0°C. Neglecting corner effects, mo:;t (A) 140 kW
nearly, what i:; the heat transfer through Lhe walls?
(B) 160 k\V
(A) 0.023 k'v\I
(C) 240 kW
(B) 0.065 kVl
(D) 440 kW
(C) 0.23 k\V
(D) 0.65 kW 6. A parallel flow tubular heat exchanger cools water
from 90°C to 70°C. The coolan t increases in tempera­
3. A stainless steel Lube (3 cm inside diameter and 5 cm ture from 0°C to 35°C. The log mean temperature
outside diameter) is covered with 4 cm thick insulation. difference is most nearly

insulation arc 20 W/m·I< and 0.06 W /m·I<, respectively.

The thermal conductivities of stainless steel and the (A) 28°C
(B) 32°C
. . . ...
· . . . .� ·
·. . . (C) 58°C
. :; ..

. -. -
. •. ·- . . ·. � . (D) 62°C
k; = 0.06 W/m·K
7. A fan moves 25°C air over a 25 W resistive electrical
device that has a uniform surface temperature of
l 00°C. The forced convection heat transfer coefficient
is 50 \\' /m2·°C. l f the cooling fan fails and the device is

- - .. ·
.. .
'. � . .
cooled by natural convection (heat transfer coefficient
. . of 10 \V/m2·°C), the resulting surface temperature of
the device will be most. nearly
If the inside wall temperature of the tube is 5001< and (A) 100°c
the outside temperature of the insulation is 50K, what is
most nearly the heat loss per meter of tube lengt.h? (B) 375°C
(A) 120 W/111 (C) 400°C
(B) 140 \V/m (D) 625°C
(C) 160 W /m
(D) 180 \V/m

PPI • w w w . 1> p l 2 p a s s . c o m
DE V-2 F r: M E c 11 A N 1 c A L n E v 1 E \'I M A N u I\ L

0. T wo large parallf'I pl ates are maintained elcdrically SOLUTIONS

at u11iforn1 Lcmpcralures. Plate l h as a smface temper­
at.Ul'e of DOOi< and an emissivity of Plate has a 0.5. 2 1 . The heat transfer from the ta11k lo the at.mospherf' is
smface temperature of 650K anJ an e1nissivity of
Q = h A ( '/'11, -
The facing surfaces or both plates constit.11te opaque, T ) = hrrD'l ( T., - T_ .)
diffuse gray radiators. A thin aluminum racliat.io11 shield
is placed betwee11 the µ!ales. The space betwef'n t.he �·\I
plates is evacuated so t.hat. convective arc negli­ effects (30 111 ) ( m)2(771< - 285K)
2 · l<
rr I

gible. The emissivity of bot.h sides of the radiation shield \V

1000 kW
is0.15. In slcady stale, what is most 1 P11r ly the net heat
Oux from plate l Lo plate 2? = - I D.G kW
(A) 940 W/ 2 m
The heat tra11sfcr from t.he air to the tank is 19.6 k\V
1500 \V/m1 (20kW).
(C) HJOO W /1112 The answer is (D).
(0) 2GO O \V /m 'l.
2. Calculate t.he arPa.

9. Air at 300K 0.45

flows at 111/s over the smface of H A = Lit = (40 111) (3 1n) = 120 m2
1 m x l m flat plate. The average kiucmat.ic viscosity of
the air is 20.92 10-u
x m2 /s, the Prandt.I number is 0.7, The heat t.ransfer clue to co11ductio11 is
the surface temperature of tlie plate is
x 10- W /m·I<. If
and the thermal conduct.ivit.y is
3 30
t.he aver­ 4001(, kA(T1 - T2 )
age heal t.ransfcr coefficient is most nearly �:c
(A) 2.G \V /m2·K (0.038 �) 2
(B) 5. 0 W /m'l.·K m·°C ( 120 m )(20°C - 0°C)
(C) 7.5 /rn2·K \<\1 (0. 14 111) ( 1000 I��')
(D) 8.2 W /m2·I< = O.G5 I k\V (O.G0 k\V)
The answer is (D).
1 O. A metal sphere al 750°C
with a diameter of is 2 cm
enclosed in a vacuum container. The Lemperat.ure of t.he
surroundings is VI of power is needed to
-20°C. 12 3. The radius of the inside of the tube is
maintain the sphere's te111pcrat.urc. What. i s most nearly
Di 3 cm
the emissivity of the sphere? r1 = 2 =-
(A) 0.15 2- = 1.5 cm
The radius of the outside of t.hc tube is
(B) 0.20
(C) 0.25 D 5
1·2 = --...£
2 = -- 2 = 2.0 cm

(D) 0.28
The outer radius of the insulat.ion is

r3 r2
= + /. = 2.0 cm + '1 cm = G.5 cm
The heat transfer through the tube is

2 rrk L( T;. - T2)

In .1.
7 '1

Tl1e temperature between the tube and insulation is

P P I • \'I w w , p p i 2 p a s s • c o m
o 1 A a N o s T 1 c E x 11 M : 11 E A T T n 11 N s F E n DE V-3

The heal t.rnnsfer through l hc i11sulation is 5. The inner radius of t he pipe is 20 1111u/2 10 1nm. =
The outer radius of the pipe is 10
mm + 5 m m = tlllll. 15
Calculate the rate of heat transfer t hrough l.ltc pipe.
Q 2rrk;L( T2 - T3)
lu ,.3

CJ = 2rrkL( T1 - T2)
ht !.1
From t.liis, l he temperatme between t he l.ube and insn­

(2 rr) (350 we) ( 1 .5 m) (G0°C - 20°0)

--- mm) ( 10 00 �)
lat.ion is also
. 1' lll ·o
Q In __:!
r2 (ln 1510 mm
T2 =
2rr.k;L + T3 HV
= 244 kW (240 kW)
Tile answer is (C).

6. Calculate t.he log mean tempernture difference for

�T1111 = ( Ttto - (Teo) - ( Tu;)- Tc;)

parallel flow in tubular heal. exc:hangers.

r3 = so•c

(70°0 - (35°0) (90°C)- 0°C)
Tm - Tc;
70°C - 35°C
ln g o c
Equate the l.wo expressions for the temperature between o - oo c
t.he tube and boundary.
= 58.23°C (58°C)
Tile answer is (C).

7. Use Newton's law of cooling. At state 1 , the fan is

Solve for the heat. transfor per unit. length.
operating, and at st.ate lhe fan has faile<l.

Q 2rr. ( T1 - T:i)
L _In "2 ln ,.3
_1 ·1 _..!2
ks + k;
Q = hA(T1, - T )
Q = h1 ( Tw,l - T ) = h ( T1n,'l - T )
A 2 -
Solve for the surface temperatme of the device after the
= ] 2rr.(500l<
- 50K)
6.5 cm
fan fails.

G�) (T,v,I -
T00 ) + T

( m�.�C)
11 n --
1.5 cm + 2.5 cm

m·K 0 . 0G JY_
\ T,,,,2 =
20 V

-- w
= 177.3 W/rn (180 W/m) 50 --
= ( 1 00° c - 5° C ) + 25°C
The answer Is (0). 10
m2 .o c
4. Find the heat transfer per unit. area. = 400°C
Tile answer is (C).
Q = A�T R

q. = -AQ = -

0.2 ---w-
m2 .oc

= 25 \V/1112
The answer Is (0).

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
DE V-4 r: E M E c ti A H I c I\ L R E v I E w M A I'� u A L

8. The uet heat transfer is 10. Cak:ulate t.he absolulc temperatmes of Lhc sphere
and the smrounclings.
T1 = 750°C + 273° = 10231<
a(TI - TJ) T2 = -20°c + 273° = 2531<
Use the equation for neL energy exchange between two
uotlies when Lhe body is small co111parecl to its

Si11c.:e the plates are parallel, A = A 1 A2 = A3. Since the =

plates arc large, F 3 Fa� = l . Since the emissivity of tJ1e The smface area of a sphere is
shield is the same1 01 1 both sides, c::1, 1 = c:3,2.

A = 4nr2 = nct2
a(T/ - �)
l - cJ + .!_ + l -
Q12 = €3 1 - Ea + ! + 1 - C:2 Solve for the emjssiviLy of the sphere.

a( '.Ti - '.G )
c 1 1 c3 c:3 1 c2

( ��1) 2
E = ---,--
l.. + l.. + 1- - 2
= --,---.,...----,� aA('.Ti - TJ)

(5.67 X 10-R k,) ( (9001\) I - (650J<)-I )

,. -

(5.67 10-s ·K4 ) n(2 cm)2

cJ c2 c3
( 1 2 W) 1 00

x ( ( 1 0231<) -I - (2531<)'1 )
_l + _!__ + _2_ _ 2
0.5 0.8 0.15
= 1856.9 W/m2 ( 1900 \l\T/1112)
= 0.154 (0.15)
The answer is (C).
Tile answer is (A).
9. The Reynolds number is
m L
HcL = r 00 =

(0.45 �) ( 1 m)
1100 £
fl V

20.92 x 10-6 .!.!.!..._
• 2
= 2.15 x 101

Since ReL is less Lhan 105, the flow over the flat plate is
laminar. Use a Nusselt correlation.
NuL = - = 0.6640ReL Pr 1
- 7iL 112 /:i

= (0.6640)(2. 1 5 x 10'1 ) 1 /2 (0.7) 1 /:l

= 86.47
h = Nu1,

= (86.47)
( l m �)
30 x 10-3

= 2.59 W /m2 ·I< (2.6 \I\//m2 ·K)

Tile answer is (A).

PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
J. Introductio11 to Condudive Heat. s solids or surl'ace
. . . . .1.1cc. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 19-1 th t.hermnl
2.3. Thermal
Steady Conduction Through a Plane
1 9-2 oo bulk tluid

'iVall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
. . . 19-3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Conduction Through a Cylindrirnl \i\Tall . . .
5. Transient Conduct.ion Using the Lu mp ed
Capacitance i'vlodcl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9-5 Conduction is the flow of heat. through solids or stn­
6. Fins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l!J-7 t.iouary fluids. Thermal conclud1rnce in metallic solids
is d11e to molecular vibrations withiu the metallic crys­
Nomenclature talliue lattice a nd movement of free valence electrons
A nrcn m2 through the Insulating solids, which have fewer
I3i Iliot number free electrons, conduct heat primarily by the agitation
cp specific heat J/kg·K of adj a cent atoms vibrating about their equilibrium
G heat ge11erat.ion rate \V /m3 posit.ions. This vibrational mode of heat transfer is
11 coefficient of heat transfer \V/m2.l( several orders of magnitude less efficient than conduc­
h enthalpy Id/kg tion by free electrons.
k thermal conductivity W/m·K In stationary liquids, heat is transmitted by lon gitudi n al
L th.iclwess Ill
vibrations, similar to sound waves. The ne t. transport.
111 factor for fins equal to .jliP/!.:Ar 1 /m //ieory explains heat transfer through gases. Hot. mole­
Ill mass kg cules move faster t.han cold molecules. Hot molecules
p per imeter 111
travel to cold areas with greater frequency than cold

q heat transfer per unit flrea \V /lll2 molecules travel to hot areas.

hefll energy J
rnte of heat. t ra nsfer Determining heat trallSfer by comluction can be an easy
task if sufficient simplifying ass11mptions are made. Maj or
,. radius 111

R thermal resista nee K/\V discrepancies can arise, however, when the simplifying
thick ness m assumptions me not met. The following assumptions are
l t.i mc s
commonly made in simple problems.

The h eat path is one-dimensional. ( Objects are infi­

T temperature J( o The heat transfer is steady-state.
u overall coefficient. of heal t.ransfer \V/1112 . l(
\1 volume Ul3
width m
nite in one or more directions and do not have auy

x dis tance Ill

end effects.)

• The heat path has a constant area.
{J decay constant (reciprocal of l /s o The heat path consists of a homogen eous material
time constant) with constant conductivity.
p mass density kg/m3 o The heat patb consists of an isotropic material. 1
T time cm1stant s
• There is n o internal heat generation.
0 initial Many real heat transfer cases violate one or more of these

solutions (suitable for working by hand) are in the minor­

l inner assumptions. Unforttmately, problems with closed-form
2 outer
b bm;e ity. More complex problems must be solved by appropri­
c cross section or corrected ate iterative, graphical, or mwlCrical met.hocls.2
er cr itica l
initial, im1er, or it h layer Examples of a11iso/ropic maleriols, materials whose heat transfer
properties depend on the tlircction of heat flow, are crystals, plywood
m mean
and other laminated sheets, anti the core clements of some electrical
o outside t ransfom1ers.
p pressme 2
Finite-difference methods arc t·o111111011ly used .

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
19-2 F E M !;; C H A N I C /\ L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Equation 1 9. 1 : Fourier's Law of Conduction Exa mp le

Concrete has a t.hermal conductivity or 1 .4 W/111 · ° C.

Q = -kA dT
\\That is most nearly the thermal resistance of a 20 cm
19. I thick concrete wall with an exposed face area of 1 m2?
(A) O. l'J °C/\V
Val ues (B) 0.28 °C/\V
Table 19. 1 Typical Thermal Conductivities al 0°C (C) 1 . 4 °C/W
k (D) 7.0 °C/W
substance w/111-l(
silver •119

a l urn i 11 u111
copper 388 Use Eq. 19.2.


(i.i1 �)
R = _!:_ =
97 0.2 m
steel (1% C) 47
lPad 35 kA ( 1 1112)
ice 2.2 .
glass l.1 = 0.1113 ° C/\V (O.ltl °C/\V)
concrete 0.87
waler 0.55 The answer is (A).
fiberglass 0.052
cork O.Oi.13
air 0.02i.J
Equation 1 9.3 and Eq. 1 9.4: Resistance in
Desc ription Series
The steady-state heat transfer by conduction through a
Oat slab is speci fied by Fourier's law, Eq. HU. Fourier's . f':. T
lmv is writ.ten with a minus sign to indicate that the Q = R,., -


heat !low is opposite the direction of the thermal

gradient. !?to tal = L /? 19.4

conductance), k, is a measure of the rate at which a

The thermal conduc/.iuily (also known as the thermal Vari ation

substance transfers thermal energy through a unit thick­

ness. 3 Unit.s of thermal conductivity are W/nd( or
W·cm/m2 ·K. The conductivity of a substance should
not be confused with the overall conductivil.y, of an U,
object. Table 19.1 lists representative thermal cond11c­
tivities for commonly encountered substances. Description

For heat trausfer through mult.iple layers (for example,

2. THERMAL RESISTANCE a layered wall or cylinder with several layers of different
insulation) , each layer is considered a series resistance.
Equation 1 9.2: Thermal Resistance, Plane The sum of the individual thermal resistances is the
Wall total thermal resistance. For example, in Fig. 19. l , the
total thermal resistance is given by the sum of the two
individual resistances. Typical units are K/W.

Figure 19. 1 Composite Slab (Plane) Wall

Description kA ka
For a plane wall, the t, hermal resistance depends on the

ity, k. Thermal resistance is usually expressed per unit of

thickness (path length), L, and the thermal conductiv­

exposed surface area, as Eq. 19. 2 indicates. LA La


3Anoth('r (IPss-c11cou11tcrcd) meaning for co11ductiuity is the reciprocal

of tltmnal resistance (conductivity kA/ L).

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N D U C T I O N 19-3

Equation 1 9.5: Thermal Resistance, Becanse

thermal resi thesfilm
a film isis not
ned, t.he
Cylindrical Wall
(con vective heal lmn::;fer coefficicnl
fllnce), h, with nnits of W /m2·I<. twit eunduc­
In (--:/"·-J )
R =
, ,
Ifta11ccthe willfluidbeissmall
(that yistmbnl
, ent, the t.hermal resis­
h will bu very large). In such
cases, the wall temperature is essentially t.he same as t.he
fluid temperature.

driEquati on 19.5 gives the thernrnl resistirnce for a eylin­ Example

cal wall. A wall has a film coefficient. of 3500 W/m2·°C. What. is

Exampl e wall? nearly the thermal resistance of a 1 1112 area of the

A 0.5 long cast. irou pipe has au inner diameter of
lil (A) 0.29 °C/kW
6 cm and an outer diameter of G.5 cm. The thermal (B) 0.33 °C/k\V
conductivity of cast iron is 80 W/ud<. The thermal
resistance of the pipe is most nearly (C) O.G8 °C/kW
(A) 0.000080 K/W (D) 3.5 °C/kW
(B) 0.00032 K/\V Solution

(C) 0.000GtJ K/W
" '.
(D) 0.0010 K/W
The t.hermal resistance is
(3500 �
m2 .oc) (1 m2)
Solution 1 = <W(I) ( 1000 1

The thermal resistance is calculated using Eq. 19.5. Jul

= 0.286 °C/kW (0.29 °C/kW)

2nkL = (2n) (so '"' ) (0 .5 m)

ln (11:2) In 6.5 cm
L 6 cm The answer is (A).

= 0.000318 I</\".' (0.00032 I</W)


Equation 1 9.7: Fourier's Law, Plane Wall

Q = ----­
The answer is (B).

· - J.:
A( T2 - T i )

Equation 1 9.6: Thermal Resistance, Film




Heat conducted
surface i s usual l y througherredsolids
transf to and(walls)
removed to byanaexposed
movi ng
flui d .
exchanger For exampl
wall e , heat
is removed transmitted tlu·
by a movitheng flcool o ugh a heat
ant.molUnless Description
the flui
islmomedi adteliys extremel
adjacent y
to turbulent,
the exposed surface u i dmove emuch
cules Ou itstoowu, heattemperature.
always flows The fromheat
a higher tempera­
wery adjacent
than moltoecultheeswalfarther away. !volonary
immedi­ ture a l o wer transfer from
L and homoge­
atel l may be stati hithrough
gh-temperature point 1 to lower-temperature point 2
face fluid molecula elasyerthatknownaffected
constitute are

as a by the exposed sur­

film. The film has a neous au infinite
conducti v ity, planeisofgithivenckness
/.:, by Eq. 19.7. (See
thermal resistance just like any other layer. Fig. 19.2.)
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
19-4 FE 1\1 E C H A t� I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Ffg11ro 19.2 Plane Wall Description

The temperature at any point. on or within a simple or

k co111plex wall can be found if the heat tn rnsfcr, C/ or Q, is
known. The proced me is lo calculate the t.hermal resis­
tance up to t.he point of unknown temperatme and then
to solve for the temperature difference. Since one of the
temperat.mcs is known, the uukuown temperature is
found from the temperature difference.
-1-----IC-- 6
The Fourier equation is based ou a w'liform path length
The t emperatu re difference T2 - T1 is the lemperat.ure and a constant cross-sectional area. If t.he heat flow is
gradient or thermal gradient. Heal. transfer is always
positive. The minus sign in Eq. 19.7 indicates that the t.hrough an area that is not constant, the logarithmic
mean area, A,,,, should be used in place of t.he regular
heat. flow direction is opposite t.hat of the thermal gra­
dient. . The direction of heat flow is obvious in wost
area. The Jog mean area should be used wit.h heat
( Sec Fig. 19.3.)
transfer through thick pipe i:tnd cylindrical tanJ< wi:tlls.
problems, so the minus sign is usually omitted, and t.he
temperat.ure difference is written as 'T1 - '1.2.' 1

Example Figure 19.3 Cylmdrical Wall

A 4 cm thick insulator (k = x 10- 1 cal/cm·s·°C) has an

area of 1000 cm 2. If the temperatures on i t s two sides are
l 70°C and 50°C, and films are neglected, what is most
nearly t.he heat transfer by conduct.ion?
(A) 0 . 1 0 cal/s
(B) 1.2 cal /s
(C) 6.0 cal/s
(D) 30 cal/s

Equation 1 9.9: Fourier's Law, Cylindrical
Use Eq. 19.7. Wall

-kA ( T2 - Ti)
Q= L

(2 x 10


x ( 1000 cm2)(50°C - l 70°C)

4 cm Variation
= 6.0 cal/s

The answer is (C).


Equation 1 9.8: Temperature at Intermediate The overall radial heat t.ransfer tlu·ough an uninsulated
Locations hollow cylinder without films is given by Eq. 19.9. This
equation disregards heat transfer from t.he ends and
i:tssumes that the length is sufficiently large so t.hat the
19.8 heat transfer is radial at all locations.

4Thc NCEES FE Reference i incon­
Hm11/book (NCEES Handbook) s
sistent. in its inclusion of the minus sign. After Eq. 19.7, the NCEES
An 8 111 long pipe of 15 cm outside diameter is covered
lfondbook abandons the convent ion for all subsequenL heat t nrnsfcr with 2 cm of insttlation with a thermal conductivity of
equations. 0.09 W /m·T<.

PPI • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N D U C T I O N 19-5

2 cm rneasmcd fron1 the center of the pipe or wire, is given

Eq. 19.10.resi(Seestancerig.to19.convecti
5.) h.. vies heat
the film
transfecoeffr. icient
Figure 19.4 Composite Cylinder (insu/a/ecl pipe)

Tf t.he inner and outer temperatures of the insulation are

heat lossandfrom
750K 4001<,therespecti
pipe? vely, what is most nearly Lhc
(A) ,1.5 kW
(B) 6.7 k\.V
(C) 8.5 kW
(D) 10 kW

Q = 2rrkL( T1 - T2)
Use Eq. 19.9.
(0.09 - w ) (8 m)(750K - 11QOK)
ln Flg111e 19.5 Insulation Radius

(In 97.·55 cmm) (1000 kW

{2rr) 1
m· <

= 6.698 kW (6.7 kW)

Tile answer Is (8).
Equation 1 9.1 0: Critical Insulation Radius
lf the internalto thermal
the external of a body is small in
resi stance, ntheed
be used
lumped parameter method, also known as the lm v
capacitance model, can heat flow. to approxi mate theis
tra11si referred tousedas iNewton's
e nt {ti
althesovariables m e-dependent) Thi s method
method. Figme 19. G shows
n the lumped capacitance model.
the stuface area. (See Fig. 19.4.) Adding insulation to a
The addition of insulation to a bare pipe or wire increases
small-di ameterpepilepvele may actualilnysulinacrease t.htoc heat loss Figure 19.6 Variables Used in Transient Conduction
above bare-pi s . Adding ti o n
icftl thickness is dom.iuatetl by the increase in smface
up the crit­
will Only adding insulation past t.he critical thickness
decrease heat loss.5 The critical radius is usually very
h, T,.,

small (a few millimeters), and it is most relevant in the

case of insulating thin wires. The critical radius,
5Therc is anotlter,
thickness: the thice less conunonly used, meaning for the term critical
k s t required insulat.ion. ln situations where
required insulation thiclu1ess s
i different for energy consen•ation, con­

densation control, personnel protection, and procl'S.� temperature co11-

trol, the "critical" thickness is the thickness that controls the design.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
19-6 F E M E C Ii A N I C A L R E V I E VI M A N U A L

-- fl
Equation 1 9.1 1 : Biot Number Equation 1 9.1 6: Total Heat Transferred

81 = -;:--
1 <<
/i \I
1 19. 1 1 Q l<l!HI
\I rp ( '/'I. - 1') 19.16
"' '

hL" Although the rate of heat transfer varies with time in a
Bi =
k t.ransient condition, the energy change can be deter­
Descr ipt ion
minecl from t.he starting and ending condilions, indepen­
dent of duration (time). Equation calculates the 19.16
The Biol. n u m ber, Bi (also known as l.he Biol. modulus total energy (heat) change as a function of the initial
and t.ra nsient modulus), is a comparison of the internal temperature, T;, and final temperature, T. Since T; - T
thermal resistance to the external resistance of a body. If is a difference, temperature can be
the Biot. number is small (less than the internal 0.1), expressed in any consistent scale. Absolute tempera­
thermal resistance will be small, and t.lte body tempera­ tures arc not rcquired. s
ture will be essent.ially uniform throughout, during heat­
ing or cooling. The length used to caleulate the Diot
number is the characteristic length, Le, not. an external
body di meusion. A hot solid irnn sphere (15
cm diameter) is placed in a
bath of cold water. The initial temperature of the sphere
is 433IC.The sphere is cooled to 303I<. The density of
iron is 7.874 g/cm:J, and the specific heat capacity of

Equation 1 9.1 2 Through E1. 1 9.1 5: Constant

iron is0.45 kJ /kg·K The total heat tra11sferred from the

(A) mo kJ
sphere to the water is most nearly

Q= hA.(T- T,) = -r1\1cp ((7iJ

Environment Temperature
810 kJ
T' - T = (T; - T 1800 kJ
19.12 (C) 1000 kJ
) e-111 (D)

= 19. 14 Solution
p V c1,

/3 = }__
The volume of the iron sphere is
19. 15

(152cm) 3
\I = :lrrr3

= Grr)
Equation 19.12 gives the i11stantaneous beat transfer at
a particular moment when the body temperature is
known. Equation 19.13
gives the temperatme of the
= 1767.1 cm3
body as a function of time. The ti1ne variable, t., starts
at zero. Equation 19.15
shows that the fact.or ,6, known Use Eq. 19.lG
to calculate t.he total heat transferred
as the decay co11stant or P:1;po11e11tial frequency, is the from the iron sphere to the water.
reciprocal of the time constant, r.7 As with many other
engineering subjects, the t-ime co11sl.a11t. is the length of = p V c,, ( Ti - T)
time required to vary (rela") the property (initial tem­

perature differential in this case) by approximately (7.874 c�13) (1767.l cm3) (0.45 k��I<)
63.2%. Stated another way, the instantaneous tempera­
ture gradient will be approximately 36.8%
of the iuitial
(433K - 303K)
temperature gradient after a dmation equal to the time

= 814 kJ (810 Id)

constant. 1000 kgg
The NC'EES H1111 db o ok refers to the case of a constnnl. cnviron111cnt
temperature as the "constant fluid tcmpC'rntmc" case. This mnkes
sense in the context. of Fig. 19.6. The fluid is the substnncc surrounding
the cooling body. Fluids include gases nnd arc not ncccssnrily liquids.
7-r is the time const ant. As t he reciprocal of the time const a n t , {3 lws no
other interpretation, nnd its significance is not explained in the
The answer is (8).
NC'EES llandbook. Eqnatiou 19.13 could have been written in terms
of the time constant, rat.her than (3. The most co111111011 symbol for the The NC'EES Handbook specifies that the initial body temperntme is
decay consta11t. for all subjects is .X . Other sy111bols (e.g., b, k, r) are in kelvins. However, wh.ile w;e of absolute temperatures is nn option, it
11se<l, bnt t.hc use of f3 is unco1111nu11. is not a requiremen t .

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o in
C O N O U C '(I O N 19-7

Fins ( e:rlcnded s111facc8) arc features t.hal receive
Flqwc 19.7 RPr/angular /111

move tl.Jcnnal energ,y by condnction along their lengths
and widt.hs prior to (in most cases) couvecLive rind
rad i at i ve heat rc111oval. They include simple fins, fin Ac = wt
tubes, fiune<l channels, heat pipes. Some simple
feat.mes (e.g., long wires) ca11 be considered and evrilu­
ated as fins even though that is not their intended

Equation 1 9 . 1 7 Through Eq. 1 9.23: Heat

Transfer, Fins

)h PkA, ( T1, T )Lanl1{ 111L,.)

Figure f9.8 Pin Fm


= Vu
- 19. 1 7

111 {hP 19.18

p= 7TO
7T0 2
Ac = ­

£,. = L+ A,. 19. 19


P = 2 111 + 2/
(rpc·tn11g11lnrJ 19.20


P = rrD 19.22

A, = - !Pi tt) 19.23
;J Exampl e
The base of a 1.2 cm x 1 .2 cm x 25 cm long rectangular
Description rod is maintained at <1231< by au electrical ele­
An external fin is at.lached at its base to a source of ment. The conductivity of t.he rod is 1 40 W/m·K. The
thermal energy at temperatme T6. The tempera ture a111bient. air t em perat. ure is 3001<, and the average film
across the face of t.he fin at. any point along its length coefficient is 9A '"/m2 · K. The fin has an adiabatic tip.
is assumed to be constant. The far-field temperature of What is most. the energy input required to main­
the surrounding e vi ron m nt is T00 For rectangular
n e •
tain the base t em erat ure?
fins (also known as straight fins or longil11di11al fins), (A) 0.10 V·l
the cross-sectional area, Ac, is uniform and is given by

. (C) 9.7 \V
Eq. 19.2 1 .9 (See Fig. 19.7.) For a pin fin (i.e., a fin with a (B) 1.7 w
circular cross section), cross-sectional area, Ac, is given
( D) 100 w
by Eq. 1 9.23. (See Fig. 19.8.)
Most equations for heat transfer from a disregard the fin
small amount of heat transfer from the exposed end. For Solution
that reason, the fin is assumed to possess an adiabatic

, as
t.ip or 'insulated tip. J\. simple approximation to the exact From Eq. 19.20, the perimeter length is
solutio11 of a nonadiabatic t.ip can be obtained by replac­
ing the actual fin length with a corrected leng th ( 2 ) ( 1 .2 cm) + (2)( 1 .2 cm) _ ,

give11 i n Eq. lD.19. 10

p _
- 2 w + 2t - _

cm - 0.018 m
100 -

· U( I ) The NCEES l/andbook refers to the substrate from which the fin
extends as I he "ha.�c," rlC'Signated by subscript b. ln common usage, the

, = wt
area or te111pernture of the "base of the fin" would refer to the fin. [1 1 From Eq. lD.21, the cross-sectional area of t.he fin is
NCEES us!lge "base" refois to the substrate, not the fin at its att<1ch­

lllrnt point. (2) The NG'EES lla11dbook uses the subscript c to desig­ (l.2 cm) (l.2 cm)
nate the kind of Men (i.e., cross-sectional area, as differentiated from = = 0 . OOO I <14 m2
surface area) rnthcr lluw the object (e.g., f for fin or b for the fin base). cm 2
IU Thc NCEES Hmulbook L� 11ol ronsL�tenl in its use of subscripts in (100 Ill
Eq. I !J. l!J. While c in ,\,. st n nds for "no'-5,'' c in Le stands for "corrected."

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
19-8 F E M E C H A N I CA L R E V I E W M A N U A l.

Use Eq. 1 9. 18. Fro1t1 Eq. 19. 1 7, tlte total heat loss is

) (0.048 111)
(9.4 _J_ � x ( 140 11��J {0.000 l 44 rn2 )
(9. \V
4 m2·I<
·V ) (0.048 111)
m2 . l(

( 140 W ) (0.000 144 mi)

{42�H< - 300I<)tanh ( ('1.73 _.!_) (

Ill· I<

= 4.73 l /111 25 c���1 ) )

111 100 -

At steady st.aLc, the energy input. is equal to t.he ene rgy

loss. Since the tip is adiaba tic , it is not necessary to = 9.72 W {9.7 W )
replace the acLual length wit.h tlic corrected length from
Eq. 19.HJ. The answer is (C),

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m

1. Introduction Lo Conv ec t.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1 He Reynolds number
2. NusseJt Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-2 T t empera t K
3. Prandt.l Number . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3 [/ overall coefficient. of heal t ra11sfer W/n}·K
4. Rayleigh Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3 v velocity m/s
5. Reynolds Nuwber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . 20-4 :r distance Ill

6. Nat ural Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-6

7. N rn ;selt. Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 20-6 Symbols
8. Condensing Vapor . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-7 L1 t hermal diffusivity mi/s
9. Introduction to Forced Convection . . . . . . . . 20-8 f3 coefficient.
of volumct.ric expa nsion 1 /K
10. Flow Over Flat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-8 € heal. exchanger effPct.iveness
11. Plow Inside Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-8 () m1gle deg
12. Flow TIU'ough Noucircular Ducts . 20- 1 0 /l absol u t e v iscos it.,/ kg/s·m

20 l l
. . . . . . . .

1 3. Plow Over Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-11 II kinematic viscosity rn2/s

14. Boiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p mass deusity kg/m�
15. Heat Excha ngers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-13 a surface tension N/m
16. Logarithmic Tempera t.ure Difference . . . . . . 20- 1 5
17. NTU Met.hod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20- 1 6 Subscripts
b boiling or h11lk
Nomenclature c cold or condensing
A area m
G cooling
B separation di�tancc Ci cold, i n


specific heat. J/kg·K Co cold, out
C constant diameter

C heat capacit.y rate W/K e excess
D cl i amet er1 m fluid, fowling, or friction
F correct.ion factor for mean temperature II hot or hydraulic
difference Ili hot, in
g gravitational acceleration, 9.81 2 m/s2 Ho hot, out
Gr Grnshof numher inside
Ii film coefficient. \V/rn2·K I liquid
1119 latent. heat of J/kg L length
k thennal conductivity W/m·K Im log mean
L characteristic lengt.h Ill 111 mean
111 exponent o outside
n exponent ,. radiation
NTU number of t.ransfcr units s smface
Nu Nnsselt number sat saturated
Pr Prandt.1 number u vapor

q heat t.ransfer per unit area W/m2 w wall or wire
heat transfer rate3 w oo at in.finit.y or free stream
R t.hermal resistance lll2·I</\V
1 Convection is the removal of heat from a smface by a
NCEES FE Refel'e.1icc Handbook (NCEES Handbook) uses the
symbol D to desig11atc both inside (sec Eq. 20.9) and outside (see fluid. Forced con vect-ion is the removal of h ea t from a
Eq. 20.2, Eq. 20.6, and Eq. 20.8) diameters. The context must be surface by a Ouicl resulting from external sur face forces,

�The NCEES Haw/book de�;ignates the heat transfer "rate" as Q, with

evaluated to dctermi11e the exact meaning.
2g also has a \•alue of 1.27 x 108 m/h2. '1 (1) The use of ma..<s units in viscosit.y values s
i t.ypical in the subject of
convective heal transfer. (2) �Iosl data compilations give fluid viscos­
the top dot used to tk'Sig11atc a rate per unit time. (This is known as ity in units of seconds. ln t.he United States, heat transfer s i tradition­
New/011 's nolalion.) While it is not a universal practice, modern usage ally given on a per hour basis. Therefore, a conversio11 factor of 3600 is
dispenses with both the "rate" term in the name and the top dot in the needed when ralculating dimensionless numbers fr0111 table data.
symbol. {3) The units kg/s·m MC cq11ivalc11t to N·s/1112 or Pa·s.

P P I • v1 w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
20-2 F E M E: C H I\ N I C A L RE V I E VI M A tJ U A l.

such as a puu1p or fan. Naturnl co11ucclio11 (also known Example

as free crm uec/:ion) is the removal of hcaL from a smface J\11 object i::; cooled by a circulating water uat.l..t. At a
by a fluid that moves vertically 11ncler the infl11enrn of a particular 111ornc11t, the ::;urface temperature of t.he body
<le11siLy gradien t .
is 373I<, while the bulk LemperaLw·c of l.lie water bath is
353K. The convective film coefficient is 350 \'\ 111 · 1 < .
Equation 20. 1 : Newton's Law of Cooling The object has a n cxposc<l swface ctrea o f 1 m . M
: ost
nearly, what is the instantaneous rate of heat trausfor
from Lhe object?
Q = hA ( T,., - T.,..,) 20. 1 (A) 3.5 kW

(13) 5.0 k\V


(C) 7.0 k W
Q = i]A = h A ( T, - Toe,)
8.2 kW


h {W/m'.! ·K)
Table 20. 1 Typical Film Coefficients for Natural Convection' Using Eq. 20. 1 , the rate of heat. transfer is

(350 �) ( 1
diauge in phase
(J = h A( T,,, - T00)
st.ill air 5.0-25.0
m2 ) ( 373J< - 3531<)
e �
st a m
horizontal surface !)G00-24 400 1000
vert.ical •1000--11 300
organic solve11ts 850-2800 = 7.0 kW
ammoma 2800-5700
evaporating The answer is (CJ.
water 4500--1 1 300
organic solvenls 550--1700
ammonia l l 00--2300
- · · · · · ··· · · ······· · · . ' . . . ..

0V11hws 011(sidc llwsc ranges have been observed. However, these

rn11ges nre typical of those c11cou11lrrcd in i11dustrial processe;; . Equation 20.2: Nusselt Number, Cylinder in

Equation 20. l , Newton's law of cooling, i s the basic - hD

equation used to calculate the sleady-st.ate convective Nuo =-= CReDPr 11:i 20.2

It, is sel­
heat. transfer in both heating and cooling configurations.
The film coefficient (heat. /.rans[er coefficient),
Va l ues
dom lmow11 to great accuracy." (See Table 20 . 1 . ) The
average film coefficient, li, is used where t. hcrc arc varia­ Table 20.2 Values of C and n for a l(nown Reyno/els Num/Jer. Re0
tions over tlte heat. transfer surface. Rc0 G n

In Eq. 20. 1 , T00 is the bulk temperature of the environ­ 1-4 0.989 0.330
ment (air, gas, surrounding liquid, etc.), and Tw is the 4-40 0.91 1 0.385
Lnstant.aneous temperature of the cooling body's 4 0--4 000 0.683 0.466
surface. 7 4000-40,00U 0.193 0.618
•l0,000-250,000 0.0266 0.805
5An enor of up to 25% c11n he expected.
<'Though 7i has traditionally been used in books on the suhjcrt or heal
tram;fer and is llSed in the NCEES Handbook, osl 111odcrn books use Description
the symbol h, The fact that the film coefficient. is au i11accuralc,
average value is implkit. The Nusse//. number, Nu, is defined by Eq. 20.2. The
7Thc NCEES Handbook uses the subscripl 111 lo tlC'sig11atc "wall." subscript D indicates that the correlation is based on the
However, Newton's law of cooling does not prirnarily apply to heat outside diameter of the cylincter, not some other charac­
transfer through a wall or even heat trnnsrer frmn a surface Newton's .
Leristic dimension. The Nusselt n u mber is sometimes
law of cooling applies to 11 cooling (body) object. Tiu' "wall" dC"Sig11a·
written with a subscript (e.g., Nu,. or N u1) to in<licatc
tion might also imply thal the lcmpern(ure is consta11t. Howe\'Cr, the
body temperature changl's with lime. Such is lhe entire purpose of t.hat t.he fluid propertie::; are evaluatect at the film tem­
Newton's law or cooli11g: lo spceify lhc ht•al. transfer and temperature peratme. Since the flow velocity, heat transfer rate, film
as functions of time. IL is com111011 lo designate the body te1upernture
resistance, and other fluid properties are not the same
at a particnlar 1110111cnt i11 li111c simply with the variable T. If the everywhere around the periphery of the cylinder, the
temperature of lhc body is not uuiform tluoughout, the symbol T, can
he used lo designate a surface temperature. overbars are used to designate average values.

PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N V E C T I O N 20-3

/nd(.kg/s·1111 1 .
For a cylinder (for example, a t11l1f' or wire) in crossnow, Examp le
Eq. 20.2 ca11 be used wit.It any lluid t o calculate the film For air at a temperature of 42°C, the her1l caprtcity is
coeffic:ient.8 The ll11icl properl.ics arc evaluated at the 990 J/kg·I< I.he viscosity is 1.9 x J O_ r, a1 d t hc
fihn tc111pcral me. The entire surface area of I.he t. 1 1 he is thermal cond11ct. ivity is 0.028 \V Whal is most
used when l he heal. t.rausfor. nearly t.ltc Prandt.I number?
Equal.ion 20.2 can be simplified for air since Pr 1 13 � 1 .00. (A) 0.59
This modified equal.ion is known as the Hilbert-Alorga11 (B)0.67
(C) 0.75
Values of G' and arc fouud from Table 20.2 when He o
(D) 0.8�{
is lrnuwu.

Example Solution
Water at. 25°C nows pcrpc11dic11l<u·ly over a long, hot. Using Eq. 20.3, the Prandll 11u111ber is
pipe of 2.9 cm outside diameter. The water has au aver­ Cp/ l

(990 k:I < ) (I.!) x 10-5 S·mkg )

age convect.ion film coefficient of 4900 \V and a Pr =
thermal conductivity of G I O x 10-3 \V /111-I(./m:z· I<
The Nusselt k

nurnuer is 111ost nemly
(A) 230
(B) 290 0.028 ud(
(C) 350 = 0.67
(D) 10 ti
T/1e answer is (8).
The Nussclt. number can be calculated wit.h Eq. 20.2. 4. RAYLEIGH NUMBER
- TiD
The dimensionless Rayleigh number is the prod11d of the
Nuo = ­ Grashof and Prancltl n11mbers.!J is used as an indicator
k of the primary heat transfer mechanism. ·when the Ray­

(610 x 10-3 �) (100 cm )

�VI< ) (2.9 cm)
(,1900 m-· leigh mtmbcr is less than some critical value (specific to
the ll11id1 and usually determined hy experimentation),
heat transfer is primary by conduct.io11. \�fhe11 the Ray­
111 ·I< Ill leigh number is more thau the critical value, heat transfer
= 232.95 (230) is primarily by convect.ion. (The C011vecLive flow can be
either laminar or turbulent.) The symbol can be writ.ten
with a subscripted variable (e.g., Ha1,) designating the
The answer is (A). characteristic dimension with which the critical values
have been correlated. For example, the length of a plate
(see Eq. 20.4) is generally used, rather than ils width. For
3. PRANDTL NUMBER a cylinder (see Eq. 20.6), t.he dia 1 1 1eter is used.
Equation 20.3: Prandtl Number
Equation 20.4 and Eq. 20.5: Rayleigh
Number, Flat Plate, Natural Convection

!lfl( T, - T .) £:1 Pr
Pr = -µ-
Ra, •
µ2 20.4

!J T, + T
The climensionlcss Pram/// m1mber, Pr, is defined by
= 2 20.5

Eq. 20.3. It represents th e ratio of momcntlWl diffusion

Lo thermal diffusion. For gases, the values used in �( I ) In Eq. 20..J, the NCEES lla11d/1ook rN:ognizc-s the Pramlll mnnhcr
calculating Lhe Prandtl number do not vmy signifi­ but 11ol the Crnshof number. Rat hf'r than 1kli11c the Crashof 11 u11 1lx·r
cmttly with temperature, and so neither docs the
11(3(1'., -'l'o.._,)L�/1-2. ThL-; si r<p1ivol1•11t tu, om! gl'ncnolly prc:;t!ntecl as,
(as ii did with the Reynolds, Nns.sclt , Prnmlll, aml Haylcigh nmnbcrs),
Prandtl number itself. The values 11secl are for the the NCEES Jlondbook elects to present a co1>1bination of variables,

fl11id1 not for the surface material. the Crnshof nnmhl'r, Gr. (2) The Crw;hof number relates the buoy­
nncy nl\(l \•iscosity or the nuic.l, while the Prandtl number relates the
sThere are more sophist irnlrd co1 rdntions. rnomrnt 11111 diffusivity and thermal diffusivity.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 1> a s s . c o m
20-4 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Variation Solution

L'J g(Jp2 ( Ts - T )cl'

The Rayleigli number can be calculated using Eq. 20.6.

.11f3( Ts - T )D" p
Ra = --------­

(9.81 ��) (0.0028 k)

R aD = r


x (3501< - 3001<)(0.21 m ) 3

Equation 20.4 gives t.hc Hayleigh nurnbcr for a verLical
flat plate in a stationary fluid IO with charact.eristic
le11glh, L. 1 1 The coefficient of volumetric e:cpansion, (J,
for ideal gases is the reciprocal of t.he absolute film
1.6 x w-5
2 (0. 72)

( 3 .6 x 107)
temperat.ure. Gravitational acceleration, g, and viscosi­
ty, IJ, 11 1ust have t.he sarne uuit. of t.irnc in order Lo lllake
Eq. 20.4 dimensionless. = 3.577 x 1 07

For an ideal gas, the coefficient. of thermal e.ipimsion, /3 Tile answer is (D).
(also known as the volumetric coefficient. of expansion),
can be found using Eq. 20.5. The temperatures used in
Eq. 20.5 must be absolute temperatures. 1 1 5. REYNOLDS NUMBER
The Reyuol<ls munber is m;ed to determine \Vhicb of the
three flow regimes is applicable. Lamiuar flow over
Equation 20.6: Rayleigh Number, Cylinder, s1noot.h flat plates occurs for Reynolds numbers up to
Natural Convection approximately 2 x 105; turbulent flow exists for Reynolds

numbers gre�ter than approximately 3 x l OG. i:i Transi­

Yt9( T., - T ) IY J:>i·

tion now is in betwceu. The distance from t.he leading
llav =
edge at which tmbulent now is initially experienced is
/I·i determined from the critical Reynolds number, commonly
taken as Re = 5 x 105 for smooth Oat plates, though the
Description actual value is highly dependent on surface rouglrne;s.
Distance, :i;, is measmecl from t.he leading edge.
For a horizontal cylinder in a stationary flui<l, the Ray­
leigh number can be found using Eq. 20.6. The free-st.ream velocity is always zero with natural
convect.ion, so the tradit,ional Reynolds number is also
Example always zero. The Grnsltof and Rayleigh rnunbers take
the place of determining whet.her flow is laminar or
A horizontal pipe has a diameter of 0.21 m and an outer t,urbulent.. 1 ·1 The film Reynolds number is used to deter­
surface temperatme of 350K The pipe is surrounded by mine whether conclensat.ion is turbulent..
stationary water with a bulk temperature of 3001<. For
water at 3001<, the kinelllatic viscosity is 1 .6 x 10- 5 m2/s.
The coefficient of thermal expansion is 0.0028 IC ' , and

the Prandtl munber is 0.72. What is most nearly the Equation 20. 7: Reynolds Number, Flat Plate
Rayleigh number?
(A) 2.2 x 10 7
(B) 2.9 x 107
(C) 3.3 x 107 Description
(D) 3.6 x 107 Use Eq. 20. 7 to find the Reynolds number for a flat plate
of length L in parallel flow. 1 5
1 0The NCEES Hcrndbook is not consistent in its designation for "sur­
face." While the subscript w is used in Eq. 20.l for the surface of an t:JTnrbnlcnt now <.:[Ill hq�in at ftcynolds numbers less than 3 x 10" if
object (wall), Eq. 20.4 and Eq. 20.5 use subscript s. the plate is rough. This discm;sion assumes the plate is smoot.h.
1 1 The length of the side of a square, t.he mean length of a rectangle,
'�Rising air m·vNthclrs.s has a velocity. The critical Heynolds number
and !JO% of the diameter of a circle have historically been used as the for ln111i11ar now of air is approximately 550 (corresponding to a
chal'uc/e l'islic length. However, the ratio of surface area Lo perimeter Gnishof 11u111bcr of LOu).
gives better agreement with experimental data. 15Thc NCEES Handbook is inconsistent in the variable used for veloc­
12The NCEES Handbook is not explicit about the temperature at ity
. in the definition of Reynolds number. Tire NCEES Handbook uses
which (J, v, and Pr are evaluated. Since (J is the reciprocal of the film lowC'rcase ro111an v in the Fluid i\leclmnics section, uppercase roman V
temperature, Eq. 20.5 implicitly defines the film lempEralure as the in the i\loody diagram, lowercase italic v in the Environmental Engi­
average of the surface and bulk Oui<l tempcrat ures. This also implicitly nct'ri11g section, and uppercase italic I' in the Chemical Engine€ring
identifies the temperature at which other properties arc evaluated. section. Inconsistent with any of those, the NCEES 1Ja11dbook's ver­
Sini.:e the NCEES Jlandbook docs not provide sufficient tables, it is ison of Eq. 20.7, adopts the (common heal transfer) convention of
logical to conclnrle that the film ternperaturc is irrelcva11t, because on using u..,., as yet another velocity variable for the Reynolds number.
the exam, all necessary Onid data will be provided withi11 a problem. This book uses lowercase roman v for velocity.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C0NVECTI 0N 20-5

Example So/ulion

1 .8 x 10-5 kg/m· s . Whal is

20°C air flows at 0.75 m/s over aucl piuaJlel to a wide flat The Rey11olds number can be calculated using Eq. 20.8.
plate 1.7 m long. At 20°C, the density of air is 1.2 kg/m3,
and the absolute viRcy1
scosi1olt.yclsis11u111ber pv D

(L.O x 103 lllk�) ( i .2 n.1)(4 em)

most nearl y the for the pmpose of ReD=-- 11
forced convect.io11?
(850 x 10-(j S·�lll) ( 100 cm111 )
(A) 12 000 -

= 56 471 (56000)
(B) 23 000
( C) ,17 000
{D) 85 000
Tire answer is (CJ.

The Reynolds number can be calculated using Eq. 20.7. Equation 20.9� Reynolds Number, Internal

R --
pv -. l R --
fl\·, , D
eo = 20.9

( 1 .2 Illk�) (o. 75 1s11)( 1 . 7 m )

C1, =


g Equationfor20.9internal
number is t.he traditional
flo w wit, h clefmi
in a ci tculionaofr channel.
r the Reynolds
D is
1 .8 10-5 k x
m·s tfluid
.he invelternal dia111
ovelcity.ociThe c ter . v
average1 1 i s defined al:! the average (mean)
city itmbnl
s essent,entia..l Ify equal t.o
85 000
t.ishefullbuly kdevel ty i f the flow the flow
the maximumopedvelolaminar, city. the average velocity is 50% of
The answer Is (DJ. Example
internal atdiameter
25°C flows at 3.6 111/s in a pipe with an
of 0.10 m. The water has a density
of10-r.1 .0kg/s·
x LO:J kg/m:i and an absolute viscosity of 850 x

number? m. \Vhat is most, nearly t,he Reynolds

Equation 20.8: Reynolds Number, Cylinder

ReD = fJ\' D
(A) 35 000
/I (I3) 87 000
(C) 260000
Description (D) 420 000
Use Eq. 20.8 to calculate
cylinder of outside diametertheD inReynol ds number for a
crossflow. Solution

The Reynol
latc<l ds number
using Eq. 20.9.
for internal flow can be calc11-

\Vater awith
across long,a hot bulkpipetemperature
of 4 111 diofameter
27°C flows over and
at a velocity of PVm D
Reo =

�) (3.6 �)(0.10 m)

1.2 m/s. At 27°C, the density of water is 1.0 x 103 kg/ m3,
a11cl thenearlabsol
most y t.hueteReynol
viscosidtys 11umber?
is 850 x 10-G kg/s·m . What is ( i . o x 103

{A) 11'1 000 850 x 1 0-(j �

(B) 5 1 000
= 423 529 ( 420 000)
(C) 56 000
(D) 6 1 000 The answer is (DJ.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
20-6 F E M E C B A N I C A L R E V I E VJ M A N U A L

6. NATURAL CONVECTION The values of the dimensionless c111pirical constants

C and 11 can be used w i t h all lluids and any cousistent
.. . ·•· ...... ······· · ·· · ·······

Nal11ml co11ueclio11 (also known as free comwclim1) is

sy::;tenrn of units. Table 20.3 is limited in applicat.io11
the re1n o va l of heat. [Torn a surface by a fluid that movt>s to single heat tra11sfer surfaces ( for ex a u 1ple , a single
vertically under the influence of a dcnsit.y gradient. As a t ube or n single µlate).
llui<l warms, it becomes lighter and rises fro the hea l­ m
ing surface. 'l'he fluid is acled on IJy buoya11t aud grav­ The thermal conduct.ivit.y, k, in Eq. 20. 1 0 is for t h e
itational forrPs. The fluid does not h a ve a co1npo11eut. of t ransfer fluid, not for the surface (wall), a11d it. is eval-
lllot.io11 para llcl to the smface. Hi 11atPd at the film lcwperature.

HcaL transfer by 11aLural convection is attractive from

a n engi1wering design standpoint because 110 1 1 1 oto r::; ,
fo11s, pumps, o r other equipment with moving parts arc The Rayleigh number for a large diameter vertical pipe
required. How e ve r, the transfer surface m us t be 11111ch L .7 m high is 1 . 4 x 105. Natural co11vect.ion occur:; in the
larger than it would be with forcPd conveclion. 1 7 laminar regime. The thcn na l cond11rtivity of t.hc pipe i::;
0.028 \V /m·K. What is most nearly t he average heat.
t.ransfer coefficient?
· ,,,
EQUATION ( A ) 0 . 1 0 W /m2·K
·-··· · .. . ...........................' ".... . . ..

The N11ssell eq11ation rind correlations or i t s form are 2

(B) 0.13 \V / m ·K
ofteu u::;ed to find the film coefficients for convect.ivc
(C) 0 . 1 9 \V/m2·K
heating and cool i1 1g.
(D) 0.27 \V / m2· 1<

Equation 20.1 O: Nusselt Equation, Vertical Solution

Flat Plate or Cylinder Natural cou vec t ion in the laminar rcgi111e is character­
ized by a Rayleigh 11u1J1bcr Jess than 109 . From
-' ,= c· (L") Ra L" Table 20.3, C' = 0.59, and 11 = 1/� (0.25).

-Ii = C (k)L Rai'.

20. 10
U::;i ng Eq. 20.10, t.he average heat t ra nsfe r coefficient is

( �)

N u = hL = CRa"
lQf> ) o.25
= (0.59) ( 1 .4
Values l .7 Ill

Table 20.3 Values of C and n for Vertical Plate or Cylinder in Natural

= 0 . 1880 W/m2·1< (0.19 \V /m2·I<)
rnnge of c ll

10�-109 0.59 1 /4 The answer is (C).

109- 1 0 1� 0.10 1 /3

Equation 20.1 1 : Nusselt Equation, Horizontal

(D" ) Ra.v
For a vertical !lat plate or a large diameter vert ic l a
cyl in de r in stationary fluid, the film coefficient can be
a - II

found using Eq. 20.10. Ii = C 20. 1 1

For Jami11ar convection ( 1000 < Ra < 109), 11 has a

1 Values
value of approximately /� . For turbulent con vect. ion
(Ra > 109), n is approximately 1 /J. For subl in a r con­ am
vection ( R a < 1000), 11 is less than 1 /4 taken (typically Table 20.4 Values of C and n for Horizontal Cylinder m Natural
as 1 /5 ) , and graphical solutions are commonly used.
Rao c ll

16Rotating spheres nnrl cyliru.lcn; ai1d \"ertical plane walls are specinl 10-3-1 02 1.02 U.148
categories of conv<'ct ivc heat transfer where the Ouid bas a com11011C'11t 102-10� 0.850 0.188
of relntiv<' 11rntio11 parnllrl to the heat. t ransfer surface. rn1-101 0.480 U.21.iO
17Naturnl COlll'CCtion requires approximately 2 to 10 times more sur­
face nrcn thn11 docs forced convection. 107-101 2 0.121.i 0.333

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m

Description low.2 Proper lllli ts 1nusl. be observPd in order to keep
t.hc argument. of exponentiat.ion u11iLless.
For a horizo1 1tal cylinder in a stationary fluid, the film
coefficic11L can he found using Eq. 20. l
l . Values of C and
Using N usselt. correlat.ions for condensing vapor depends
n arc found from Table 20.4. on determining several propc1'l.iC'S of t.he resulting con­
densate. Since the properties of the condensing vapor
vary with, t.hese liquid prnperLies are eval­
8. CONDENSING VAPOR uated (by conveutiou) at. lhe a verage of the saturation
temperat.mes. 22
and smface This implicitly defines Lhc
"'lw11 a vapor condenses 011 a cooler smface, the con­
film lempernl:urc.
densate a thin layer on t.l1e surface. This layer

Tfilm = T" +2 Tsat

insulates Lhe surface and creates a thermal resist ance.
However, if the condensate falls or flows from t.he sm­
face (as it would from a horizo11tal tube), the cond e1 1-
sate also removes thermal energy from the surface.
Film coe fficie1 1 t s
arc relatively h i h (on t.he order of
� The actual smface temperat.11re is often unlmown in

1 1 .5 kW /m2·I< to 22.7
kW /m · K ) . 8
initial studies. However, for steam, condensation fre­
quently occms wilh a temperatme d i fference of T,m - T.0
Film wise co11de11sation occurs when the condensing sur­
face is smooth and free f om impurities. 1 !J A co1 1 t i nuous
between 3°C and 22°C.
film of conde11sale covers the entire swface. The film
flows smoothly down over the surface under tlie act.ion
of gravity and eventually falls off. However, if the sur­ Equation 20. 1 3: Condensation, Vertical
face contains impurit ies or irregularities that prevenL Surfaces
complete wett.iHg, the film will be discontinuous, a con­
d i t ion known as dropwise co111le11sal.io11. 211
- � 2 I
P1Y 11,, L.
·i ]u.2.5
1 t "'· l ( 1,...�, - T·')
NuL = = 0.943 20. 13
Equation 20.12: Condensation, Outside
Horizontal Tubes
Descript ion

Filmwise condensation of pure saturated vapors on ver­

20. 12 t.ical surfaces (including the insides and outsides of
tubes) is predicted by Eq. 20.13. Eq a t 20.13
u ion cannot
be used for condensation 011 incli ned Lubes. The film
Oow is not parallel with the longitudinal axis of an
Description inclined tube, resulting i n a n cffcct.ive inclinat.ion angle
that varies with location along the tube.23 As with
Equat.ion 20. 12,
based on Nusselt's theoretical work,
densat.ion on horizontal surfaces, the latent heat of con­
predicts film coefficients for the laminar filmwise con­
densation is evaluated at t.he vapor temperatme, while
densation of a pme saturated vapor on the outside of a
the fluid prnperties arc evaluated a t the
2.5 remaining film

horizontal tube with a diameter bet.ween cm and
7.6 cm. Equation 20.12 is in fair agreement with experi­ 21
( 1)

p1(p1 - µ,,). The quantity PF in the NCb'ES H1111elbook results from

The term in the numerator is a simplification. Nusscll's
mental data, with calculated values generally being theoretical work correlated heal transfer with the quantity

assuming the \'apor density, p,., is zero. The NCEES l/a11dbook does
not invoke this simplification for the mnt e1 ial presented on boiling and
evaporation. ( 2) The more pr('(:iSC value or the constant 0.729 is often
repo1 t ed ns 0.72G, which was the vahte originally derived from a
numerical analysis. In practice, highly precise estimates are illusionary,
ns actual values are found within the range between the two \'alues.
27he NCEES Ha11dbook gi ws the gniclnnce, "E,•aluate all liquid prop­
8A film coefficient or 11.5 kW/ni2·I< is rout i nely assumed as tl fir:;t
erties at the average temperature. . ." Howe,·er, this guidance does not
estimate for condensation or steam on the outsiclc of tubes. apply to the latent beat, 1119, which is n propct ty or the vapor. The
1 9Filmwise condensation cnn always be e:'l.l>l'Cted with dean steel and
Intent heat should be evaluated at the �nturat ion temperature and
aluminum tubes under ordinary conditions, as wdl as wi t h heavily pressure.
contaminated tubes. Dropwise condensition generally requires smoot h 23(1 ) Equation 20.13 w as derived by Nussclt with a coeCficient of0.943.
surfaces with minute 11111ounts of contamination, rather thnn rough Howe,·er, ripples iu t he laminar fi1111 appear at condensation Heynolds
surfoccs. Since dropwise co11dcn�at ion can be expected onl.1· under numbers ns low as 30 or 40. Experiinentnl data show actual film
rnrefully controlled conditio1t�, the assLLmption or fihnwise conrlensa­ c0t'rficie11ts are approximately 203 high('r t h;rn the t.heoreticaJ. A
tion is generally warranted. coefficient or 1.13 in place or O.!M3 rcnccts this increase. Het aining
20Film coerflcicnts for dropwise condensation can be 4 to 8 Limes lnrgcr the O.!J43 value, however, yields a conservative vnlue. (2 ) Equa­
than for fihnwisc condensation because the fil111 is thinner and the l ion 20.13 can be used t o find the co11de11sing filt11 coefficient on a
t hermal resistance is R111nllcr. VC'rtical tube when the total condensation is l('s:; t hn 11 460 kg/h.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m

temperature. The clrnracLeristic length, L, in Eq. 20. 1 3 Fxam plo

i s the sutface lengt.11. Air at 40°C flows at 0.65 m/s over a square flat plate
1 .5 1 1 1 on each side. The Reyuolds number is 56 000. The
9. INTRODUCTION TO FORCED Prancltl number is 0.7 1 . 'Vhat. is 1 1 1ost nearly t.he aver­
CONVECTION age N11ssell. number?
(A) 140
As with nat.mal convection, forced convect-ion deµcnds
on the movement of a fluid to remove heat from a sur­ (Il) 180
face. \Vith forced convectiou, a fan, a pump, or relative (C) 320
motion causes Lhe fluid mot.ion. l f the flow is over a flat
surface, the lluid parl.icles near the surface will flow more (D) 560
slowly due to friction with the surface. The bounda1'y
{aye,. of slow-moving particles comprises the major ther­ Solution
mal resislance. The thermal resistance of the tube and
other heat exchanger componenls is often disregarded. Since Re,, = 56000 < 10::; , Eq. 20. 14 can be used to cal­
culate t.he average NusselL number.
Newlon 's law of convect.ion, Eq. 20. 1 , gives the heat
transfer for Newtonian fluids in forced convection over
exterior surfaccs. 24 The film coefficient, h, is a lso known Nu,, = 0.6640Re12Pr1/3
as the coefficient of fo1'ccd convection. T is the frec­ = (0.6640)(56 000) 1 /2 (0. 7 1 ) 1 /3
slream lerapemlure.
= 1 40

1 0. FLOW OVER FLAT PLATES Tl1e answer is (A).

The boundary layer of a fluid flowing over a 11at plate is
assumed to have a parabolic velocity dist.rihul.ion.25 The
layer has three distinct regions: laminar, transition, and 1 1 . FLOW INSIDE TUBES
tmbulenl . From the leading edge, the layer is laminar
Laminar flow in srnooth tubes occ urs aL Reynolds nwn­
and the thickness increases gradually u1 1 til the transi­ bers less than 2300. As with flow over a flat plate, the
t.ion region where the thickness increases dramatically. velocity dist.ribution is parabolic, huL lhc extent of the
Thereafter, the boundary layer is turbulent. The lami­ parabola is limited Lo Lhe tube radius. In t.he entrance
nar region is always present, though its length decreases region, the parabola does not extend lo the centerline.
as velocity increases. Turbulent flow may not develop at Fwther on, a point is reached where the parabolic dis­
all with short plates. tribution is complete, and the flow is said to be fully
developed laminar flow.26 At Lhat point, t.he average
velocity is one-half of the maximum (centerline) velocity.
Equation 20. 1 4 and Eq. 20. 1 5: Flat Plate

= k = 0 .G6 0R CL 2 r
Equation 20. 16: Laminar Flow Inside Tubes
N UL hL 4 1l p t /:i 20. 14
with Uniform Heat Flux

Nuv = 4.3G !1 1 nifonn hcut n11xl 20. 16

20. 15


Nu0 = ­
Equation 20.14 and Eq. 20.15 give the Nusselt number J.:
for a flat plate in parallel flow. The Reynolds number is
used to determine whether the flow regime is laminar

(Rei < 100 000) or turbulent (ReL > 100 000). The Rey­ Equation 20. 1 6 correlates the Nusselt number in the
nolds numuer is calculated using Lhe length of the plate case of laminar flow inside a circular channel with uni­
as the characteristic length. form heat flm< along the length of flow. Laminar flow is
appropriate when Re0 < 2300. Equation 20.16 provides
24(1) Newton's law of convection is the same for natural mul forced an effective means of determi11ing the average film coef­
co1wcction. Only the 1ncthods used to cvnluate t he film coefficient are ficient for this situation. Since the heat flux passing
through the tube wall into the fluid is consta11t along
different. (2) Tl;c rC'Sults of this chapter do not gcucrally apply to non­

the length of flow, the length of the tube is not relevaut.

Ncwtouiall fluids.
Thc velocity distribution does not have to be parabolic. hr C'ouetle
flow, there arc two closely spaced parallel surfaces, one which is sta­
The tc1111 fully de1ll'/opcd is also tlS('cl whrn referring to full tmhu­
tionary and t he other 1110\·ing with constant velocity. The velocity w
gradient is 11.<s1nncd to be linrar hctween the pint rs. lenn• . 111 this section, it iti understood that the flow is laminar.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C 0 N V E C T I 0 N 20-9

Equation 20.1 7: Laminar Flow Inside Tubes Solution

with Constant Surface Temperature Since the Reynolds number is less than 2300, now IS

(RT) (�'.)
3.66 Use Eq. 20. 1 8 to
Nuo =
[c·olt>11 sta11l surfare] 20. 1 7 calculate the Nusselt number.
� 186
1 1 wrntnre

k ( )1/3 ( )
Nuo ' '·

Nu0 = ­
Ti o

850 �
kg 0. 1 1
Descri ption (2100) (0. 7 1 )
= ( 1 .86)
Equation 20. 1 7 correlates the Nusselt. number i n the 2. 1 m kg
case of laminar flow inside a circular channel with con­ m s ·m

Laminar flow is appropriate when He0 < 2300. Equa­

stant. surface temperature along the length of flow. = 11
tion 20. l 7 provides an effective means of determining
the average film coefficient for this sit.uation. Since the Tl1e answer is (A).
temperature along the tube length is constaut along the
length of now, the lengt.h of t.he tube is not relevant.
Equation 20.1 9: Turbulent Flow Inside

) 0.14
Straight Tubes

Equation 20. 1 8: Laminar Flow Inside Tubes
with Constant Wall Temperature
0.023Reii;Pr 1 /:�
11 0
N110 =
20. 19


If there is a large change i11 viscosity during the heat

transfer process, there would be wit.Lt oils and other
viscous fluids heated in a long tube, the Sieder-Tale
equation for turbulent. flow, Eq. 20.19, should be used
correlation) , Eq. 20.18, predicts the average film coeffi­
The Sieder-Tate equation (also known as Sicder-Tate
instead of the Nusselt equation. Equation 20.19 can be
cient along the entire length of laminar flow. In Eq. 20.18, used with both the case of uniform surface temperature
110 is the absolute viscosity of the fluid at the hulk tem­ and the case of uniform heat flux but is limited to
peratme, and /.l5 is the absolute viscosity of the fluid at Reo > 10 000 and Pr > 0.7. 27
the tube's smface (wall) temperature. All of the other All fluid properties i u Eq. 20. 1 9 are evaluated at the
fluid properties are evaluated at t.he bulk temperature. bulk temperature, except for 11., which is evaluated at
the surface temperature.
A fluid flows through a 0.30 m diameter circular tube Exa mple
2 . 1 m in lengl.h. The following properties have been A nuid flows through long circular tube with uniform
calculated. surface temperature. The following properties have been
Rev = 2 1 00
Pr = 0.71 Reo = 2.2 x 104
= 850 kg/s·m Pr = 0.75
= 840 kg/s·m

Jt5 = 8GO kg/s·m /t b

/Is = 850 kg/s·m

What is most. nearly the Nusselt number?
(A) 1 1
(D) 5G
(C) 460
Alt hough the
Prnndtl number,
NCEES J/andbook
it docs nol speci�·
tipccifupperi<.'S limit. upper li1 1il
a lower limit for the
(D) 890 is reported by various researchers ns 700, 1 6 700, nnd 1 7 000.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
20-10 F E M E C II A N I C A L n E V I E 'II M A N U A L

\VltaL is most nearly the Nusselt number? Prm1dtl number is 0.04. Wlrnl is most. nearly the N nssclt
nu m bcr?
(A) 53
(A) 2.5
( 13) G2
(B) Ci.G
(C) 320
(C) 8. 1
(D) 1500
( D) !l.7
Since Lite Reynolds number is t.han 10 000, a11d
Lhc PrandLl uumber is greater than 0.7, Eq. 20.l!J may For liqnid 111etal llow with co11sta11t. s11rfacc tempera­
be used. The Nusselt nm11ber is ture, Lite Nnsscll u11mber can be calculated using

( .)

Nuv 7.0 + 0.025Re�8Pr0·8


= 7.0 + (0.025)(2700)0.l l (0.04)0·8


(0.023)(2 .2 X l0 1 ) 0·8 (0.7 5) l/:1

840 -

S· l 1 = 8.06 (8. 1 )
S·Jll The answer is (C).
= 62


Equation 20.22: Hydraulic Diameter

Equation 20.20 and Eq. 20.21 : Turbulent DH = 4 x Cl'OSS-SeC'tio11nl ill'f'H

Liquid Metal Flow in Tubes wetted perimeter

[<·orn.tant :rnrf>icc]
1 e111perntur<'

A duct is any closed channel through which a nuid flows.

[1111iform heat OtL'<j

20.20 Tubes and pipes arc examples of round ducts. "Ducts"
are not limited to air conditioning ducts.

20.2 1
Dimensional analysis shows t.hat a clwrnctcristic le119th is
required in Lhc N 11ssell number, but i t cloes not ident.ify
Description the length to be used . It has been COll l lllOn pracLicc to
correlate empirieal pressme drop and heaL transfer data
\�'hen the :mrfacc (wall) temperature is constanL, with t.hc hydraulic diamele1", D1,, of 11oncircular (e.g.,
Eq. 20.20 can be used lo calculate the average fil m rcctimgitlar, square, elliptical, polygonal) ducts.
coefficient for liquid metals (for example, mercmy,
sod ium, and lead-bismuth alloys) experiencing fully dcvel­ Though a n approximat.iou, empirical data supports
28 using the hydraulic diameter iu mosl cases. Notable
opecl tnrbulent now inside Lubcs. Fluid propertie:; arc
evaluated at, the mean bulk temperature. exceptions are flow through clucts with narrow angles
(for example, an equilateral triangle with a narrow ver­
\Vith a constant heat flux, Eq. 20.21 can be used lo tex angle) and llow parnllel to banks of tubes.
calculate the average film coefficient for liquid lllctals
with fully developed turbulent flow inside tubes.

0.003 < < 0.05.

Equation 20.20 and Eq. 20.21 are both limited t o Equation 20.23: Hydraulic Diameter, Annulus

DH = D,. - D, 20.23

A mw/nr flow is the now of fluid Lhrough Fill aimulrn;. Pluid

Liquid metal nows tlu-ough a tube wit.h constant surface Description
tcmperaLurc. The Rcynolcls number is 2700, and the
!low is annular in simple Lube-in-tube heat exchaugers.
For an anuulus, Eq. 20.23 gives the hydraulic diameter.
2sr1ie term fully developed is al5o IL5C<I when ref<'1 ring to full larni1111r
Dow. 111 this i;ect ion it is w1de1o>tood that the flow is turbulent. 1� Flow is not n1111ular t hrongh shell-nnd-t ube hent c·xchaugers.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N V E c ·r 1 0 N 20- 1 1

13. FLOW OVER SPHERES roughness of the heated snrface. Iloiling behavior is also

so spherical ta11ks are used wlHffe heal Lransfor is Lo Le

affected by the presence or external agitation. Boiling
Spheres have the smallest surface area-to-volume ratio, behavior is categorized in a nnmber of ways. These boil­
ing regimes are illust.rated by a boiling r.11r11e, such as
minimized. When a sphere experiences motion relative Fig. 20. l for water at atmospheric pressure.
to a surroun<ling Ouirl, heat transfer to a11<l from the
Ouid is predicted by a Nusselt numher correlation.
rigure 20. f Typical Boi/1119 Curva

Equation 20.24: Nussell Number, Flow Over convection nucleate transition film

[1<R"n<70000: l
1----1 --1

0.6 < Pr<

isolated jets ond
bubbles columns

101 ������
2 . 0 + 0 . G un
TiD l i
J 11n
N = = n cv/2pr /:i
-JOO q;,,ax

1 06 1-- �--t-
� -+-
..., �
. �-f-
� ��� -1
.... ..

Description E
105 r-��--t����i----1,---1-�-r��...--�,
The Nusselt correlation for Oui<l Oow over a sphere is � q;nin
given by Eq. 20.211. Fluirl properties should be evaluated
at the film temperature.

Example 103 ������

1 5 10 30 120 1000
The Rcy11olds number for air flowing over a sphere is

the average Nns:;elt n11mber?

62 000. The Pran<ltl munber is 0.81. \Vhat is most nearly
Typical boiling curl'e for waler at one at111osphere: surface heal nux
4; ;is a function of excess te111peraturc, Cl T, = '1', 1;,,t
(A) J lO
Source: Incropcra, l'rank P. and David P. Dc\\'itl, F11ndame11tals of
(B) 140 I/eat and Mass Transfer, 3rd ed., Wi l ey , HJDO.

In fm·ccd convection boiling, the fluid is moved or agi­

(0) 670
(C) 450
t ated by a stirrer or paddle. In flow boiling, the Ouid is
moved thrnugh a tube by a pump.
Solution In pool boiling, the liqttid pool is relatively calm (i.e.,
The average Nussclt number cau be calculated using quiet, quiescent). Fluid motion uear the heated surface
Eq. 20.24. is induced by free convection and bubble movement but

Nuo = 2.0 + 0.GRe�2 Pr 1/J

does not significantly affect the free liquid surface.30
Jn sub-cooled boiling, the bulk temperature of the liquid
= 2.0 + (0.6)(62 000) 1/2 (0.8 1 ) 1 /3 is less than the saturatio11 ternperatme. Vapor bubblt's
forming on the heated surface may condense back into
= 1 4 1 .27 ( 1 40) liquid form. Fluid movement is inrluced by Lhe density
cl i fferences.
Tfle answer Is (B). In saturated boiling, the liquid temperature exceeds the
saturatio11 temperature only slightly. Vapor bubbles
forming on the heated surface rise into the liquid under
1 4. BOILING the influence of buoyancy.
The temperatme at which a liquid boils is known as its Jn free convect-ion boiling, t.he Uquid is at the satmat.ion
salurnl.ion lempernture. Iloiling will occm when a liquid temperature, but there is insufficient, heat, transfer to
is heated to its saturation tcmpcratme. A common cause vapor bubbles to form.3 1 With an increasing sur­
method of boiling a liquid is to heat it in a vessel (pa11, face temperature and increasing heat l ra11sfer, bubbles

ture, T5, is greater than the satmation temperatme, Tsat·

tank, elc.). Boiling will occur when the smface tempera­
30In its descriplion of boiling regimes, the NGEES !111111/book repeat­
edly refers to "the surface." Since there are two stn fac<'S (the heated

when vapor bubbles start forming on t.he heated snrfacc)

The behavior of a liquid that is just beginning to boil (i.e., surface nnd the liquid surface), care nmsl be tnkr11 in intrrpreting the
NGEES llmrdbook's descriptions.
3 The NGEES Hu11dbook describes this regime RS "lnsuflicirnt vapor is
is different from the behavior in a rolling boil. The boiling

the sttrface anc.l the sattll'ation temperature, as well as Lhc

in contact with the liquid phaw. . ." While there is i11snfficir11t vapor to
behavior is affected by the difference in temperatlll'e of transfer heat. lo the liquid, the root cause of free convection boiling is
insufficient Lhernwl eneri,•y t.ra1L5fer rlne lo a low l'Xcess temperature.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m

iboiliny form. Thia sstale
bubbles, regimknown
e endsaswith l.h e the formaLio11 of
onset. of n ucleate

(dimensionless parameter L L(g(p1 i•Jn) 112))

Tnble 20.5 Values of the Coefficient C.- for Ma'<1111w11 Heat flux
or bubble nucleation. = -
In 1111cleale boiling, individual bubbles form on the cbarac-.

!water dimension of
sion. The surface
riHing andvaporriseprogresses
essentiallyfroverti m i colallaytedin bubbl
s �mcces­es geometry c, , heater, L rnngc• uf L"

tovertistreams (j ets or slugs ) of bubbles. The bubbles rise la rg 0.l <I!) width or L+ 27
hor izon t al

c al l y and follow todicombine
rect pathsanduntithel lithequidbubbl ess diameter
nat heater
become la rge e11ough begi n sm ll 18.9/(, width or !J [/' 20
< <
to move ( "roll") and disrupt direct vertical movement. z t
hori on al
The end of nucleate boiling marks the point where heat. n,1t hC'al('r
tra11 s fer ( i. e ., heat nux ) is maximum. This rlefines the large 0.12 radius L* > 1.2
crit.ical heal. flu:J:, commonly abbreviated as CHF. horizontal
withiniutcrrupls liquid,t.dihand
theboiling, e vapor
r ect the
i q ui d emovement
s begin to icom­
bubbl e 1Jter­.
0.12£* - u.2.; radius U.15 < f,* < l . 2

The boimlinboiling.
g regimThe e oscibegil atesnninbetween nucleate boilingli11gis large sphere 0.11 radius L� > <1.26
small sphere 0.227 £'•- U.� U.15 < L* •1.26

and fil g of transi t i o n boi radius <

1 film
point. as t.end he depart:ure from nucleate boiling (DNB)

t.hc Leide11frosl. point., thet.imionnboiling

asboiling. The of the transi imum heat Description

Equatiou 20.25 is the general calculation of heat32 fltLx

Jn filmsurface boiling ( also known as film.wise boiling), the
heated is completely covered by a layer (blan­is ( i.e., Q/ A , the heat transfer per unit area ) . In
ket ) of vapor. A significant fraction of the heat Eq.
the 20.25, Tc is the e;ccess temperature, defined as
difference between the surface temperature aud the
via radiation through the vapor layer. saturatio11 temperature.
Equation 20.25 Through Eq. 20.30: Heat Flux
flux e ate isboiling.
the Rohsenow's correlatfon for heat.
Cs/ is an empirical consta11t

[ - p11)] 112 [Cpt( T,, - Tss1 )]

20.25 dependent
nent, on the fluid aud heated surface. The expo­
11, on t.he Prancltl number is also empirical. The
. g(p,
liquid and vapor properti eofs archeat-transfer-speci
evaluated at. theficsatura­
= Jl,fljg tiertionestemperature. Tabl e s prop­

C-</ /lf!ip r·1"
20.26 small, it can be omitted from first approximations.p,,, is
are usuall y used. Si n ce the vapor densi t y,

[ ]
20.27 Equation 20.27 calculates the critical ( maximum, peak,

etc. ) heat flux ( CHF) corresponding to the encl of uucle­

'lwin = 0 . 09p ,, /1fg

ateonalboiling. AsheatEq.(enthalpy
20.27 shows, the heat nux is propor­

(P1 + Pv)
. ag(p, - Pu ) timaxi to the ) of vaporization, h1r, . When
m um heat flux from a smface is desired, liquid
.IJk� p .. (p, - p.,)
(such as water) with large heats of vaporization should
I/� betheused. Cc,. is an empirical constant that depe11ds on

X [hf_q + 0.4c1,.,( T. - Tsa1 )J (e. g . , the bottom of a pan on a

For type
l a rge, andflatorientation
heaters of the heating element used.
f lm = Cmrn
/fi stove ) , Cc,. is approximately 0.15. ( Sec Table 20.5. ) The
µ ,,D( T, - ) critical fltLx
heatately one-thiincreases as pressure inscreases uppres­to
sure, m r d of the substance'
after which it decreases, reaching zero at the crit­ critical

, { } 20.29
ical pressure.
C n�u =
0.62 for horizoutal cylinders :l2
The use of double-primed q q " ) to dC'Signatc heat nm. s
(i.e., i
colloquial in t.he subject of boiljng heat

have units of W, q would ha\•e unHs of \V/m, and q would have

20.30 transfer. The 11u111bcr of primes

units of \V/rn2. After introducing this convention, the NCEES

0.67 for spheres indicates the number of length units t o be included. Thus, q wo uld
' "

boo/; subsequently abandons it and uses q as the symbol for surface

hC'at. nux in every snhscqncnt eq11atio1 1 .

PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m

Equation 20.28, k11ow11 as the Zuber eq11alio11, calculates throughrn11sthefcr evlllxechanger

heat l chani s m walls
is lo the co111pl
essentially cold l111id.:
e tel y if:o. rced
of film boiling heaL
the mi11imurn (i.e., nux correspondingpoi11l).
the leicle11frosl to the begillning convect.ion.
�fany ) ind11strial
trithecalBromley nuidboileheaters.
or hot equalio11, rs containEquatitubular
o n rcsista11cc (elec­
20.29, k11ow11 as
Heat exchangers are categorized i11Lu si111ple tube-in-lube
heal e:i:chanyers (ah>o known as j11ckeled pipe heol

boiling for hori w ntal calcyli11ders

culates theand heatspheres.
ll11x inEqua­
film 11tlc.cchangers),
1oultiw heat
ple-pass singl
shel el--pass
heat hPat exchangers,
exchangers, and cross­
tiou z20.29
hori ontal can11ot
pl a t.e bei The
sY: used valdirectl
u es yoffortheheat.empi
ing rfrom
i c al nat,
con­ alsoa known exchangcrs.
as safhes 3 G Shcll-cwrl-t-ube heal exchangers,
S f1 T heat e�:cha119ers, consist
stant, G'r;1,,,, for film boiling are given by Eq. 20.30. orrnnning la rgethrough
housi ng,iL. theThe with many s111aller tnhes
lube fluid p::isses through the
E xa mple Lubes, whitubes.
around le the=17 shP.!l fluid passes t.hrnugh the shell and
A horizontal
couslaut tc1 u cylindricalofheater
peralurc is used to boil water at a
90°C. The density of the liquid
water is kg/m'
9GG k§/m:', and Lhe density of t.he water vapor
u1 other
the a single-pnss hea l. exchcmger, cacl1 fluid is exposed to
fluid only once. OperaLion is known as parallel
s 0.424
vapor i s . The surface tension between the liquid
0.070 N/m. \VhaL is most nearly the peak
flow (same as COCltr/'e/I[. flow) if both 11nids now in the
same direction along the longitudinal c.eds of the
flow) if the flnids flow in opposite directions.3 •3u Coun­
beat. fllL, with nucleate boiling? exchanger and cou11/e1flow {same as c01111/e1· current
(A) 740 kW/1112 terflow isis more efficient, and theparalheat transfer area
(B) 860 k\V/ni2 requi red l e ss than that with l e l flow sinre the
(C) 910 k\V/m'2 temperature gradieut is more constant.
pass heal. e.i;c/rn 11gers. The tnbes p11ss t.hrough the shell
(D) 1 100 kW/ lll
2 For increased efficiency, most exchangers are urnlliple­
more than once, and the shell fluid is routed around
At a temperatme
enthal ofon90°C,
p0.12y offorevaporaLi i s from the steam tables, the
2283.2 /kg. From Table 20.G,
G'<,. =
calculate the peaklargeheathoriflztLontal
' i11 thecylinucl
Eq.. 20.27 lo

Equation 20.31 : Heat Transfer

. 1x C Ilf!I [agp,, ( Pt

(0. 1 2) (2283.2 ��)

qm1 = rr
)]1 /4
- p,.

(0.010 �) (9.81 ��)

= Description

h eal duly an<l heal load) in a heat

I/I Equati on 20.31as calculates
so known the the steady-state hcaL trnusfer
or foe<l w ater heater. 4 1 • 4 1 F is a correction
x (o.<124 mkg3)
11umberon oft.hepasses,
n (i.ecorrects
., crossOow,
(96G kg3 0.424 111kg3)
:l''A l't)Ct1/ltl'll/i11e ltrul tc.J:changcr, typified by the tradit ional sli<'ll-ai1d­
t11he cxC'ha11gcr, 1naiutains �eparate flow chn1111<'ls for each of the
= !JU5 k\V/1112 (910 k\V/m2) fluids. A '"'!Je11ernliue heat exchanger has only one flow path, to which
the t \\'O fluids arc exposed 011 an alternating lin.�is.
Fin roil heal cxcha11gC'rs are a special cnse of cro!'Sno\\' hl!at
The answer Is (C). exchnng<'rs.
Tubulnr heat rxdmugers are also known ns shell-1111d-lt1b" lwul
35Flow through shell-a 11cl-tube ht'at C'xd1a11gers is neit her purely par­

applicat3 ion,Ileattwofrom
1 5. HEAT EXCHANGERS ;1llel nor purely counterflow. Thus, these exchangers arc smnrlimrs
designated ns pumllP/ co1111/erflow uc/1119 11 ers.
Iua typical
a heat exchangcr. nuidsthenowhotthrough
ll11id orpasses
over 39
fhc designation ruc11ffe11I s
i not un abbre\'iation for ca1111ltr

'° Closed fcedu·ate1· healer.� nrc hl•at exchangers whose purpose is to

heat water with condPnsing slea111.
( 1 ) The NCEES Ha 11 db1.10k gives the heat fltLX eqnaliou for c.vlind('IS
33 l l Thcre are three heal loads rd1·1rt·d to in heat exchanger specifica­

and 8pheres, but not for flat horizontal plates, a co111111011 co11fl�urnt io11 tions: the specific lteal /ond, \\'hich is the design heat lrnnsfrr; the local
(e.g., heating a pun on the stove). (2) Equation 20.29 rnn also hC' nst•d released by the hot lluid; m11! the ht•at absorbed by the cold nuid. All
for vertical flat plates by using the value of CnL.. 0.62. th.ree would be the S<'l lllC if operation was adiabatic, bnl elm; to prac­
� 1'
fhese fluids do 11ot have to be liquids. A i1·-cou/1�tl PJl'hu119crn rC'dure tical losses, they arP 1101. If they differ by more thnn 10%, th<' cause of
water consumption in trndit ionnl cooling applirntio11s. the diS1.'rc111111e;y should be e\'aluated.

PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
20� 1 4 F E M E C H A N I C A L n E V I E W M /\ N U /\ l

excha n gc.> r:1i F = 1 w l teu oue fluid is co n<lcnsi ng or

Ll'vlTD value for Lhe effectiveness of the heat coefficient is lo be used wit.h the inside or outside area.
The Jouling Jae/ors, R1; and R10, represen t the t.hcnual

cve11 livi11g biological orga nisms ( e.g., Zebra mussels).

evaporating (i.e., when l. he temperature of t.he fluid resistance of any accumulations, scale, deposits, and
Vnlues of F arc often read from widely a vai l a ble
cha11ging plrnse does not change in the heat. exch anger) .

graphs.'1 3 Equation 20.31 embodies the LMTD

also known as the F-factor me/hod, of accounting for
heat. exdmnger cffectiveucss. The Ll'vlTD met.hod is
Exampl e

eas i ly applied lo probl ems when both outlet tempera­ A pipe has a thermal conductivity of 0.25 W/m· [( and a
lures are known, such as when calculaling t.hc required le11gt.h of 10 m. The inside diameter of the pipe is 1.2 c m,

side convective heat transfer coefllcient is 10 \V/m2·I<,

heat tra11sfcr area. \�lhen both outlet t em perat.mes are and t.he out.side diameter of the pipe is 2.0 cm. The o u t­
unknown, the NTU met.hod must geuerally be used .
and t.he inside convect.ive heat t.nmsfer coeffici ent is
150 W /m 2 ·K. The fouling factor for the inside of t.he pipe
t.hc ouern/l co11ducta11ce and the overall coefficient of
The ouernll heal transfer coefficienl, U, also known as
is 0.0005 m2·1</W, a nd the fouling factor for the ou tside
heal. transfer, can be specified for use wit.h e i th er the of the pipe is negligible. What is most nearly Lhe overall
outside or inside tube areas. The heat transfer is inde­ heat t.nu1sfcr coefficien t based on the outside surface area?
pendent of w het her the o u t.side or inside area is used. lt
i s more common (and preferred) t o use the outside tube (A) 2.4 \"l/1112 . l(
area because the ou t side tube d ia meter is mo re easi ly (B) 3.2 \V/m2·I<
measured .
(D) 9.6 vV/m2·K
(C) 7.6 W/1112·K
In real i ty , it h; very d iffic u lt to predict t.he heat transfer
ers. Vnh1es can be predicted by comparison with similar
coefficient for most types of commercial heat exchang­
units, or "tried-and-true" rnles of thumb can be used.
One such rnle of thumb for baffled shell-and-tube hea t Calculate the inside surface area of the pipe.
exchangers predicts t.he clean, average heat t ra nsfer
coefficient as 60% of the value for t h e same arrangement
of tubes in plU'C crossflow. A ,. = rcD;L
1t(l .2 cm)( lO m)

= 0.3770 m2
Equation 20.32: Overall Heat Transfer

__ = __1 + R11 + (�) + R10 + -1- 20.32
Calculate the ou tsid e surface area of t.hc pipe.

UA h,A, A, 2rckL A ,, lt11A0

A o = rcD0L
cm)(lO m)
100 cm
= 0.6283 1112
Equation 20.32 calculates the overall heat tra nsfer cocfO­
cien t , U, for co ncentric tube and shell-and-tube heat
excl1a11gcrs from t.he lllm coefficients and the tube matc.'­
rial conductivities.
Use Eq. 20.32.
The area , A, on t.he left-hand side of Eq. 20.32 can be
either the inside area of the tubing (i.e., based on t.he
inside diameter) or the outside area (i.e., based on the
outside dinmeter) . The outside diameter is easier to
-= -
1 1 +-R1; + ()
tn DD;o
+ --
measure in t he field, so that convent.ion is preferred. It u A .
h, A; A ; 2rckL A0 h0A0
is important to specify whether au overall heat tra nsfer

11Thc NCEES H0111/book calls F the co11/i911J"O/io11 correclion factor.

The actual name is l he 111ecm lelllpernl11re differellce correclio11 faclor.
" As puulisltcd by Tubular Exchanger lllanufacturers As.socialion, Inc.

P P I • w w w . 1> p l 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N V E C T I O N 20- 1 5

fluid flow is parnllel or counterflow. 17• 18

ends A and B, respectively, regardless of wl1ct.l 1cr t h e

- 1- + - Rfi + --'--
i _
o ln () -I

t'lT,i - L\ To
h;ll, A, 2rckL L\ Tiw = L\
UA =
ln T,i
L\ Tu


( 1 50 -
m2 · K )
- (0.3770 m2)
Equation 20.33: Logarithmic Temperature
Difference, Counterflow

(1 000�i.) �
2 (
, T"" _ ( Ttto - Tc; ) - ( Tm - Teo )

-' )

il -
0.3770 m 2 In
'f'Ho - Tc; 20.33
= Tlli Tr.,
(2rr) (0.25 11�:�() (10 m)
2.0 cm
1.2 cm

For counterflow tubular heat exchangers, the logarith­

mic tcmperatme difference can be found using
1 Eq. 20.33.
( 10 (0.6283 m2 )
= 4 .746 W/r< Equation 20.34: Logarithmic Temperature
Difference, Parallel Flow
Based on the out.side surface area, the overnU heat
tra 11sfer coefficicrn t i:;
- Teo) - ( Trn - Tc;)
4 . 746 w
U - - - ---"--="2
L\T1n, = ( THu
In ( Ttto - Tc..
THi - Tc,
) 20.34

A0 0.6283 111
= 7.55 W/m2 ·K (7.6 W /m2 ·K) For parallel now tubular heat exchangers, the logarith­
mic tcmperatme difference ca11 be found using
Eq. 20.34.
The answer Is (C).


1 6. LOGARITHMIC TEMPERATURE A parallel now heat exchanger is used to cool oil from
............�1.�.�.l;���.C:.: � . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . ....................... ................. . , .............. ...... .
120°C to 60°C. The cooling water enters at 20°C and
leaves at 55°C. \i\lhat is most nearly Lhc log mean te ­ m
The temperature difference between two fluids i s not pcratme cl ifference?
cons tan t in a heat exchanger. When calculating the hea t
transfer for a tube whose temperature d ifference changes (A) 25°C
along its leng th , the logarithmic mean lempemture dif­ (B) 32°C
ference, L\ 1)1 11 or LMTD, is used.44'45'46 In the equation
shown, L\ 7�1 and L\ T8 are the temperature differences at
(C) 140°C
(D) 280°C

m ns /J. T Hit doesn't make any difference which end is A :rncl which is B. If the
44An exception occurs in HVAC cal latio where
1rn v a l m id length
has tra<lit io ll l.>CCn used to calculate the heat tmnsrer in air condi­
numerator s
i ncgati\ e, the denominator will nlso he ncgati\•e.
48As /J. T,1 and q o /J. Tfl. /J. T,ii
become equal, the e uat i n IX'<'omes indeterm­

tioning duct�. Considering the imprecise nature or HVAC calcul ti ns,

difference is probably unwarranted.

ar m
the added sophistication or u�ing the log i t h c mean le1nprmturc i
nate, e\•en though t he correct relationship i s tJ. Tim = /J. T,1 =
nt o s
the fi1st <lerivativc, used in some calcu l i n , is llll(lcfined when

a t
pr -
and Tu arc eq nl , even though the correct value is 0.5. ,\ repl cemen
45Thc symbol /J. T,,, is al�o widely used for the log mean temperature l
•T (t';. Tl/3 rt/:1) 3
w s
difference. Ho ever, this cnn al o he in ter eted as t he arithmetic
mcnn ll'tnpcrnturc.
expres;;ion (Underwood, 1933) that avoids t h 'SC difficulties with (gen­
ernlly) less l n a 0.33 error is
+ t;
46Thc lugarilh111ic te1npcraturc difference is used e\•en with change or
p h ase (e.g., boili ng liquid or condensing vapor) and the temperature is
constant in one tube.
Ll Im �

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
20-16 F E M E C H A N I C A L A E V I E VI M A N U r. L

So/11/1011 TIJP lirst ::;tep in the NTU 1 11ct.hod is lo calculate the

Using Eq. 20.34, the log mean lemperalure difference for

thcr111al capacity rnles, C, for I he two ll11ids, given by

a parallel heat exchanger is

Eq. 20.36. It, is possible for the two capacity rates l o be
equal, but usually they arc nol. The smaller capacity
G'rnin · The larger is designated clllllX"
t:J. T _
( )
rate is dcsig11ated
( THo - Tcu) - ( T11; - Tc;)
1 111 - The fluid with the ::;maller capacity rate, C111;n , will
THo - Tc" experience the larger Lemperalure change. If the cold

Trn - Tc; fluid has the minimum capacity rate (tltat is, = Cmi n
(G0°C - 55°C) - ( 1 20°C - 20°C) the effectiveness is given by Eq. 20.38.
I f the hot

Cj ,01 ) , the effectiveness is give11 by Eq. 20.37.

60°C - 55°C fluid has the minimum capacity rate (that is, Cuiin =
ln ------
1 200C - 20°c
= 31 .7°C (32°C)
Equation 20.39 Through Eq. 20.43: Number
The answer Is (B).
of Transfer Units

1 7. NTU METHOD 20.39

Some heat exclurnger iwalysis problems, such as where

both oullcl temperatures are unknown, appear lo be
unsolvable or solvable only by NTU ;:
. trial aud error using lhe

( ) [ COUll(PI ]
traditional F-11 1el.hod. However, the 1111mbc1· of trans-
fer units (NTU) method (also known as the efficiency
C -1
method and effectiveness 111ethod) can be used to handle l - I flow,
NTU = - h1 €'
C, < 1
C1 - 1 l'OllCl'lll 1 ir;
these problems more easily.50 The steps in the NTU E1,

method clcpeml 011 whelher or not both exit tempera­ 20.4 1

tures arc known.
c: [cmmlPrllo:'" C'Ol l"t'11t.ric: ]
NTU = - -
1 - t: C, = I

Equation 20.35 Through Eq. 20.38: Heat NTU = _ 1 [ 1 -1 t:(l

11 + C', )]
[parallel llnw, co11cC'nl ricl

Exchanger Effectiveness + C,

- Q.
acl ual heal tra1 1sfer rate Description
- -------
€ - -- -
rnaxiinum possible heat tnmsfcr ral<'
Once the heat capacity ratio is found, Eq. 20.4 1 through
C = riu·1,

Eq. 20.43 can be used to find t.he number of trausfcr uuits

E= -
Tlli- -- -'-
20.36 for heat exchangers operating u11der specific condit.ions.

Crniu( Tm - TC"i)
Cu THc• ) The number of t.ransfer units for a si ngle-pass counter­
20.37 flow heat exchanger with a heat capaci l.y ratio less than l
is found from Eq. 20.41 . The number of tram;fer uuits for

G'rniu( Tlli - Tc;)

Ge( Teo - TCi) --- a single-pass cotmterflow heal exchanger with a heat
E = -- 20.38
capacity ratio of 1 is found from Eq. 20.42. The uumbcr
of transfer units for a ::;i11glo-pass parallel flow heat
Description exchanger is found from Eq. 20.43.
The heal e��clrnnger effect.iveness, c:, is defined as the
ratio of lhe actual heat transfer to the maximum possi­ E xa m ple

ble heat. transfer.5 •52 This ratio is generally not known A single-pass counterflow heat exchanger is w;ed to cool
in adva11cc. lubricating oil with cooling water. The exchanger has an
effective heat t.rausfcr rate of 280 \V /m . J( based on a u
heat t"xchanger with
• Acl11nlly, any shell-and-lube an even number of 2
effective heat transfer area o f 1 1 1 . Tlic thermal capac­
t11lw pa."-� has a closed-form analylicHI solution for lhe outlet tem­
ity rate of lubricating oil is 9.1 kW/T<, and the thermal
w t t
prml me. Howe\•cr, he mathematic:;arcn the
lahoriutL� nnd the fot m of
solution Vilt iC'S i h the type of Dow a d heal l'xdmnger design. capacity rale of cooling water is 5.2 kW /K. \·Vliat is
wThC' nn 1 1es 1111111/icr of thcmwl 1111it.s (NTU), lieut transfer units most nearly t.he number of t.ra11sfcr units?

(A) 0.71
(HTU), nucl temperature
trn11sfcr 1111ils (NTU).
synony11 011s
ratio (Tn.) arc with 1111mbcr of
�1 Thc maximum possible
hns au transfer can only heat
i11fi11ilc lc>nglh.
OC'Cur if the exchan�er
(B) 0.86
5201hrr 1 nrnes tr the
used in the li tera u e tu dc>linc effectiveness arc (C) 0.94
efficiency, lhP1·111ody11omic efficiency, lempcrn/11re effidwq1, and pcr­
fom11111r:f 1111m111eltr. The symbol P lli of€.
used i11 plnrr (D) 1.3

P P I • \'I w w , p p i 2 p a s s • c o m
C 0 N V E C T I 0 N 20-1 7

Solution Description
Since 5.2 kW/I< < 9. 1 kW /K, If a single-pass counterOow heaL cxchauger has a heat

C'rnin =
capacity ratio less than 1 , the effecl.ivencss of the
C'watrr = 5.2 kW/I< (5.2 x I o:i W /I<) exchanger is found from Eq. 20.tltl .
If a single-pass counterflow heat exchanger has a heat
Use Eq. 20.40. capacity ratio of 1 , the effectiveness of the exchanger is
found from Eq. 20.45.
(280 Ill\2\1· 1< ) (16 rn2 )
For a single-pass parallel now heat exchanger, the effec­
tiveness of the exchanger is found from Eq. 20.46.

5.2 x 10� w
For a counternow concentric tube heat exchanger, if the
= 0.8615 (0.86) number of transfer units is 0.76 and C,. = 1, what is mosL
nearly t.he heat exchanger effectiveness?
(A) 0.27
(n) o.38
Tile answer is (8).
(C) 0.43
Equation 20.44 Through Eq. 20.46: Heat (D) 0.67
Exchanger Effectiveness, Counterflow and

-- - C, )) -- [
Parallel Flow

1 - C, exp[ - Cr)]

l - -NTU(l co1111lrrOow, ] Since C,.= l , Eq. 20.t15 can be used to calculate the
-NTU(l concentri('; C, < 1

---- [
20.44 NTU
c = 1 + NTU
NTU t:OuC"cutrir; ]
E =
l + NTU c, = 1
l + 0.76

1 + Cr
- e>..-p[ - N T U ( l + Cr)]
= 0.4318 (0.43)
c: = [parallel flow . rnnce11t ric]

The answer is (CJ.

PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
1. Thcn11al H.acliat.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1 a is the fraction of energy absorbed (the absorptivity), p
2. Black, RPal, and Gray Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2 is the fraction reflected (the reflediuity), a nd is the

3. Reciprocity Theorem for Radiatiou . . . . . . . 21-3 fraction transmitted (the lransmissiuily).

,1. Net. Radiation Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
5 . Radiation with Reflect.ion/Reradiation . . . . 21-5 Example

Based on the radiation conservation law, if the absorp­
F factor
area of a body is 48%, and the reflectivity is 36%, what
ismost nearly the trausmissivity?
N 11u111ber of radiating surfaces (A) 16%
p power (B) 36%
unit heat transfer rate \V/ m2
heat t rnnsfcr r
ate w (C) 48%
T lei npernt urc [( (D) 84%
absorptivity Solution

E e1 nissi vi Ly The t.ransmissivity ca11 be found by solving Eq. 21.1.

(J rcncct.ivily
a Slefan-B�ltzmnnn consta11t., 5.67 x 10 8 o +p+T= l
T t ransmissi vi ty
T= l - O -p

Subscripts = 1 - 0.48 - 0.36

12 from body 1 to body 2
13 from body 1 to body 3 = 0.16 (16%)
21 from body 2 to body l
32 from body 3 lo body 2 The answer is (A).
inner or i1" surface
.i /'' surface
R rera<liating
Equation 21 .2: Radiation Conservation Law
1 . THERMAL RADIATION for an Opaque Body
Thermal radiation is clect.romagnetic radiation with
a +p= 1
wavelengths in the 0.1 µm to 100 µm range. All bodies, [opaqunj 21.2
even "cold" ones, radiate thermal radiation. Thermal
radiation incident to a body can be absorbed, rellectecl,
or Lransmitt.ed. Description

Equation 21 . 1 : Radiation Conservation Law

For an opaque body, transmissivity is zero. The radia­
tion conservation law is Eq. 21.2.
o +p+T= 1 [always] 21. 1
For an opaque body, if 62% of the incident energy is
Descript ion reflected, what is most nearly the percentage of c11erb'"y
A body in the path of thermal radiation energy can absorb (A) 19%
the energy, rellect the enerKY, or pass the energy tluough
(i.e., transmit the energy). All of the incident energy is (B) 38%
accmmtcd for by t.l1is requirement. Equation 21.1, written (C) 46%
in terms of fractious of the incident. ·energy, is the radiation
co11seruation law (energy conservation law for radiation). (D) 62%
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
2 1-2 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E \'J M A N U A L

Solution Equation 21 .3: Radiant Heat Transfer

Use Eq. 2 1 . 2 to f i nd Lhc absorptivity.

CJ = .:a A 7�
n + p= L 21.3

o= l -p
= 1 - 0.62

a = 5.67 x I 0-8 W/1112 ·K 1

= lUS (38%)
The answer is (B).
Radiant heal lransfer is t.he name given t o heat t.rans­
fcrrc<l by way of [.hernial radiation. The energy radiated
by a hot body at absolute Lemperature, T, is given by
the Stefan-Boltwwnn law, also known as t.he fourih­
A body will natmally radiate Lhermal energy inLo its power law. In Eq. 2 1 .3, a is the Stefa11-Bollzma11n
local environmenL. The ratio of the actual emitted co11sta11t..
energy Lo t.he ideal emit.ted power is known as the
em issivity, E. E xam1>l e

E = Padua)
17 m2 plate with an cmjssivity of 0.26 is suspended
vertically in a large room. If Lhe absolute temperature is
4301<, what is mosL nearly t.he radiation emitted?
(A) 2 . 6 kW

\�lhen a body (or su rface) is in thennal equilibrium, any (B) 3.5 kW

energy it receives by radiation (or other means) is also (C) 6.7 kW

lost. (transmitted). The rates of absorbed and trans­
(0) 8.6 HV
mitted energies must be t he same.1 Therefore, at ther­
mal equilibrium, the emissivity of a body equals it.s
absorptivity. This statement is known as I<irclilwff's Solution
radiation law. Kirch hoffs law has a corollary: Emissiv­
Using Eq. 21.3, t.he radiation emitted by a body is
ity cannot exceed J .0. Since absorptivity is part of the

radiation conservation law, absorptivity cannot exceed

1.0. And, at th erm al equilibrium, emissivity equals Q = wA T 1
absorptivity. Therefore, emissivity cannot exceed 1.0.
(0.26) ;:i.67 x 1 0
" -8 v-.r )
The emissivity (and, therefore, the e1nissive po ver) usu­ m2-K4
ally depends on the temperature of the body. A body 1
( 1 7 m2)(430K)

that emits at constant emissivity, regardless of wave­
length, is known as a gray body. Real bodies are fre­ 1 000
quently approximated as gray bodies. Renl bod'ies do not kW

radiate a t the ideal level.
= 8.568 kW (8.6
Since absorptivity, a, cannot exceed 1 .0, Kirchhoff's
radiation law places an upper limit on emissive power.
Ilodies that radiate at this upper limit (a = 1 ) are
Tiie answer is (D).
known as bind: bodies or ideal radiators. A black body
emits the maximum possible radiation for its tempera­
ture and absorbs all incident energy.3

Equation 2 1 .4: Black Body

Cl =€= l [black body] 21.4

In t he most general form of Kirchhofrs radiation lnw, energy must be
integrated over all wnv('lcng ths nn<l angles.
2 Description
This is equivalent to saying t hl' emissivity depends on the wavelength
of the radiation.
For a black body, both emissivity and absorptivity

c .
'1Black-body performance can he approximated but not achieved in
are 1.
pra t ice

PPI • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
R A D I A T I O N 2 1 -3

Equation 21 .5 and Eq. 21 .6: Gray Body Descripti on

[U < o < I : O < E < Ij

The thermal energy body r
radiated from a (su face) must

!opaque gray hodyj

n=c 21.5 go someplace. For a trausmittiug body that is com­

(surfaces), i is lo ical that the total

£ + fl = 1 21.6
pletely t g by
surrounded N ot.her distinct. receiving bodies
energy trau:;mitted intercepted
by the receiving bodies will equal the
energy. Since e ape factor, defined
This logic is repeated for each of Lhe bodies in
the collection. th sh Fij, is as
For gray body, the reflectivity is constant.
Eq. 2Ui.)
the fraction of Lhe radiation leaving surface i that is
by r
intercepted su face j, Eq. 2 1 .8 e es nts this logic.' 1
r pr e
Exampl e
55% of energ1' from a gray body i:; reflected, what is 4. NET RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER
most nearly the emissivity of the body?
\i\1hen two bodies can "see each other," each will radiate
(A) 15% energy to and absorb energy
from the other. The net
radiant heat transfer between the two bodies by is given
(I3) 25%
(C) 45%
(D) 55%

Solution F12 is the shape factor, or configuratfon factor, which

depends on shapes, emissivities, and
the body of orientations
Solve Eq. 2 1 6 for emissivity.
. Lhe Lwo bodies. If l is small and completely
enclm;ed bo 2, th n F1 2 = E 1.
by dy e
E + p= l
E= l -p
=1- 0.55 Equation 21 .9: Net Radiation Heat Transfer,
= O.t15 (45%) Small Body

The answer is (CJ. 21.9

Desc ri ption
er btheynet1 heat
Wh e od
body 2,
is small and completely enclosed by
transfer due to radiation is given
Equation 2 1 . 7: Reprocity Theorem
by Eq. 21.9.

An ideal radiatortemperature of 550K.

a tank with a
is maintained at l t is in
290K. h radiator is
small compared to the tank. What is most the
T e enclosed
net heat transfer between them per unit area
(A) 2.9 kW /m2
area ( 1112) of
Equation 21. 7 is known
radialion. A ; is the surfaceas
the reciprocity theorem. for
i. Fii is the
shape factor (view factor, configuration factor), which is
(B) 3.5 kW/m2
(C) 4.8 k W/m2
the fractionby
intercepted of the radiation leaving surface that is
surface j.
(D) 5.4 kW /m 2

4(1) This s not

i n co11seruatio11 rule, as
a "summation rule" the NCEES
FE Reference llandbook (NCEES Handbook) refer;; to it. (2) The
Equation 21 .8: View Conservation Rule snmmati
countingon r c s included in summation. surfaces,
L shown over N surfaces, but t.hcre arc N+ I
the ra<linting surface. Only the "other" surfac('S (i.e., the

L F;J =
intercept ing su fa e ) arc the Alternatively,
l 21.8
if there were
(3)Not N su11 1 1aast.ion
total surfaccs, the
immediately obvious from Eq. 21.8
limit would be N-1.
presented in the NCEES
j=l Handbook is umm
that index variable i is held constant during the s a­
tion. The su111111at is not m'er all combinations of all surfaces.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
2 1 -4 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Solution Equation 21 . 1 1 : Net Radiation Heat Transfer,

Equal.iou 21.9
can be used Lo determine the heal trans­ Diffuse Gray Surfaces
fer per 11nit area. £ = for an ideal radiator.
Q12 = £aA(T1l - T2I )
012 = w ( 1m-1
21. 1 1

J- T2 ) �

(1.0) (5.67 10-s �) ( (5501<)'1 - (2901<)4)

1000 kvvVV
The net heat transfer due t.o radiation between two
diffuse gray surfaces is given hy Eq. 21.11.
tion 21. 1 1
applies to two bodies (surfaces), each of which
4.787 kW /w2 (4.8 kW /m2)
= is completely covered (enclosed) by t.he ot.her. This con­
figuration is known as a /.1110-swface enclosure and is
T/1e answer is (C). shown in Fig. 21.1.5
Either body can be designated as
body 1,and cit.her can be designated as body Each 2.
body radiates to the other; each body receives energy
from the other. The emissivities of the two bodies are
Equation 21 . 1 0: Net Radiation Heat Transfer, not. necessarily the same. Although the bodies are com­
Black Bodies pletely enclosed, this docs uot. necessarily mean that the
view factor, F'12, is equal to 1.0.
The enclosure may not
be sufficiently convex to enable all parts of the surfaces
21. 10 to sec all other parts of the surfaces. There may be blind
spots caused by shadowing.G Parallel plates, concentric
Descr i pti on cylinders, and concentric spheres, however, are cowue:i;
hulls (conve.1: envelopes) , so F1 2 = F2 1 = 1.0.
The net heat transfer due to radiation bet.ween two
black bodies is given by Eq. 21.10.
Examp le Figure 21. t Radralion Between Two Diffuse Gray Swfaces

A 15 8
cm thick furnace wail has a cm square illspcction
port. The interior of the furnace is at The 1200°C.
surrounding air temperature is 20°C.
The shape factor,
F1 2 , is 0.4.
The heat loss due to radiation when the
iuspection port is opeu is most nearly
(A) 150 \�I
(B) 440 W
(C) 680 W
(D) 2700 W (a) (b)

The absolute temperatures arc
Tru111ace = 1200°0 + 273° = 14731< 5The interpretation and application of Fig. 21.1 as presented in t he
T = 20°0 + 273° = 2931<
00 NCEES Handbook are not obvious. There are two g<'m' ralized cases
shown. (The NGEES Jlandbook does not include the (a) and (b)
The radiation heat loss is drsignatio11s, und w it appears that something is goiug on bet.ween

Q = AF12a( m-
- '1 )
the lcft�ha11d nml right-hand sides.) Part (a) shows a radiating nat

1 grny snrfnce tl1at s i covered (enclosed) by n dome, which is also a
1 f1mrnrc 7 oo radiation gray surface. Since the dome connects to the surface every­
(8 cm)2(0.4) (5.67 x 10-s Ill\2"11/ ) .
where along the pcriph<'ry, the two surfaces "form an euclosme'' t h
NCEES Hcrndbook phrases it}. This constitutes t.he traditional two
(as e

(100 cm)
s111face enclosure. In the case of part (b), radiating gray body I is

x ((14731<)4 - (2931<)4) completely enclosed by radiating gray body 2. It is not intuitive how
the enclosed body I of pllrt (h) "forms" an enclosure, as the NCEES
2 lla11dbook plJrase;; it.. NevcrlhelC'SS, Eq. 21.11 applies lo both cases.
G!J1 a con\'ex hull, every point on the boundary can see every other
Ill point on the boundary. A simple visualization of a co11uei: hull is the
682.3 W (680 W)
= space (envelope) t.hat is obtained by wrapping a rubber band around
the vertices or other line intersection points drfining the extent of the
The answer is (C). boundary.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m

Example back tote parallel

opposi the sourceplllte.plate,
The and
l o wer somethe throughvity toof the
emissi the
face planeother.
each radiEach
ating radi
a t. i n g sepmatcd
stnfa ce has byan aemivacuum
ssiviandty 8hiesldtance.
, t.he Equal
contricalbcut.uliaotPsn will be toheatt.htrans­
areas ofis theat 4001<,
two surfaces arc large resi
fer from plate 1 to plate 2. the net
3001<. The view factor, F1 2 , the 400I< smface is 1.0.
aud t. hc other is at
fr1vioostm theneml400I<
y, what. is t.he net heat t.ransfer per unit area Figure 21.2 Radiation S!ueld Bell·.een Parallel Plates

(A) 4 \.V / rn2

surface? radiation shield

(B) W/m2
(C) 8 \\'/1112 2 "3. 1
(D) 10 W/m

Use Eq. 21.11 with 11 1 A2 a11d F1 2 = 1.0.

Q1 2 1 a( T/ - T1�)- a(r: - 71)

A 1 - £1 + .!.1 + £2 _!_ + _.!_ 1
. -
q= =
£1 £2 £ 1 £2 RERADIATION
( x 1 0 - �) ( (400Kr1 - (3001<)4)
s.G7 S
Surfaces that reradiate absorbed thermal radiation arc
1 1 known as refractory materials or 1·efraclories. (Furnace
0.02 + 0.02 - 1 walls
they thatvreradi
recei e atecombusti
from almost. oalln offlames
the thermal
back to cncrg)'
10.02 'vV/m2 (10 'vV/m2 )
= tubes are examples of refractories.)
The answer is (D). Equation 2 1 . 1 3: Reradiating Surface

Equation 21 . 1 2: Net Radiation Heat Transfer,

Parallel Plates

21. 12
two on 21.13withgivanes adjacent
surfaces the rate thiof rheat
d transfer betwcc1
rcradiating surface.1
Descri ption

Figure 21.2 illustrates two parallel plates that arc sepa­ Reracli
batic). a(See
ting Fisurfaces
g. 21.3.) are considered insulated (adia­
shi e l d by a thin inisternal
thiclrness that. shithin
a cld.7shield
The signi
has ficance
no mass ofaud
the Figure 21.3 Reradialing Surface
bei n g a store
low-emi anyssivthermal
i t y shi e energy.
ld i s t. h Thethe signi
at ficance nofg
the shi vlidtyisisreflected
e high. Mostbackoftothetheenergy source.intercepted
The by
radiation that the shield does receive is re-emitted, some
This configmation models thernrnl shickling of cryogenic vessels and
te111perat.urc sensors.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m