1. Liquid nitrogen at 77 I< is stored in au uni11sulated 4. A concrete wall is 20 cm thick and has an overall
1 .0 m diameter spherical tank. The tank is exposed to thernwl resistance of 0.2 m2 ·°C/W. The temperature
ambient. air at 285T< . The thermal resistance of the ta11J< difference between the two waJl surfaces is 5°C. What
material is negligible. The convective heat transfer is most nearly the heat t.ransf'er t,hrough the wall?
coefficient of the lank exlerior is 30 W /m2·K. The initial (A) 1 .5 W/m2
heat transfer from the air to the tank is most nearly
(B) 2.5 W/m2
(A) 4.9 kW
(C) 13 W/m2
(B) 9.8 k\V
(D) 25 W /m2
(C) 1 6 kW
(D) 20 kW 5. 50°C water flows through a 1 .5 m long copper pipe.
The t.hennal conductivity of the copper is 350 W /m·°C.
2. The exterior walls of a bow;e are 3 m high, 0.14 m The internal diameter of the pipe is 20 mm, and the pipe
thick, and 40 Ill in total length. The thermal conduct.iv wall is 5 mrn thick. The temperature outside of t.he pipe
ity of t.he walls is 0.038 W/m·°C. The i nterior of the is 20°C. 'What is most nearly t.he heat transfer through
walls is maintained at 20°C when the exterior (outdoor) the pipe?
wall temperature is 0°C. Neglecting corner effects, mo:;t (A) 140 kW
nearly, what i:; the heat transfer through Lhe walls?
(B) 160 k\V
(A) 0.023 k'v\I
(C) 240 kW
(B) 0.065 kVl
(D) 440 kW
(C) 0.23 k\V
(D) 0.65 kW 6. A parallel flow tubular heat exchanger cools water
from 90°C to 70°C. The coolan t increases in tempera
3. A stainless steel Lube (3 cm inside diameter and 5 cm ture from 0°C to 35°C. The log mean temperature
outside diameter) is covered with 4 cm thick insulation. difference is most nearly
. . 
·
. •. · . . ·. � . (D) 62°C
k; = 0.06 W/m·K
7. A fan moves 25°C air over a 25 W resistive electrical
device that has a uniform surface temperature of
l 00°C. The forced convection heat transfer coefficient
is 50 \\' /m2·°C. l f the cooling fan fails and the device is
  .. ·
.. .
'. � . .
cooled by natural convection (heat transfer coefficient
. . of 10 \V/m2·°C), the resulting surface temperature of
the device will be most. nearly
If the inside wall temperature of the tube is 5001< and (A) 100°c
the outside temperature of the insulation is 50K, what is
most nearly the heat loss per meter of tube lengt.h? (B) 375°C
(A) 120 W/111 (C) 400°C
(B) 140 \V/m (D) 625°C
(C) 160 W /m
(D) 180 \V/m
PPI • w w w . 1> p l 2 p a s s . c o m
DE V2 F r: M E c 11 A N 1 c A L n E v 1 E \'I M A N u I\ L
(D) 0.28
The outer radius of the insulat.ion is
r3 r2
= + /. = 2.0 cm + '1 cm = G.5 cm
The heat transfer through the tube is
Q=
2 rrk L( T;.  T2)
.•
In .1.
7 '1
P P I • \'I w w , p p i 2 p a s s • c o m
o 1 A a N o s T 1 c E x 11 M : 11 E A T T n 11 N s F E n DE V3
The heal t.rnnsfer through l hc i11sulation is 5. The inner radius of t he pipe is 20 1111u/2 10 1nm. =
The outer radius of the pipe is 10
mm + 5 m m = tlllll. 15
Calculate the rate of heat transfer t hrough l.ltc pipe.
Q 2rrk;L( T2  T3)
lu ,.3
=
r2
CJ = 2rrkL( T1  T2)
_
ht !.1
From t.liis, l he temperatme between t he l.ube and insn
Teo
r3 = so•c

Tttn
(70°0  (35°0) (90°C) 0°C)
In
Tm  Tc;
70°C  35°C
ln g o c
Equate the l.wo expressions for the temperature between o  oo c
t.he tube and boundary.
= 58.23°C (58°C)
Tile answer is (C).
Q 2rr. ( T1  T:i)
L _In "2 ln ,.3
_1 ·1 _..!2
ks + k;
Q = hA(T1,  T )
Q = h1 ( Tw,l  T ) = h ( T1n,'l  T )
A 2 

Solve for the surface temperatme of the device after the
= ] 2rr.(500l<
2.5
�...,
,,,,
 50K)


6.5 cm
fan fails.
G�) (T,v,I 
c111
T00 ) + T
( m�.�C)
1
11 n 
1.5 cm + 2.5 cm
m·K 0 . 0G JY_
\ T,,,,2 =
20 V
 w
m·K
= 177.3 W/rn (180 W/m) 50 
= ( 1 00° c  5° C ) + 25°C
2
The answer Is (0). 10
m2 .o c
4. Find the heat transfer per unit. area. = 400°C
Tile answer is (C).
Q = A�T R
q. = AQ = 
�T
R
0.2 w
5°C
m2 .oc
= 25 \V/1112
The answer Is (0).
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
DE V4 r: E M E c ti A H I c I\ L R E v I E w M A I'� u A L
8. The uet heat transfer is 10. Cak:ulate t.he absolulc temperatmes of Lhc sphere
and the smrounclings.
T1 = 750°C + 273° = 10231<
a(TI  TJ) T2 = 20°c + 273° = 2531<
Use the equation for neL energy exchange between two
uotlies when Lhe body is small co111parecl to its
s11no11ndings.
A = 4nr2 = nct2
a(T/  �)
l  cJ + .!_ + l 
.
Q12 = €3 1  Ea + ! + 1  C:2 Solve for the emjssiviLy of the sphere.
+
a( '.Ti  '.G )
c 1 1 c3 c:3 1 c2
012
( ��1) 2
E = ,
.,
l.. + l.. + 1  2
= ,.,...,� aA('.Ti  TJ)
x ( ( 1 0231<) I  (2531<)'1 )
\V
Ill2
x
_l + _!__ + _2_ _ 2
0.5 0.8 0.15
= 1856.9 W/m2 ( 1900 \l\T/1112)
= 0.154 (0.15)
The answer is (C).
Tile answer is (A).
9. The Reynolds number is
m L
HcL = r 00 =
(0.45 �) ( 1 m)
1100 £
fl V
=
20.92 x 106 .!.!.!..._
• 2
s
= 2.15 x 101
Since ReL is less Lhan 105, the flow over the flat plate is
laminar. Use a Nusselt correlation.
k
NuL =  = 0.6640ReL Pr 1
 7iL 112 /:i
(i)
= 86.47
h = Nu1,
= (86.47)
( l m �)
30 x 103
m·I<
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
J. Introductio11 to Condudive Heat. s solids or surl'ace
TransferResista
. . . . .1.1cc. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 191 th t.hermnl
2.3. Thermal
Steady Conduction Through a Plane
1 92 oo bulk tluid
'iVall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
. . . 193
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 . INTRODUCTION TO CONDUCTIVE HEAT
4. Conduction Through a Cylindrirnl \i\Tall . . .
TRANSFER
5. Transient Conduct.ion Using the Lu mp ed
Capacitance i'vlodcl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 95 Conduction is the flow of heat. through solids or stn
6. Fins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l!J7 t.iouary fluids. Thermal conclud1rnce in metallic solids
is d11e to molecular vibrations withiu the metallic crys
Nomenclature talliue lattice a nd movement of free valence electrons
A nrcn m2 through the lat.t.ice. Insulating solids, which have fewer
I3i Iliot number free electrons, conduct heat primarily by the agitation
cp specific heat J/kg·K of adj a cent atoms vibrating about their equilibrium
G heat ge11erat.ion rate \V /m3 posit.ions. This vibrational mode of heat transfer is
11 coefficient of heat transfer \V/m2.l( several orders of magnitude less efficient than conduc
h enthalpy Id/kg tion by free electrons.
k thermal conductivity W/m·K In stationary liquids, heat is transmitted by lon gitudi n al
L th.iclwess Ill
vibrations, similar to sound waves. The ne t. transport.
111 factor for fins equal to .jliP/!.:Ar 1 /m //ieory explains heat transfer through gases. Hot. mole
Ill mass kg cules move faster t.han cold molecules. Hot molecules
p per imeter 111
travel to cold areas with greater frequency than cold
Q
q heat transfer per unit flrea \V /lll2 molecules travel to hot areas.
Q
hefll energy J
rnte of heat. t ra nsfer Determining heat trallSfer by comluction can be an easy
task if sufficient simplifying ass11mptions are made. Maj or
\V
,. radius 111
R thermal resista nee K/\V discrepancies can arise, however, when the simplifying
thick ness m assumptions me not met. The following assumptions are
l t.i mc s
commonly made in simple problems.
Symbols
• The heat path has a constant area.
{J decay constant (reciprocal of l /s o The heat path consists of a homogen eous material
time constant) with constant conductivity.
p mass density kg/m3 o The heat patb consists of an isotropic material. 1
T time cm1stant s
• There is n o internal heat generation.
Subscripts
0 initial Many real heat transfer cases violate one or more of these
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
192 F E M !;; C H A N I C /\ L R E V I E W M A N U A L
Q = kA dT
\\That is most nearly the thermal resistance of a 20 cm
19. I thick concrete wall with an exposed face area of 1 m2?
tf.c
(A) O. l'J °C/\V
Val ues (B) 0.28 °C/\V
Table 19. 1 Typical Thermal Conductivities al 0°C (C) 1 . 4 °C/W
k (D) 7.0 °C/W
substance w/111l(
Solution
silver •119
a l urn i 11 u111
copper 388 Use Eq. 19.2.
brass
(i.i1 �)
R = _!:_ =
202
97 0.2 m
steel (1% C) 47
lPad 35 kA ( 1 1112)
m·°C
ice 2.2 .
glass l.1 = 0.1113 ° C/\V (O.ltl °C/\V)
concrete 0.87
waler 0.55 The answer is (A).
fiberglass 0.052
cork O.Oi.13
air 0.02i.J
Equation 1 9.3 and Eq. 1 9.4: Resistance in
Desc ription Series
The steadystate heat transfer by conduction through a
Oat slab is speci fied by Fourier's law, Eq. HU. Fourier's . f':. T
lmv is writ.ten with a minus sign to indicate that the Q = R,., 
,,.,
19.3
Description kA ka
T2
For a plane wall, the t, hermal resistance depends on the
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N D U C T I O N 193
N)
(C) 0.000GtJ K/W
" '.
(D) 0.0010 K/W
The t.hermal resistance is
R=
(3500 �
m2 .oc) (1 m2)
Solution 1 = <W(I) ( 1000 1

Q = 
The answer is (B).
19.7
L
·  J.:
A( T2  T i )
19.6
Description
Heat conducted
surface i s usual l y througherredsolids
transf to and(walls)
removed to byanaexposed
movi ng
flui d .
exchanger For exampl
wall e , heat
is removed transmitted tlu·
by a movitheng flcool o ugh a heat
ant.molUnless Description
the flui
islmomedi adteliys extremel
adjacent y
to turbulent,
the exposed surface u i dmove emuch
cules Ou itstoowu, heattemperature.
always flows The fromheat
a higher tempera
wery adjacent
than moltoecultheeswalfarther away. !volonary
leculealstogether.
immedi ture a l o wer transfer from
L and homoge
atel l may be stati hithrough
ghtemperature point 1 to lowertemperature point 2
The
face fluid molecula elasyerthatknownaffected
constitute are
Solution
Equation 1 9.9: Fourier's Law, Cylindrical
Use Eq. 19.7. Wall
)
kA ( T2  Ti)
Q= L
cal
_
(2 x 10
__
,
Clll·S·°C
19.9
Description
Equation 1 9.8: Temperature at Intermediate The overall radial heat t.ransfer tlu·ough an uninsulated
Locations hollow cylinder without films is given by Eq. 19.9. This
equation disregards heat transfer from t.he ends and
i:tssumes that the length is sufficiently large so t.hat the
19.8 heat transfer is radial at all locations.
Example
4Thc NCEES FE Reference i incon
Hm11/book (NCEES Handbook) s
sistent. in its inclusion of the minus sign. After Eq. 19.7, the NCEES
An 8 111 long pipe of 15 cm outside diameter is covered
lfondbook abandons the convent ion for all subsequenL heat t nrnsfcr with 2 cm of insttlation with a thermal conductivity of
equations. 0.09 W /m·T<.
PPI • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N D U C T I O N 195
heat lossandfrom
750K 4001<,therespecti
pipe? vely, what is most nearly Lhc
(A) ,1.5 kW
(B) 6.7 k\.V
(C) 8.5 kW
(D) 10 kW
Solution
Q = 2rrkL( T1  T2)
Use Eq. 19.9.
(;:�)
(0.09  w ) (8 m)(750K  11QOK)
ln Flg111e 19.5 Insulation Radius
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
196 F E M E C Ii A N I C A L R E V I E VI M A N U A L
 fl
Equation 1 9.1 1 : Biot Number Equation 1 9.1 6: Total Heat Transferred
.
81 = ;:
1 <<
/i \I
1 19. 1 1 Q l<l!HI
\I rp ( '/'I.  1') 19.16
"' '
Description
Variation
hL" Although the rate of heat transfer varies with time in a
Bi =
k t.ransient condition, the energy change can be deter
Descr ipt ion
minecl from t.he starting and ending condilions, indepen
dent of duration (time). Equation calculates the 19.16
The Biol. n u m ber, Bi (also known as l.he Biol. modulus total energy (heat) change as a function of the initial
and t.ra nsient modulus), is a comparison of the internal temperature, T;, and final temperature, T. Since T;  T
thermal resistance to the external resistance of a body. If is a temperat.me difference, temperature can be
the Biot. number is small (less than the internal 0.1), expressed in any consistent scale. Absolute tempera
thermal resistance will be small, and t.lte body tempera tures arc not rcquired. s
ture will be essent.ially uniform throughout, during heat
ing or cooling. The length used to caleulate the Diot
Example
number is the characteristic length, Le, not. an external
body di meusion. A hot solid irnn sphere (15
cm diameter) is placed in a
bath of cold water. The initial temperature of the sphere
is 433IC.The sphere is cooled to 303I<. The density of
iron is 7.874 g/cm:J, and the specific heat capacity of
(A) mo kJ
sphere to the water is most nearly
/u1�
= 19. 14 Solution
p V c1,
/3 = }__
The volume of the iron sphere is
19. 15
(152cm) 3
T
\I = :lrrr3
�
Description
= Grr)
Equation 19.12 gives the i11stantaneous beat transfer at
a particular moment when the body temperature is
known. Equation 19.13
gives the temperatme of the
= 1767.1 cm3
body as a function of time. The ti1ne variable, t., starts
at zero. Equation 19.15
shows that the fact.or ,6, known Use Eq. 19.lG
to calculate t.he total heat transferred
as the decay co11stant or P:1;po11e11tial frequency, is the from the iron sphere to the water.
reciprocal of the time constant, r.7 As with many other
engineering subjects, the time co11sl.a11t. is the length of = p V c,, ( Ti  T)
time required to vary (rela") the property (initial tem
Qtotal
perature differential in this case) by approximately (7.874 c�13) (1767.l cm3) (0.45 k��I<)
63.2%. Stated another way, the instantaneous tempera
ture gradient will be approximately 36.8%
of the iuitial
(433K  303K)
x
temperature gradient after a dmation equal to the time
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o in
C O N O U C '(I O N 197
6. FINS
Fins ( e:rlcnded s111facc8) arc features t.hal receive
Flqwc 19.7 RPr/angular /111
and
move tl.Jcnnal energ,y by condnction along their lengths
and widt.hs prior to (in most cases) couvecLive rind
rad i at i ve heat rc111oval. They include simple fins, fin Ac = wt
tubes, fiune<l channels, heat pipes. Some simple
and
feat.mes (e.g., long wires) ca11 be considered and evrilu
ated as fins even though that is not their intended
function.
L
Q=
= Vu
 19. 1 7
P = 2 111 + 2/
L
(rpc·tn11g11lnrJ 19.20
[pin]
19.21
P = rrD 19.22
rrD"l
A, =  !Pi tt) 19.23
;J Exampl e
The base of a 1.2 cm x 1 .2 cm x 25 cm long rectangular
Description rod is maintained at <1231< by au electrical heat.ing ele
An external fin is at.lached at its base to a source of ment. The conductivity of t.he rod is 1 40 W/m·K. The
thermal energy at temperatme T6. The tempera ture a111bient. air t em perat. ure is 3001<, and the average film
across the face of t.he fin at. any point along its length coefficient is 9A '"/m2 · K. The fin has an adiabatic tip.
is assumed to be constant. The farfield temperature of What is most. the energy input required to main
nearly
the surrounding e vi ron m nt is T00 For rectangular
n e •
tain the base t em erat ure?
p
fins (also known as straight fins or longil11di11al fins), (A) 0.10 V·l
the crosssectional area, Ac, is uniform and is given by
. (C) 9.7 \V
Eq. 19.2 1 .9 (See Fig. 19.7.) For a pin fin (i.e., a fin with a (B) 1.7 w
circular cross section), crosssectional area, Ac, is given
( D) 100 w
by Eq. 1 9.23. (See Fig. 19.8.)
Most equations for heat transfer from a disregard the fin
small amount of heat transfer from the exposed end. For Solution
that reason, the fin is assumed to possess an adiabatic
, as
t.ip or 'insulated tip. J\. simple approximation to the exact From Eq. 19.20, the perimeter length is
solutio11 of a nonadiabatic t.ip can be obtained by replac
ing the actual fin length with a corrected leng th ( 2 ) ( 1 .2 cm) + (2)( 1 .2 cm) _ ,
cm  0.018 m
100 
111
,
· U( I ) The NCEES l/andbook refers to the substrate from which the fin
extends as I he "ha.�c," rlC'Signated by subscript b. ln common usage, the
, = wt
area or te111pernture of the "base of the fin" would refer to the fin. [1 1 From Eq. lD.21, the crosssectional area of t.he fin is
)
NCEES us!lge "base" refois to the substrate, not the fin at its att<1ch
A
lllrnt point. (2) The NG'EES lla11dbook uses the subscript c to desig (l.2 cm) (l.2 cm)
nate the kind of Men (i.e., crosssectional area, as differentiated from = = 0 . OOO I <14 m2
surface area) rnthcr lluw the object (e.g., f for fin or b for the fin base). cm 2
IU Thc NCEES Hmulbook L� 11ol ronsL�tenl in its use of subscripts in (100 Ill
Eq. I !J. l!J. While c in ,\,. st n nds for "no'5,'' c in Le stands for "corrected."
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
198 F E M E C H A N I CA L R E V I E W M A N U A l.
Use Eq. 1 9. 18. Fro1t1 Eq. 19. 1 7, tlte total heat loss is
) (0.048 111)
(9.4 _J_ � x ( 140 11��J {0.000 l 44 rn2 )
(9. \V
4 m2·I<
·V ) (0.048 111)
m2 . l(
=
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
a
DI
mc
1. Introduction Lo Conv ec t.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 He Reynolds number
2. NusseJt Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 T t empera t K
3. Prandt.l Number . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 [/ overall coefficient. of heal t ra11sfer W/n}·K
4. Rayleigh Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 v velocity m/s
5. Reynolds Nuwber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . 204 :r distance Ill
20 l l
. . . . . . . .
D
Ill
er
specific heat. J/kg·K Co cold, out
C constant diameter
J
C heat capacit.y rate W/K e excess
D cl i amet er1 m fluid, fowling, or friction
F correct.ion factor for mean temperature II hot or hydraulic
difference Ili hot, in
g gravitational acceleration, 9.81 2 m/s2 Ho hot, out
Gr Grnshof numher inside
Ii film coefficient. \V/rn2·K I liquid
1119 latent. heat of vapori7.at.ion J/kg L length
k thennal conductivity W/m·K Im log mean
L characteristic lengt.h Ill 111 mean
111 exponent o outside
n exponent ,. radiation
NTU number of t.ransfcr units s smface
Nu Nnsselt number sat saturated
Pr Prandt.1 number u vapor
Q
q heat t.ransfer per unit area W/m2 w wall or wire
heat transfer rate3 w oo at in.finit.y or free stream
R t.hermal resistance lll2·I</\V
Ra Rayleigh number 1 . I NTRODUCTION TO CONVECTION
1 Convection is the removal of heat from a smface by a
NCEES FE Refel'e.1icc Handbook (NCEES Handbook) uses the
Tlic
symbol D to desig11atc both inside (sec Eq. 20.9) and outside (see fluid. Forced con vection is the removal of h ea t from a
Eq. 20.2, Eq. 20.6, and Eq. 20.8) diameters. The context must be surface by a Ouicl resulting from external sur face forces,
P P I • v1 w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
202 F E M E: C H I\ N I C A L RE V I E VI M A tJ U A l.
(D)
(C) 7.0 k W
Q = i]A = h A ( T,  Toe,)
8.2 kW
Values
Solvtion
h {W/m'.! ·K)
Table 20. 1 Typical Film Coefficients for Natural Convection' Using Eq. 20. 1 , the rate of heat. transfer is
(350 �) ( 1
diauge in phase
110
(J = h A( T,,,  T00)
st.ill air 5.025.0
m2 ) ( 373J<  3531<)
e �
rondensing
st a m
horizontal surface !)G0024 400 1000
kW
vert.ical •100011 300
organic solve11ts 8502800 = 7.0 kW
ammoma 28005700
evaporating The answer is (CJ.
water 45001 1 300
organic solvenls 5501700
ammonia l l 002300
2. NUSS ELT NUMBER
 · · · · · ··· · · ······· · · . ' . . . ..
It, is sel
k
heat. transfer in both heating and cooling configurations.
The film coefficient (heat. /.rans[er coefficient),
Va l ues
dom lmow11 to great accuracy." (See Table 20 . 1 . ) The
average film coefficient, li, is used where t. hcrc arc varia Table 20.2 Values of C and n for a l(nown Reyno/els Num/Jer. Re0
6
tions over tlte heat. transfer surface. Rc0 G n
In Eq. 20. 1 , T00 is the bulk temperature of the environ 14 0.989 0.330
ment (air, gas, surrounding liquid, etc.), and Tw is the 440 0.91 1 0.385
Lnstant.aneous temperature of the cooling body's 4 04 000 0.683 0.466
surface. 7 400040,00U 0.193 0.618
•l0,000250,000 0.0266 0.805
5An enor of up to 25% c11n he expected.
m
<'Though 7i has traditionally been used in books on the suhjcrt or heal
tram;fer and is llSed in the NCEES Handbook, osl 111odcrn books use Description
the symbol h, The fact that the film coefficient. is au i11accuralc,
average value is implkit. The Nusse//. number, Nu, is defined by Eq. 20.2. The
7Thc NCEES Handbook uses the subscripl 111 lo tlC'sig11atc "wall." subscript D indicates that the correlation is based on the
However, Newton's law of cooling does not prirnarily apply to heat outside diameter of the cylincter, not some other charac
transfer through a wall or even heat trnnsrer frmn a surface Newton's .
Leristic dimension. The Nusselt n u mber is sometimes
law of cooling applies to 11 cooling (body) object. Tiu' "wall" dC"Sig11a·
written with a subscript (e.g., Nu,. or N u1) to in<licatc
tion might also imply thal the lcmpern(ure is consta11t. Howe\'Cr, the
body temperature changl's with lime. Such is lhe entire purpose of t.hat t.he fluid propertie::; are evaluatect at the film tem
Newton's law or cooli11g: lo spceify lhc ht•al. transfer and temperature peratme. Since the flow velocity, heat transfer rate, film
as functions of time. IL is com111011 lo designate the body te1upernture
resistance, and other fluid properties are not the same
at a particnlar 1110111cnt i11 li111c simply with the variable T. If the everywhere around the periphery of the cylinder, the
temperature of lhc body is not uuiform tluoughout, the symbol T, can
he used lo designate a surface temperature. overbars are used to designate average values.
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N V E C T I O N 203
/nd(.kg/s·1111 1 .
For a cylinder (for example, a t11l1f' or wire) in crossnow, Examp le
Eq. 20.2 ca11 be used wit.It any lluid t o calculate the film For air at a temperature of 42°C, the her1l caprtcity is
coeffic:ient.8 The ll11icl properl.ics arc evaluated at the 990 J/kg·I< I.he viscosity is 1.9 x J O_ r, a1 d t hc
fihn tc111pcral me. The entire surface area of I.he t. 1 1 he is thermal cond11ct. ivity is 0.028 \V Whal is most
used when calculal.ing l he heal. t.rausfor. nearly t.ltc Prandt.I number?
Equal.ion 20.2 can be simplified for air since Pr 1 13 � 1 .00. (A) 0.59
This modified equal.ion is known as the HilbertAlorga11 (B)0.67
C<Jl1Clf.io11.
(C) 0.75
Values of G' and arc fouud from Table 20.2 when He o
(D) 0.8�{
/1
is lrnuwu.
Example Solution
Water at. 25°C nows pcrpc11dic11l<u·ly over a long, hot. Using Eq. 20.3, the Prandll 11u111ber is
pipe of 2.9 cm outside diameter. The water has au aver Cp/ l
�
nurnuer is 111ost nemly
(A) 230
(B) 290 0.028 ud(
(C) 350 = 0.67
(D) 10 ti
T/1e answer is (8).
Solulion
The Nussclt. number can be calculated wit.h Eq. 20.2. 4. RAYLEIGH NUMBER
 TiD
The dimensionless Rayleigh number is the prod11d of the
Nuo = Grashof and Prancltl n11mbers.!J is used as an indicator
It
k of the primary heat transfer mechanism. ·when the Ray
!lfl( T,  T .) £:1 Pr
JI
Pr = µ
c
20.3
k
Ra, •
=
µ2 20.4
!J T, + T
Description
The climensionlcss Pram/// m1mber, Pr, is defined by
= 2 20.5
fl11id1 not for the surface material. the Crnshof nnmhl'r, Gr. (2) The Crw;hof number relates the buoy
nncy nl\(l \•iscosity or the nuic.l, while the Prandtl number relates the
sThere are more sophist irnlrd co1 rdntions. rnomrnt 11111 diffusivity and thermal diffusivity.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 1> a s s . c o m
204 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
Variation Solution
.11f3( Ts  T )D" p
Ra = 
Description
x (3501<  3001<)(0.21 m ) 3
(
Equation 20.4 gives t.hc Hayleigh nurnbcr for a verLical
flat plate in a stationary fluid IO with charact.eristic
le11glh, L. 1 1 The coefficient of volumetric e:cpansion, (J,
for ideal gases is the reciprocal of t.he absolute film
=
1.6 x w5
n�1)
2 (0. 72)
( 3 .6 x 107)
temperat.ure. Gravitational acceleration, g, and viscosi
ty, IJ, 11 1ust have t.he sarne uuit. of t.irnc in order Lo lllake
Eq. 20.4 dimensionless. = 3.577 x 1 07
For an ideal gas, the coefficient. of thermal e.ipimsion, /3 Tile answer is (D).
(also known as the volumetric coefficient. of expansion),
can be found using Eq. 20.5. The temperatures used in
Eq. 20.5 must be absolute temperatures. 1 1 5. REYNOLDS NUMBER
The Reyuol<ls munber is m;ed to determine \Vhicb of the
three flow regimes is applicable. Lamiuar flow over
Equation 20.6: Rayleigh Number, Cylinder, s1noot.h flat plates occurs for Reynolds numbers up to
Natural Convection approximately 2 x 105; turbulent flow exists for Reynolds
20.6
numbers gre�ter than approximately 3 x l OG. i:i Transi
20.7
the Prandtl munber is 0.72. What is most nearly the Equation 20. 7: Reynolds Number, Flat Plate
Rayleigh number?
(A) 2.2 x 10 7
(B) 2.9 x 107
(C) 3.3 x 107 Description
(D) 3.6 x 107 Use Eq. 20. 7 to find the Reynolds number for a flat plate
of length L in parallel flow. 1 5
1 0The NCEES Hcrndbook is not consistent in its designation for "sur
face." While the subscript w is used in Eq. 20.l for the surface of an t:JTnrbnlcnt now <.:[Ill hq�in at ftcynolds numbers less than 3 x 10" if
object (wall), Eq. 20.4 and Eq. 20.5 use subscript s. the plate is rough. This discm;sion assumes the plate is smoot.h.
1 1 The length of the side of a square, t.he mean length of a rectangle,
'�Rising air m·vNthclrs.s has a velocity. The critical Heynolds number
and !JO% of the diameter of a circle have historically been used as the for ln111i11ar now of air is approximately 550 (corresponding to a
chal'uc/e l'islic length. However, the ratio of surface area Lo perimeter Gnishof 11u111bcr of LOu).
gives better agreement with experimental data. 15Thc NCEES Handbook is inconsistent in the variable used for veloc
12The NCEES Handbook is not explicit about the temperature at ity
. in the definition of Reynolds number. Tire NCEES Handbook uses
which (J, v, and Pr are evaluated. Since (J is the reciprocal of the film lowC'rcase ro111an v in the Fluid i\leclmnics section, uppercase roman V
temperature, Eq. 20.5 implicitly defines the film lempEralure as the in the i\loody diagram, lowercase italic v in the Environmental Engi
average of the surface and bulk Oui<l tempcrat ures. This also implicitly nct'ri11g section, and uppercase italic I' in the Chemical Engine€ring
identifies the temperature at which other properties arc evaluated. section. Inconsistent with any of those, the NCEES 1Ja11dbook's ver
Sini.:e the NCEES Jlandbook docs not provide sufficient tables, it is ison of Eq. 20.7, adopts the (common heal transfer) convention of
logical to conclnrle that the film ternperaturc is irrelcva11t, because on using u..,., as yet another velocity variable for the Reynolds number.
the exam, all necessary Onid data will be provided withi11 a problem. This book uses lowercase roman v for velocity.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C0NVECTI 0N 205
Example So/ulion
= 56 471 (56000)
(B) 23 000
( C) ,17 000
{D) 85 000
Tire answer is (CJ.
Solution
The Reynolds number can be calculated using Eq. 20.7. Equation 20.9� Reynolds Number, Internal
Flow
R 
pv . l R 
fl\·, , D
eo = 20.9
Description
g Equationfor20.9internal
number is t.he traditional
flo w wit, h clefmi
in a ci tculionaofr channel.
r the Reynolds
D is
1 .8 105 k x
m·s tfluid
.he invelternal dia111
ovelcity.ociThe c ter . v
average1 1 i s defined al:! the average (mean)
velisofully
city itmbnl
s essent,entia..l Ify equal t.o
85 000
=
t.ishefullbuly kdevel ty i f the flow the flow
the maximumopedvelolaminar, city. the average velocity is 50% of
The answer Is (DJ. Example
Water
internal atdiameter
25°C flows at 3.6 111/s in a pipe with an
of 0.10 m. The water has a density
of10r.1 .0kg/s·
x LO:J kg/m:i and an absolute viscosity of 850 x
ReD = fJ\' D
20.8
(A) 35 000
/I (I3) 87 000
(C) 260000
Description (D) 420 000
Use Eq. 20.8 to calculate
cylinder of outside diametertheD inReynol ds number for a
crossflow. Solution
Example
The Reynol
latc<l ds number
using Eq. 20.9.
for internal flow can be calc11
\Vater awith
across long,a hot bulkpipetemperature
of 4 111 diofameter
27°C flows over and
at a velocity of PVm D
Reo =
�) (3.6 �)(0.10 m)
/l
c
1.2 m/s. At 27°C, the density of water is 1.0 x 103 kg/ m3,
a11cl thenearlabsol
most y t.hueteReynol
viscosidtys 11umber?
is 850 x 10G kg/s·m . What is ( i . o x 103
( �)
Variation
N u = hL = CRa"
lQf> ) o.25
I.:
0.028
m·K
= (0.59) ( 1 .4
x
Values l .7 Ill
(D" ) Ra.v
Description
Cylinder
For a vertical !lat plate or a large diameter vert ic l a
cyl in de r in stationary fluid, the film coefficient can be
a  II
16Rotating spheres nnrl cyliru.lcn; ai1d \"ertical plane walls are specinl 1031 02 1.02 U.148
categories of conv<'ct ivc heat transfer where the Ouid bas a com11011C'11t 10210� 0.850 0.188
of relntiv<' 11rntio11 parnllrl to the heat. t ransfer surface. rn1101 0.480 U.21.iO
17Naturnl COlll'CCtion requires approximately 2 to 10 times more sur
face nrcn thn11 docs forced convection. 107101 2 0.121.i 0.333
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
CONVECTION 207
1
Description low.2 Proper lllli ts 1nusl. be observPd in order to keep
t.hc argument. of exponentiat.ion u11iLless.
For a horizo1 1tal cylinder in a stationary fluid, the film
coefficic11L can he found using Eq. 20. l
l . Values of C and
Using N usselt. correlat.ions for condensing vapor depends
n arc found from Table 20.4. on determining several propc1'l.iC'S of t.he resulting con
densate. Since the properties of the condensing vapor
vary with temperat.me, t.hese liquid prnperLies are eval
8. CONDENSING VAPOR uated (by conveutiou) at. lhe a verage of the saturation
temperat.mes. 22
fonns
and smface This implicitly defines Lhc
"'lw11 a vapor condenses 011 a cooler smface, the con
film lempernl:urc.
densate a thin layer on t.l1e surface. This layer
PF
horizontal tube with a diameter bet.ween cm and
7.6 cm. Equation 20.12 is in fair agreement with experi 21
( 1)
assuming the \'apor density, p,., is zero. The NCEES l/a11dbook does
not invoke this simplification for the mnt e1 ial presented on boiling and
evaporation. ( 2) The more pr('(:iSC value or the constant 0.729 is often
repo1 t ed ns 0.72G, which was the vahte originally derived from a
numerical analysis. In practice, highly precise estimates are illusionary,
ns actual values are found within the range between the two \'alues.
27he NCEES Ha11dbook gi ws the gniclnnce, "E,•aluate all liquid prop
8A film coefficient or 11.5 kW/ni2·I< is rout i nely assumed as tl fir:;t
1
erties at the average temperature. . ." Howe,·er, this guidance does not
estimate for condensation or steam on the outsiclc of tubes. apply to the latent beat, 1119, which is n propct ty or the vapor. The
1 9Filmwise condensation cnn always be e:'l.l>l'Cted with dean steel and
Intent heat should be evaluated at the �nturat ion temperature and
aluminum tubes under ordinary conditions, as wdl as wi t h heavily pressure.
contaminated tubes. Dropwise condensition generally requires smoot h 23(1 ) Equation 20.13 w as derived by Nussclt with a coeCficient of0.943.
surfaces with minute 11111ounts of contamination, rather thnn rough Howe,·er, ripples iu t he laminar fi1111 appear at condensation Heynolds
surfoccs. Since dropwise co11dcn�at ion can be expected onl.1· under numbers ns low as 30 or 40. Experiinentnl data show actual film
rnrefully controlled conditio1t�, the assLLmption or fihnwise conrlensa c0t'rficie11ts are approximately 203 high('r t h;rn the t.heoreticaJ. A
tion is generally warranted. coefficient or 1.13 in place or O.!M3 rcnccts this increase. Het aining
20Film coerflcicnts for dropwise condensation can be 4 to 8 Limes lnrgcr the O.!J43 value, however, yields a conservative vnlue. (2 ) Equa
than for fihnwisc condensation because the fil111 is thinner and the l ion 20.13 can be used t o find the co11de11sing filt11 coefficient on a
t hermal resistance is R111nllcr. VC'rtical tube when the total condensation is l('s:; t hn 11 460 kg/h.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
208 FE MECMA N ICA L RE VI EW MA N U AL
= k = 0 .G6 0R CL 2 r
Equation 20. 16: Laminar Flow Inside Tubes
,
N UL hL 4 1l p t /:i 20. 14
with Uniform Heat Flux
hD
Variation
Description
Nu0 =
Equation 20.14 and Eq. 20.15 give the Nusselt number J.:
for a flat plate in parallel flow. The Reynolds number is
used to determine whether the flow regime is laminar
Description
(Rei < 100 000) or turbulent (ReL > 100 000). The Rey Equation 20. 1 6 correlates the Nusselt number in the
nolds numuer is calculated using Lhe length of the plate case of laminar flow inside a circular channel with uni
as the characteristic length. form heat flm< along the length of flow. Laminar flow is
appropriate when Re0 < 2300. Equation 20.16 provides
24(1) Newton's law of convection is the same for natural mul forced an effective means of determi11ing the average film coef
co1wcction. Only the 1ncthods used to cvnluate t he film coefficient are ficient for this situation. Since the heat flux passing
through the tube wall into the fluid is consta11t along
different. (2) Tl;c rC'Sults of this chapter do not gcucrally apply to non
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C 0 N V E C T I 0 N 209
(RT) (�'.)
la111i11ar.
3.66 Use Eq. 20. 1 8 to
Nuo =
[c·olt>11 sta11l surfare] 20. 1 7 calculate the Nusselt number.
� 186
1 1 wrntnre
1/3
k ( )1/3 ( )
Variation
Nuo ' '·
Nu0 =
Ti o
850 �
kg 0. 1 1
Descri ption (2100) (0. 7 1 )
= ( 1 .86)
Equation 20. 1 7 correlates the Nusselt. number i n the 2. 1 m kg
860
case of laminar flow inside a circular channel with con o.ao m s ·m
) 0.14
Straight Tubes
(
Equation 20. 1 8: Laminar Flow Inside Tubes
with Constant Wall Temperature
0.023Reii;Pr 1 /:�
11 0
N110 =
/l.,
20. 19
Description
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
2010 F E M E C II A N I C A L n E V I E 'II M A N U A L
\VltaL is most nearly the Nusselt number? Prm1dtl number is 0.04. Wlrnl is most. nearly the N nssclt
nu m bcr?
(A) 53
(A) 2.5
( 13) G2
(B) Ci.G
(C) 320
(C) 8. 1
(D) 1500
( D) !l.7
Solution
Solut1on
Since Lite Reynolds number is great.er t.han 10 000, a11d
Lhc PrandLl uumber is greater than 0.7, Eq. 20.l!J may For liqnid 111etal llow with co11sta11t. s11rfacc tempera
be used. The Nusselt nm11ber is ture, Lite Nnsscll u11mber can be calculated using
20.20.
( .)
Eq.
=
=
�
S· l 1 = 8.06 (8. 1 )
850
S·Jll The answer is (C).
= 62
[<·orn.tant :rnrf>icc]
1 e111perntur<'
Description
20.2 1
Dimensional analysis shows t.hat a clwrnctcristic le119th is
required in Lhc N 11ssell number, but i t cloes not ident.ify
Description the length to be used . It has been COll l lllOn pracLicc to
correlate empirieal pressme drop and heaL transfer data
\�'hen the :mrfacc (wall) temperature is constanL, with t.hc hydraulic diamele1", D1,, of 11oncircular (e.g.,
Eq. 20.20 can be used lo calculate the average fil m rcctimgitlar, square, elliptical, polygonal) ducts.
coefficient for liquid metals (for example, mercmy,
sod ium, and leadbismuth alloys) experiencing fully dcvel Though a n approximat.iou, empirical data supports
28 using the hydraulic diameter iu mosl cases. Notable
opecl tnrbulent now inside Lubcs. Fluid propertie:; arc
evaluated at, the mean bulk temperature. exceptions are flow through clucts with narrow angles
(for example, an equilateral triangle with a narrow ver
\Vith a constant heat flux, Eq. 20.21 can be used lo tex angle) and llow parnllel to banks of tubes.
calculate the average film coefficient for liquid lllctals
with fully developed turbulent flow inside tubes.
DH = D,.  D, 20.23
Examplo
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N V E c ·r 1 0 N 20 1 1
13. FLOW OVER SPHERES roughness of the heated snrface. Iloiling behavior is also
free
Equation 20.24: Nussell Number, Flow Over convection nucleate transition film
[1<R"n<70000: l
Spheres
11 1
T
101 ������
2 . 0 + 0 . G un
TiD l i
J 11n

N = = n cv/2pr /:i
JOO q;,,ax
�
1 06 1 �t
� +
....
__,...
..., �
. �f
� ��� 1
.... ..
20.24
�
N"
Description E
105 r��t����i1,1�r��...�,
The Nusselt correlation for Oui<l Oow over a sphere is � q;nin
given by Eq. 20.211. Fluirl properties should be evaluated
at the film temperature.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
2012 FE M E C H AN ICA L R EV I EW M AN UAL
begi
solantedlo(ONB)
iboiliny form. Thia sstale
bubbles, regimknown
e endsaswith l.h e the formaLio11 of
onset. of n ucleate
Values
e·
!water dimension of
heated
sion. The surface
riHing andvaporriseprogresses
essentiallyfroverti m i colallaytedin bubbl
s �mcceses geometry c, , heater, L rnngc• uf L"
tovertistreams (j ets or slugs ) of bubbles. The bubbles rise la rg 0.l <I!) width or L+ 27
hor izon t al
>
a
c al l y and follow todicombine
rect pathsanduntithel lithequidbubbl ess diameter
nat heater
become la rge e11ough begi n sm ll 18.9/(, width or !J [/' 20
dia11u.'l('r
< <
to move ( "roll") and disrupt direct vertical movement. z t
hori on al
The end of nucleate boiling marks the point where heat. n,1t hC'al('r
tra11 s fer ( i. e ., heat nux ) is maximum. This rlefines the large 0.12 radius L* > 1.2
crit.ical heal. flu:J:, commonly abbreviated as CHF. horizontal
cylinder
Ju
nelmnsition
bim.ittently
withiniutcrrupls liquid,t.dihand
theboiling, e vapor
r ect the
vaporlbubbl
i q ui d emovement
s begin to icom
bubbl e 1Jter.
movement.
small
horizontal
cylinder
0.12£*  u.2.; radius U.15 < f,* < l . 2
The boimlinboiling.
g regimThe e oscibegil atesnninbetween nucleate boilingli11gis large sphere 0.11 radius L� > <1.26
small sphere 0.227 £'• U.� U.15 < L* •1.26
regimflen::isforknown
and fil g of transi t i o n boi radius <
1 film
known
point. as t.end he depart:ure from nucleate boiling (DNB)
a
quucl,.al('
C</ /lf!ip r·1"
20.26 small, it can be omitted from first approximations.p,,, is
are usuall y used. Si n ce the vapor densi t y,
[ ]
20.27 Equation 20.27 calculates the critical ( maximum, peak,
I/�
etc. ) heat flux ( CHF) corresponding to the encl of uucle
(P1 + Pv)
. ag(p,  Pu ) timaxi to the ) of vaporization, h1r, . When
2
20.28
m um heat flux from a smface is desired, liquid
.IJk� p .. (p,  p.,)
(such as water) with large heats of vaporization should
I/� betheused. Cc,. is an empirical constant that depe11ds on
, { } 20.29
ical pressure.
C n�u =
0.62 for horizoutal cylinders :l2
The use of doubleprimed q q " ) to dC'Signatc heat nm. s
(i.e., i
colloquial in t.he subject of boiljng heat
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
CONVECTI O N 2013
20.31
Equation 20.31 : Heat Transfer
. 1x C Ilf!I [agp,, ( Pt
applicat3 ion,Ileattwofrom
1 5. HEAT EXCHANGERS ;1llel nor purely counterflow. Thus, these exchangers arc smnrlimrs
designated ns pumllP/ co1111/erflow uc/1119 11 ers.
Iua typical
a heat exchangcr. nuidsthenowhotthrough
ll11id orpasses
over 39
fhc designation ruc11ffe11I s
current.
i not un abbre\'iation for ca1111ltr
=
and 8pheres, but not for flat horizontal plates, a co111111011 co11fl�urnt io11 tions: the specific lteal /ond, \\'hich is the design heat lrnnsfrr; the local
(e.g., heating a pun on the stove). (2) Equation 20.29 rnn also hC' nst•d released by the hot lluid; m11! the ht•at absorbed by the cold nuid. All
for vertical flat plates by using the value of CnL.. 0.62. th.ree would be the S<'l lllC if operation was adiabatic, bnl elm; to prac
� 1'
fhese fluids do 11ot have to be liquids. A i1·cou/1�tl PJl'hu119crn rC'dure tical losses, they arP 1101. If they differ by more thnn 10%, th<' cause of
water consumption in trndit ionnl cooling applirntio11s. the diS1.'rc111111e;y should be e\'aluated.
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
20� 1 4 F E M E C H A N I C A L n E V I E W M /\ N U /\ l
eas i ly applied lo probl ems when both outlet tempera A pipe has a thermal conductivity of 0.25 W/m· [( and a
lures are known, such as when calculaling t.hc required le11gt.h of 10 m. The inside diameter of the pipe is 1.2 c m,
= 0.3770 m2
Ill
Equation 20.32: Overall Heat Transfer
Coefficient
In
l
__ = __1 + R11 + (�) + R10 + 1 20.32
Calculate the ou tsid e surface area of t.hc pipe.
P P I • w w w . 1> p l 2 p a s s . c o m
C O N V E C T I O N 20 1 5
 1 +  Rfi + '
D..;...:_
D
i _
o ln () I
t'lT,i  L\ To
h;ll, A, 2rckL L\ Tiw = L\
UA =
ln T,i
L\ Tu
I
( 1 50 
m2 · K )
 (0.3770 m2)
,,,
Equation 20.33: Logarithmic Temperature
Difference, Counterflow
(1 000�i.) �
2 (
+
, T"" _ ( Ttto  Tc; )  ( Tm  Teo )
' )
•
(
il 
0.3770 m 2 In
'f'Ho  Tc; 20.33
= Tlli Tr.,
+0
(2rr) (0.25 11�:�() (10 m)
+

2.0 cm
1.2 cm
In
Description
111;:rJ
mic tcmperatme difference can be found using
1 Eq. 20.33.
+
( 10 (0.6283 m2 )
= 4 .746 W/r< Equation 20.34: Logarithmic Temperature
Difference, Parallel Flow
Based on the out.side surface area, the overnU heat
tra 11sfer coefficicrn t i:;
 Teo)  ( Trn  Tc;)
UA
4 . 746 w
U    "="2
K
L\T1n, = ( THu
In ( Ttto  Tc..
THi  Tc,
) 20.34
A0 0.6283 111
Description
= 7.55 W/m2 ·K (7.6 W /m2 ·K) For parallel now tubular heat exchangers, the logarith
mic tcmperatme difference ca11 be found using
Eq. 20.34.
The answer Is (C).
Example
1 6. LOGARITHMIC TEMPERATURE A parallel now heat exchanger is used to cool oil from
............�1.�.�.l;���.C:.: � . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . ....................... ................. . , .............. ...... .
120°C to 60°C. The cooling water enters at 20°C and
leaves at 55°C. \i\lhat is most nearly Lhc log mean te m
The temperature difference between two fluids i s not pcratme cl ifference?
cons tan t in a heat exchanger. When calculating the hea t
transfer for a tube whose temperature d ifference changes (A) 25°C
along its leng th , the logarithmic mean lempemture dif (B) 32°C
ference, L\ 1)1 11 or LMTD, is used.44'45'46 In the equation
shown, L\ 7�1 and L\ T8 are the temperature differences at
(C) 140°C
(D) 280°C
m ns /J. T Hit doesn't make any difference which end is A :rncl which is B. If the
44An exception occurs in HVAC cal latio where
1rn v a l m id length
has tra<lit io ll l.>CCn used to calculate the heat tmnsrer in air condi
ao
numerator s
/J.T8:
i ncgati\ e, the denominator will nlso he ncgati\•e.
48As /J. T,1 and q o /J. Tfl. /J. T,ii
become equal, the e uat i n IX'<'omes indeterm
/J.
tioning duct�. Considering the imprecise nature or HVAC calcul ti ns,
a t
pr 
and Tu arc eq nl , even though the correct value is 0.5. ,\ repl cemen
45Thc symbol /J. T,,, is al�o widely used for the log mean temperature l
•T (t';. Tl/3 rt/:1) 3
w s
difference. Ho ever, this cnn al o he in ter eted as t he arithmetic
mcnn ll'tnpcrnturc.
expres;;ion (Underwood, 1933) that avoids t h 'SC difficulties with (gen
tm
ernlly) less l n a 0.33 error is
+ t;
46Thc lugarilh111ic te1npcraturc difference is used e\•en with change or
p h ase (e.g., boili ng liquid or condensing vapor) and the temperature is
constant in one tube.
Ll Im �

A
2
II
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
2016 F E M E C H A N I C A L A E V I E VI M A N U r. L
C�010),
Trn  Tc; fluid has the minimum capacity rate (tltat is, = Cmi n
(G0°C  55°C)  ( 1 20°C  20°C) the effectiveness is given by Eq. 20.38.
I f the hot
( ) [ COUll(PI ]
�o
traditional F11 1el.hod. However, the 1111mbc1· of trans
fer units (NTU) method (also known as the efficiency
C 1
method and effectiveness 111ethod) can be used to handle l  I flow,
NTU =  h1 €'
C, < 1

C1  1 l'OllCl'lll 1 ir;
these problems more easily.50 The steps in the NTU E1,
Q
Exchanger Effectiveness + C,
20.43
 Q.
acl ual heal tra1 1sfer rate Description
 
€   
rnaxiinum possible heat tnmsfcr ral<'
Once the heat capacity ratio is found, Eq. 20.4 1 through
C = riu·1,
tu.;L\
20.35
Eq. 20.43 can be used to find t.he number of trausfcr uuits
E= 
(
Tlli  '
20.36 for heat exchangers operating u11der specific condit.ions.
Crniu( Tm  TC"i)
Cu THc• ) The number of t.ransfer units for a si nglepass counter
'
20.37 flow heat exchanger with a heat capaci l.y ratio less than l
is found from Eq. 20.41 . The number of tram;fer uuits for
16
1
ble heat. transfer.5 •52 This ratio is generally not known A singlepass counterflow heat exchanger is w;ed to cool
in adva11cc. lubricating oil with cooling water. The exchanger has an
effective heat t.rausfcr rate of 280 \V /m . J( based on a u
:.!
1�
heat t"xchanger with
• Acl11nlly, any shellandlube an even number of 2
effective heat transfer area o f 1 1 1 . Tlic thermal capac
t11lw pa."� has a closedform analylicHI solution for lhe outlet tem
ity rate of lubricating oil is 9.1 kW/T<, and the thermal
w t t
prml me. Howe\•cr, he mathematic:;arcn the
lahoriutL� nnd the fot m of
solution Vilt iC'S i h the type of Dow a d heal l'xdmnger design. capacity rale of cooling water is 5.2 kW /K. \·Vliat is
1
wThC' nn 1 1es 1111111/icr of thcmwl 1111it.s (NTU), lieut transfer units most nearly t.he number of t.ra11sfcr units?
(A) 0.71
(HTU), nucl temperature
trn11sfcr 1111ils (NTU).
synony11 011s
ratio (Tn.) arc with 1111mbcr of
�1 Thc maximum possible
hns au transfer can only heat
i11fi11ilc lc>nglh.
OC'Cur if the exchan�er
(B) 0.86
5201hrr 1 nrnes tr the
used in the li tera u e tu dc>linc effectiveness arc (C) 0.94
efficiency, lhP1·111ody11omic efficiency, lempcrn/11re effidwq1, and pcr
alw
fom11111r:f 1111m111eltr. The symbol P lli of€.
used i11 plnrr (D) 1.3
P P I • \'I w w , p p i 2 p a s s • c o m
C 0 N V E C T I 0 N 201 7
Solution Description
Since 5.2 kW/I< < 9. 1 kW /K, If a singlepass counterOow heaL cxchauger has a heat
C'rnin =
capacity ratio less than 1 , the effecl.ivencss of the
C'watrr = 5.2 kW/I< (5.2 x I o:i W /I<) exchanger is found from Eq. 20.tltl .
If a singlepass counterflow heat exchanger has a heat
Use Eq. 20.40. capacity ratio of 1 , the effectiveness of the exchanger is
found from Eq. 20.45.
C111i11
(280 Ill\2\1· 1< ) (16 rn2 )
NTU =
VA
For a singlepass parallel now heat exchanger, the effec
tiveness of the exchanger is found from Eq. 20.46.
5.2 x 10� w
K
Example
For a counternow concentric tube heat exchanger, if the
= 0.8615 (0.86) number of transfer units is 0.76 and C,. = 1, what is mosL
nearly t.he heat exchanger effectiveness?
(A) 0.27
(n) o.38
Tile answer is (8).
(C) 0.43
Equation 20.44 Through Eq. 20.46: Heat (D) 0.67
Exchanger Effectiveness, Counterflow and
  C, ))  [
Parallel Flow
1  C, exp[  Cr)]
Solution
exp[
l  NTU(l co1111lrrOow, ] Since C,.= l , Eq. 20.t15 can be used to calculate the
c=
NTU(l concentri('; C, < 1
effectiveness.
 [
20.44 NTU
c = 1 + NTU
NTU t:OuC"cutrir; ]
counlerOow,
E =
l + NTU c, = 1
20.45
0.76
l + 0.76
1 + Cr
 e>..p[  N T U ( l + Cr)]
= 0.4318 (0.43)
l
c: = [parallel flow . rnnce11t ric]
20.46
The answer is (CJ.
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
1. Thcn11al H.acliat.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 a is the fraction of energy absorbed (the absorptivity), p
2. Black, RPal, and Gray Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 is the fraction reflected (the reflediuity), a nd is the
T
Nomenclatm·e
Based on the radiation conservation law, if the absorp
F factor
area of a body is 48%, and the reflectivity is 36%, what
tivity
A
ismost nearly the trausmissivity?
N 11u111ber of radiating surfaces (A) 16%
iJ
p power (B) 36%
Q
unit heat transfer rate \V/ m2
heat t rnnsfcr r
ate w (C) 48%
T lei npernt urc [( (D) 84%
Symbols
absorptivity Solution
(\
CJ = .:a A 7�
n + p= L 21.3
o= l p
= 1  0.62
Values
A
E = Padua)
17 m2 plate with an cmjssivity of 0.26 is suspended
vertically in a large room. If Lhe absolute temperature is
4301<, what is mosL nearly t.he radiation emitted?
P;,.1cai
(A) 2 . 6 kW
(
radiation conservation law, absorptivity cannot exceed
•
1.0. And, at th erm al equilibrium, emissivity equals Q = wA T 1
absorptivity. Therefore, emissivity cannot exceed 1.0.
(0.26) ;:i.67 x 1 0
" 8 v.r )
The emissivity (and, therefore, the e1nissive po ver) usu m2K4
;
ally depends on the temperature of the body. A body 1
( 1 7 m2)(430K)
_F__
X
that emits at constant emissivity, regardless of wave
length, is known as a gray body. Real bodies are fre 1 000
quently approximated as gray bodies. Renl bod'ies do not kW
kW)
radiate a t the ideal level.
= 8.568 kW (8.6
Since absorptivity, a, cannot exceed 1 .0, Kirchhoff's
radiation law places an upper limit on emissive power.
Ilodies that radiate at this upper limit (a = 1 ) are
Tiie answer is (D).
known as bind: bodies or ideal radiators. A black body
emits the maximum possible radiation for its tempera
ture and absorbs all incident energy.3
c .
'1Blackbody performance can he approximated but not achieved in
are 1.
pra t ice
PPI • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
R A D I A T I O N 2 1 3
Desc ri ption
3. RECIPROCITY THEOREM FOR RADIATION
er btheynet1 heat
Wh e od
body 2,
is small and completely enclosed by
transfer due to radiation is given
Equation 2 1 . 7: Reprocity Theorem
by Eq. 21.9.
21.7
Example
L F;J =
intercept ing su fa e ) arc the Alternatively,
N
l 21.8
if there were
(3)Not N su11 1 1aast.ion
total surfaccs, the
immediately obvious from Eq. 21.8
limit would be N1.
presented in the NCEES
j=l Handbook is umm
that index variable i is held constant during the s a
ion
tion. The su111111at is not m'er all combinations of all surfaces.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
2 1 4 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
J T2 ) �
Description
(1.0) (5.67 10s �) ( (5501<)'1  (2901<)4)
x
1000 kvvVV
The net heat transfer due t.o radiation between two
diffuse gray surfaces is given hy Eq. 21.11.
Equa
tion 21. 1 1
applies to two bodies (surfaces), each of which
4.787 kW /w2 (4.8 kW /m2)
= is completely covered (enclosed) by t.he ot.her. This con
figuration is known as a /.1110swface enclosure and is
T/1e answer is (C). shown in Fig. 21.1.5
Either body can be designated as
body 1,and cit.her can be designated as body Each 2.
body radiates to the other; each body receives energy
from the other. The emissivities of the two bodies are
Equation 21 . 1 0: Net Radiation Heat Transfer, not. necessarily the same. Although the bodies are com
Black Bodies pletely enclosed, this docs uot. necessarily mean that the
view factor, F'12, is equal to 1.0.
The enclosure may not
be sufficiently convex to enable all parts of the surfaces
21. 10 to sec all other parts of the surfaces. There may be blind
spots caused by shadowing.G Parallel plates, concentric
Descr i pti on cylinders, and concentric spheres, however, are cowue:i;
hulls (conve.1: envelopes) , so F1 2 = F2 1 = 1.0.
The net heat transfer due to radiation bet.ween two
black bodies is given by Eq. 21.10.
Examp le Figure 21. t Radralion Between Two Diffuse Gray Swfaces
A 15 8
cm thick furnace wail has a cm square illspcction
port. The interior of the furnace is at The 1200°C.
surrounding air temperature is 20°C.
The shape factor,
F1 2 , is 0.4.
The heat loss due to radiation when the
iuspection port is opeu is most nearly
(A) 150 \�I
(B) 440 W
(C) 680 W
(D) 2700 W (a) (b)
Solution
The absolute temperatures arc
Tru111ace = 1200°0 + 273° = 14731< 5The interpretation and application of Fig. 21.1 as presented in t he
T = 20°0 + 273° = 2931<
00 NCEES Handbook are not obvious. There are two g<'m' ralized cases
shown. (The NGEES Jlandbook does not include the (a) and (b)
The radiation heat loss is drsignatio11s, und w it appears that something is goiug on bet.ween
Q = AF12a( m
 '1 )
the lcft�ha11d nml righthand sides.) Part (a) shows a radiating nat
•
1 grny snrfnce tl1at s i covered (enclosed) by n dome, which is also a
1 f1mrnrc 7 oo radiation gray surface. Since the dome connects to the surface every
(8 cm)2(0.4) (5.67 x 10s Ill\2"11/ ) .
.I(�
where along the pcriph<'ry, the two surfaces "form an euclosme'' t h
NCEES Hcrndbook phrases it}. This constitutes t.he traditional two
(as e
(100 cm)
s111face enclosure. In the case of part (b), radiating gray body I is
x ((14731<)4  (2931<)4) completely enclosed by radiating gray body 2. It is not intuitive how
the enclosed body I of pllrt (h) "forms" an enclosure, as the NCEES
2 lla11dbook plJrase;; it.. NevcrlhelC'SS, Eq. 21.11 applies lo both cases.
G!J1 a con\'ex hull, every point on the boundary can see every other
Ill point on the boundary. A simple visualization of a co11uei: hull is the
682.3 W (680 W)
= space (envelope) t.hat is obtained by wrapping a rubber band around
the vertices or other line intersection points drfining the extent of the
The answer is (C). boundary.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
R A D I A T I O N
(B) W/m2
G
(C) 8 \\'/1112 2 "3. 1
(D) 10 W/m
Solution
Use Eq. 21.11 with 11 1 A2 a11d F1 2 = 1.0.
=
Description
21. 12
Equati
two on 21.13withgivanes adjacent
surfaces the rate thiof rheat
d transfer betwcc1
rcradiating surface.1
Descri ption
Figure 21.2 illustrates two parallel plates that arc sepa Reracli
batic). a(See
ting Fisurfaces
g. 21.3.) are considered insulated (adia
rated
shi e l d by a thin inisternal
thiclrness that. shithin
a cld.7shield
The signi
has ficance
no mass ofaud
the Figure 21.3 Reradialing Surface
cannot
bei n g a store
lowemi anyssivthermal
i t y shi e energy.
ld i s t. h Thethe signi
at ficance nofg
correspondi
reflecti
the shi vlidtyisisreflected
e high. Mostbackoftothetheenergy source.intercepted
The by
thermal
radiation that the shield does receive is reemitted, some
7
This configmation models thernrnl shickling of cryogenic vessels and
te111perat.urc sensors.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
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