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Fmge important topics


1. Part ha Sarkar Guest

UPPER LIMB HIGH YIELD - VERY IMP points FOR MCI SCREENING TEST

Most frequently fractured bone of body--------Clavicle


Most frequently dislocated carpal bone---------Lunate
Most frequently fracture carpal bone----------Scaphoid
Name of fracture of distal radius that produces “dinner fork” appearance------- Colle’s
fracture
Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus---------Axillary
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle--------Ulnar
Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus--------------Radial
Nerve injured in wrist drop----------Radial
Muscle that is chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint ---------Deltoid
Muscles innervated by axillary nerve----------Deltoid and teres minor
Muscle that initiates abduction of arm---------Supraspinatus
Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff-----------Supraspinatus
Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm-------Trapezius and serratus
anterior
Tendon that courses through shoulder joint---------Long head of biceps
Chief supinator muscle of hand---------Biceps brachii
Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula---------Long thoracic nerve
spinal levels of axillary nerve---------C5 and C6
Spinal levels to muscles of the hand--------C8 and T1
Dermatome of thumb--------C6
Nerve to thenar compartment----------Recurrent branch of Median
Innervation of adductor pollicis---------Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to all interosseous muscles-----------Ulnar (deep br.)
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus------------ Shoulder
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus -------Intrinsic hand muscles
Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome-----------Median
nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome----------Ulnar
Paralysis of which muscles results in total “claw” hand----------Lumbricals
Treatment for schistosomes--------.Praziquantel
Treatment for clonorchis sinensis------------ praziquantel
Treatment for pneumocystis carinii.---------- TMP-SMX
Treatment for Chaga's disease?-------------- Nifurtimox
Treatment for trypanosomiasis?-------------- Suramin (except chaga's, use nifurtimox)
Firstline treatment for malaria------------?Chloroquine
2. Neha Gupt a Active Member

What's the drug of choice for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Shigella
spp? Ampicillin. Note those are all G+.
What are the two penicillin-derived drugs that are extended spectrum for
pseudomonas infections? Which one is first line and which one is more potent? -
Ticarcillin (and its derivatives; Timentin) -- 1st line
- Piperacillin (and its derivates w/ tazobactam; Zosyn) -- this is the broadest spectrum.
What is the DOC to treat Clostridium Perfringens? what does this bacteria cause? Penicillin
G. Bacteria causes gas gangrene.
What is the DOC to treat treponema pallidum? What condition does the bacteria cause?
Penicillin G
Bacteria causes syphilis.
What is the DOC to treat Listeria Monocytogenes sepsis and meningitis? ampicillin
What is the DOC to treat MRSA? Vancomycin
What is the DOC for surgical prophylaxis? Why? How is it administered? - Cefazolin
- By injection
Used b/c of high bone penetration, and because it's a good alternative to anti-staph
penicillins in penicillin-allergic patients.
What is the first line agent used to treat mixed intra-abdominal infections by Bacteroides?
Cefoxitin (2nd Gen)
What are the two first line agents used to treat H. influenzae infections? Ceftriaxone (3rd)
Cefotoxime (3rd)
Cephalosporins are the go-to drugs to treat meningitis except for meningitis caused by what
bacteria? Listeria monocytogenes.
What is the first line agent used to treat Clostridium tetani infections? Vancomycin.
Which two cephalosporins are the first line agents used to treat Neisseria gonorrhoeae? -
Ceftriaxone (3rd G)
- Cefixime (3rd G)
What cephalosporin is the first line agent used to treat Typhoid Fever due to salmonella?
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin; 3rd G)
What are the three first line agents used to treat penicillin-resistant pneumococci?
Ceftriaxone (3rd G)
Cefotaxime (3rd)
Vancomycin
What are the five first line agents used to treat systemic pseudomonas aeruginosa
infections? Ticarcillin
Piperacillin
Ceftazidime (3rd)
Cefepime (4th G)
Tobramycin
How do you treat antibiotic-induced enterocolitis d/t Staph or C diff? Why? - w/ Vancomycin
PO
- Because it's poorly absorbed orally and will therefore be very active against the G+ bacteria
in the intestine causing the colitis.
What's the DOC for Rickettsia? Doxycycline
What's they DOC for Chlamydia? Doxycycline
DOC for Ureaplasma Doxycycline
DOC for Mycoplasma Doxycycline
DOC for Borrelia Doxycycline
DOC for Yersinia Streptomycin
DOC for Francisella Streptomycin
DOC for Enterococcus Gentamicin (combo)
First line for Helicobacter pylori Tetracycline
First line for Vibrio spp. Doxycyclin
First lines for Brucella Doxycyclin + Gentamicin
First line for Chlamydia Doxycyclin
First line for Nocardia Minocyclin
First line for Viridans streptococci (serious infections) Gentamicin
First line for Strep agalactiae (serious infections) Gentamicin
First line for Listeria meningitis Gentamicin
First line for Campylobacter (serious infections) Gentamicin
What's the drug of choice for chlamydia trachomatis? Azithromycin
What's the DOC for Nocardia & Pneumocystis pneumonia? Co-trimoxazole.

3. Neha Gupt a Active Member

ANTI BACTERIAL DRUG OF CHOICE LIST

01. Enterococcus: Ampicillin + Gentamicin


02. Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible): Nafcillin
03. Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant): Vancomycin
04. Streptococcus pneumonia (penicillin-susceptible): Penicillin G, Amoxicillin
05. Streptococcus pneumonia (penicillin-resistant): Vancomycin + Ceftriaxone
06. Neisseria gonorheae: Ceftriaxone (IV), Cefixime (oral)
07. Treponema pallidum: Penicillin G
08. M. meningitidis: Penicillin G
09. Moraxella catarrhalis: Cefuroxime, Fluoroquinolones
10. Clostridium difficile: Metronidazole
11. Bacteroides fragilis: Metronidazole
12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Macrolide
13. Chlamydia trachomatis: Azithromycin or other Macrolides
14. Klebsiella pneumoniae: 3rd generation cephalosporin
15. Enterobacter: Carbapanem, Cefipime
16. Escherichia coli: 3rd generation cephalosporin
17. Campylobacter jejuni: Macrolide
18. Gardnerella vaginalis: Metronidazole
19. Proteus mirabilis: Ampicillin
20. Proteus indole positive: 3rd generation cephalosporin
21. Salmonella typhi: Ceftriaxone
22. Shigella: Fluoroquinolone
23. Serratia: Carbapanem
4. Neha Gupt a Active Member

SOME IMP DRUG OF CHOICE..


====================================

DOC for Ulcerative colitis-5 aminosalicylic acid

DOC for CrohnÃs -

Magnesium Oxide is the antidote for mineral acid poisoning

TOC for acute coalescent mastoiditis-Simple mastiodectomy

TOC of SCC of maxillary antrum-Surgery+Radiotherapy

DOC for Cholera Chemoprophylaxis-Tetracycline

DOC for Cholera in adults- Doxycycline

DOC for Cholera in children-Cotrimoxazole

DOC for cholera in Pregnant women-Furazolidone.

DOC of neurosyphilis- crystalline penicillin G

DOC for CML- imatinib mesylate

DOC for supraventricular tachycardia- adenosine

DOC for foetal adrenal suppression-dexamethasone (started as soon as preg is recognised


and not later than 9wks gestation)

DOC for central DI -Desmopressin


Drug of choice for BierÃs block (IVRA) ó Lidocaine, 40ñ50 mL (0.5 mL/kg in children) of a
0.5% solution without epinephrine

DOC for nocardiosis - sulfamethoxazole

Doc for ascariasis in pregnant woman-pyrantel pamoate

Gold std t/t for brucella -strepto +doxo

drug of choice for visceral larva migrans-Albendazole

WILSON DISEASE,
INV OF CHOICEóóñLIVER BIOPSY
DOCóóó-ZINC

DOC for akathesia- Beta blockers

most sensitive inv for Extradrenal phaeochromocytoma?


DOPAPET :most sensitive inv

MIBG : most SPECIFIC inv


Cardiotoxicity caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy -endomyocardial biopsy

TOC of anal canal tumours- Chemoradiation


5. Neha Gupt a Active Member

MOST COMMON CAUSE ASKED IN PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS


==================================================

MCC of intracranial metastasis-Ca lung

MCC of hepatic metastasis - Bronchogenic carcinoma

MCC of hepatic mets from GIT ñ Colonic ca

MCC of Intrauterine Growth retardation-C/c pyelonephritis?

MCC of HTN in children-A/c Glomerulonephritis

MC complication of CSOM-Temporal lobe abscess

MC ovarian tumour in pregnancy-Teratoma/Dermoid cyst

MC joint involved in Osteo Arthritis-Knee joint

MCC of interstitial/atypical pneumonia- Mycoplasma

MC Glycogen storage disease-GaucherÃs disease

MC porphyria-Porphyria cutanea tarda.

MC cause of childhood nephrotic syndrom-Minimal change disease

MC cause of adult nephrotic syndrome- Membranous glomerulonephritis.

MC cancer-Lung cancer

MC cancer in females-Breast cancer

MC cause of maternal deaths-Obstetric hemorrhage(PPH)

MC cause of Blindness in India-Cataract

MC site of Gastrinoma- Duodenum.

MC Paraneoplastic Syndrome-Hypercalcemia

MC paraneoplastic endocrinopathy-Cushings syndrome

mc presentation of meckelÃs diverticulumóñbleeding

mc s/e of radiation on heart óó pericardial effusion

m.c. cause of cushingÃs disease- pituitary microadenoma

mcc of primary hyperaldosteronism- b/l cortical hyperplasia

mc aldosterone producing adrenal tumour- u/l adrenal adenoma

mcc of post trauma vegetative state- diffuse axonal injury


mc asso anomaly with coarctation of aorta- bicuspid aortic valve

mcc of vasculitis in child- henoch-schonlein purpura

mc feature of aortitis on x-ray- calcified ascending aorta

MC intra-abdominal malignancy in children ñ Neuroblastoma


2nd MC intra-abdominal malignancy in children ñ WilmÃs tumor
MC hepatic malignancy in children ñ Hepatoblastoma
MC soft tissue sarcoma ñ Rhabdomyosarcoma
MC site for rhabdomyosarcoma ñ Head and neck
MC Pediatric tumor ñ ALL
2nd MC Pediatric tumor ñ Brain tumor
MC brain tumor in children ñ Astrocytoma
MC brain tumor in infancy ñ Supratentorial
MC brain tumor between 1-10 yrs of age ñ Infratentorial
MC brain tumor after 10 yrs of age ñ Supratentorial
MC embryonal brain tumor ñ Medulloblastoma
MC renal mass in neonates ñ Multicystic renal dysplasia
MC malignant tumor of kidney ñ WilmÃs tumor

mc tumours in parts of mediastinum-

anterior- thymomas
mid- cyst
posterior- neurogenic tu

mc tumour of mediastinum- neurogenic tu


most malignant masses of mediastinum- lymphomas

mc site of colonic volvulus- sigmoid

MC cause of renal artery stenosis

old age- atherosclerosis


young(india)- Takayasu arteritis
young( western world)- fibro muscular dysplasia
MC of eye in AIDS
1. Lesion- microvasculopathy of conjunctiva and retina
2. Infection- chorioretinitis
3. Neoplasm- kaposi sarcoma
4. Cause of chorioretinitis- CMV
5. Finding in HIV retinopathy- cotton wool spots
6. Rx of CMV retinitis- ganciclovir,foscarnet

MOST COMMON site in GIT

small bowel carcinoid-ILEUM

Ulcerative colitis,hirsprung disease-RECTUM

Polyps in peutz jegher syndrome,pneumatosis cystoid intestinaleñJEJUNUM


Amoebic colitis,volvulus-SIGMOID COLON

Bleeding from angiodysplasia-RIGHT COLON

BrennerÃs gland-1ST PART OF DUODENUM

MC cause of maternal death- obst haemorrhage

MC of isoniazid resistance- kat G gene mutatio


6. Neha Gupt a Active Member

Dx : Loss of myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus leading to failure of LES relaxation


Achalasia
Dx : Bird's beak on barium swallow Achalasia
Dx : Painful mucosal lacerations at GE junction. Mallory-Weiss syndrome
(Bleeding due to esophageaal varices is painless)
Dx : Transmural esophageal rupture due to violent retching. Respi symptoms. Boerhaave
syndrome
Dx : What esophageal pathology is associated with lye ingestion? Esophageal strictures
Dx : Dysphagia, glossitis, and iron-deficiency anemia. Plummer-Vinson syndrome
List the risk factors for esophageal cancer? ABCDEF Alcohol/Achalasiaa Barrett's Esophagus
Cigarettes Diverticuli Esophageal web/Esophagitis Familial
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Autoantibodies to gluten in wheat and
other grains. Celiac sprue
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Infection with Tropheryma whippelii.
Whipple's disease
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. PAS-positive foamy macrophages in
intestinal lamina propria. Non-AIDS patient. Whipple's disease
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Foamy macrophages in lamina propria.
AIDS patient. Infection by Mycobacterium vium-intracellulare complex
Dx : Antiglandin antibodies. Blunting of villi. Lymphocytes in lamina propria. Celiac sprue
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Associated with dermatitis herpetiformis.
Celiac sprue
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Moderately increaase risk of malignancy
(most often T-Cell lymphoma) Celiac sprue
Dx : Congenital megacolon characterized by lack of ganglion cells/enteric nervous plexus in
segment on intestinal biopsy. Hirschsprung's disease
Dx : Early bilious vomiting and proximal stomach distension Duodenal atresia
Risk of Hirschprung's disease is increased with which genetic abnormality? Down syndrome

Duodenal atresia is associated with which genetic abnormality? Down syndrome


Dx : Premature baby. Necrosis of intestinal mucosaa and possible perforation. Necrotizing
enterocolitis
Dx : Acute bowel obstruction, history of recent surgery. Adhesion
Which part of the GI tract does ischaemic colitis commonly occur? Splenic flexure.
Dx : Dilation of vessels in GIT, leading to bleeding. Most often found in cecum and ascending
colon. Angiodysplasia
Dx : Hamartomatous polyps of colon and small intestine. Hyperpigmented mouth, lips, hands,
genitalia. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Dx : Tumor of endrocrine cells. Commonly located in small intestine. Carcinoid syndrome
Dx : Dense core bodies seen on EM. Wheezing, right sided heart murmurs, diarrhea,
flushing. Carcinoid syndrome.
Dx : AST more than ALT Alcoholic hepatitis
Dx : ALT more than AST Viral hepatitis
Ceruloplasmin will decrease in which disease? Wilson's disease
Dx : Child. Hepatomegaly and encephalopathy. Fatty liver, hypoglycemia, coma. Associated
with viral infection that has been treated with salicylates. Reye's syndrome
Dx : Young women. Liver inflammation symptoms. Positive ANA and anti-smooth muscle
antibodies. Autoimmune hepatitis
Dx : Neonate. Liver inflammation symptoms. Biopsy shows multinucleated giant cells.
Neonatal hepatitis
Dx : Describe the ALT / AST levels in fulminant hepatic failure. Decreased (cuz liver
parenchyma destroyed)
Dx : Micronodular, ireegularly shrunken liver with "hobnail" appearance. Sclerosis around the
central vein. Alcoholic cirrhosis
In relation to the liver, increased AFP is an indication of what? Hepatocellular carcinoma
Dx : Occlusion of IVC or hepaticc veins with centrilobular congestion and necrosis, leading to
congestive liver disease. Budd Chiari syndrome
Dx : Liver congestion signs, but absence of jugular venous distention. Budd Chiari syndrome
Dx : Neonatal hepatitis, PAS positive globules in liver. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
Dx : Concentric "onion skin" bile duct fibrosis Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Dx : Jaundice, fever, right upper quadrant pain Cholelithiasis/cholangitis (charcot's triad of
cholangitis)
Dx : Air can be seen in biliary tree on imaging. Gallstone obstructs ileocecal
valve. (there is a fistula between gallbladder and small intestine)
Dx : Epigastric abdominal pain radiating to back, anorexia, nausea. Elevated amylase and
lipase. Acute pancreatitis
7. Neha Gupt a Active Member

CARDIOLOGY: HIGH YIELD - INTERNAL MEDICINE


1. Stable angina — chest discomfort, can be felt in back/arms/jaw/abdm, occurs
with stress/emotion, relief with rest, Dx by stress test. Tx with nitrates, bb, Cabs,
heparin, aspirin, if 3 vessels or L main do CABG
2. Unstable angina — unpredictable at rest or abruptly worsening pattern of angina,
prolonged duration (>20), Dx by ECG (st depression/t inversion) or cath shows CAD, but
negative cardiac markers, Tx with nitrates, cabs, bb, heparin
3. Variant/Prinzmetal Angina — chest pain at rest, ST elevation (note the 3 causes of ST
elevation are MI (inferior (LDA) is II, III AVF; lateral (circumflex a)is I, AVL, V5, V6; anterior is
V1-V4), Pericarditis (diffuse, meaning every lead has it), and Variant Angina) with negative
markers. Treat with Ca-channel blockers (Cabs) or nitrates.
4. Acute MI — chest discomfort, crushing pain without warning (females and diabetics get
atypical chest pain, which is abdm pain, fatigue, neck pain or weakness), prolonged duration
(hours), ECG may be abnormal (st elevation or depression), increased markers, Tx with
MONA, ACEI, heparin, bb, tPAs if <12 hrs after onset of pain, complications include MR, VSD,
cardiac rupture and ventricular aneurysm.
5. CAD risk factors: smoking, HTN, family h/o premature CAD (<55 in male, <65 in female),
male >45, female >55, HDL <40, LDL >100. (If HDL >60, subtract one). >2 risk factors: diet if
>160, drugs if >190; 2 or more risk factors: diet if >130, drugs if >160, pt has CHD: diet if
>100, drugs if >130.
6. Causes of high output heart failure — severe anemia, thyrotoxicosis, acute beriberi,
pagets dz, large AV fistula
7. Acute Pulmonary edema — tx — 1st upright position and O2, 2nd loops, nitrates,
morphine, and 3rd intubate if severe.
8. HOCM — tx — 1st avoid dehydration, 2nd strenuous activity prohibited, 3rd BB, 4th
Cabs, 5th surgical myectomy. Best dx is history (screen family) and physical, then Echo.
9. Restrictive CM — JVD, edema and ascites, Dx by echo, tx 1st diuretics/ decrease salt
10. Myocarditis — history or URI (coxsackie) then fever, dyspnea, CP, edema, tachy
11. Acute Pericarditis — positional CP, Tx with NSAIDS
12. Pericardial effusion — pericardial friction rub, Tx with pericardiocentesis
13. Tamponade — becks triad (JVD, muffled heart sounds, pulsus paradoxicus with
hypotension), Tx with pericardiocentesis
14. Constrictive pericarditis — pericardial knock, kussmaul breathing, CXR shows
pericardial calcification, Tx with diuretics
15. Acute RF — PECCS (polyarthrtitis, erythema marginatum, carditis, chorea, subQ
nodules) in kids 5-15yo due to group A strep. Tx is Abx, bed rest, salicylates, sedatives for
chorea, steroids for carditis.
16. Mitral stenosis — most associated with RHD, LA enlargement À hoarseness,
dysphagia, and A.fib, diastolic rumble at LV apex, Tx with diuretics, coumadin for a.fib,
endocarditis prophylaxis, balloon vulvoplasty
17. Mitral regurge — associated with marfans, RHD, myxomatous change, high-pitched
holosystolic murmur at left sternal border, Tx with diuretics, dilators, endocarditis prophylaxis,
mitral valve respacement/repair
18. Aortic regurge — congenital, marfans, trauma, aortitis, high-pitched decrescendo
diastolic murmur at left sternal border anDisorderr apex and wide pressure, Tx with valve
diuretics, dilators, endocarditis prophylaxis, valve replacement (last)
19. Aortic stenosis — calcific in elderly, bucuspid in congenital, angina, dyspnea, syncope,
mid-late systolic murmur at base radiating to carotids, Tx with replacement (1st step)
20. Endocarditis — if dental procedure give amoxicillin (clindamycin if allergic), if GI/GU
procedure give amoxicillin with gentamycin (vanco with gentamycin in allergic)
21. VSD — membranous septum, harsh systolic murmur at L sternal border, spontaneous
closure in 30-50%, tx — for small vsd observe, for large vsd and significant shunt, surgical
repair and endocarditis prophylaxis.
22. ASD — wide, fixed splitting S2, tx — if small observe, if large surgery
23. PDA — machinery murmur, wide systemic pulse pressure, Tx with indomethacin then
surgery
24. Aortic Coarctation — UE HTN with LE hypotension, rib notching, LE claudication, HA, dx
with MRA or contrast aortography, tx is surgery (best at 4-8yo).
25. Tetralogy of Fallot — PROVe (Pulm HTN, RVH, Overriding aorta, VSD), kid squats to
increase systemic resistance, thus decreased R to L shunt, cyanosis in kid >1yo, CXR with
boot shaped heart, confirm dx with cath, tx is surgery, endo prophylaxis
26. Transposition of great vessels — MCC of cyanosis in 24hrs of birth, Tx with surgery
27. Initial Txs: CHF À thiaz, bb, acei, arb, aldo ant; Post-MI À bb, acei, aldo ant; DM À
acei, bb, thiaz, arb; recurrent strokes À thiaz, acei
28. Hyperaldosteronism — hypokalemic met alkalosis, PRA ratio, captopril-suppression test,
high aldo level, 24hr urinary aldo, salt loading test
29. Pheochromocytoma — 24hr urine collection for VMA, MRI to visualize adrenal tumors,
MIBG if chemistries positive by CT/MRI are negative.
30. Renal artery stenosis — renal U/S with Doppler, captopril scanning, CT/MRA, high renin,
ACEI contraindicated if B/L
31. Urgent v Emergent HTN — Urgent is just one high reading (give nitroprusside or
lobetolol, wait til BP goes down and d/c home). Emergent is when there are signs of end-
organ damage (must admit and do workup).
32. PAD — claudication, rest pain, ulceration at medial ankle, Dx by ankle-brachial index
before/after exercise, angiography, MCC is atherosclerosis, Tx with meds (pentoxyfylline,
cilastazol, cabs), angioplasty/stenting, avoid constricting drugs (bb)
33. Temporal Arteritis - >55yo pt with HA, scalp tenderness, visual s/s, next step is low-dose
steroids (before temporal a biopsy or getting ESR).
34. Polyerteritis — HTN, abdominal pain, numbness in legs, skin findings, cns s/s, Dx by
biopsy, tx with steroids.
35. AV Fistula — thrill/bruit over fistula (buzzing sound), Dx by angiography, Tx with surgical
excision, if congenital do conservative management instead.
36. Varicose veins — pain, pigmentation, superficial ulcer, Tx with elastic stockings
37. Superficial thrombophlebitis — pain, erythema, embolism is rare, Tx with warm
compression, limb elevation and NSAIDS.
38. Deep vein thrombophlebitis — pain, swelling, fever, + Homans sign, PE is risk, so must
do plethysmography or Doppler, Tx with heparin/warfarin, filter if recurrent.
39. Dissecting aortic aneurysm — sharp CP radiating to back, Dx by CT, TEE or MRI, tx —
1st decrease BP (nitroprusside), 2nd - If ascending aorta (up to aortic arch) do surgery, if
descending aorta use meds
40. Abdominal aortic aneurysm — bruit, dx with U/S, see abdominal notes
41. Aneurysm of thoracic aorta (nondissecting) — may compress adjacent structures
causing CP, dysphagia, hoarseness, Dx by aortography, Atherosclerosis is MCC, also due to
cystic medial necrosis. Tx with surgical graft replacement.
MI Day 1 : 4 Hrs+: Coagulative Necrosis, contraction bands. Dark mottling. Tetrazolium Stain
pale.
MI Day 2-4 : Coagulative necrosis. Inflammation: neutrophils & dilated vessels(hyperemic).
ARRHYTHMIA RISK
MI Day 5-10 : Macrophage-mediated tissue removal. Yellow-brown. Soft. RUPTURE RISK
MI Week 7 : Fibrovascular tissue. VENTRICULAR ANEURYSM RISK
MI Protein Markers : Troponin (4 hrs-1 week)> CK-MB (Cardiac & Skeletal muscle, rises
later) > AST (Cardiac, skeletal muscle & liver)
MI Complications : Arrythmia (early), LV Failure->PE, Cardiogenic shock, Wall/papillary
rupture, Aneurysm (low CO, arrythmia, embolus), Fibrinous pericarditis, Dressler's Syndrome
(AI)
in cardiology MI,CHDs,Arrythmias are most commonlyasked.......
8. Neha Gupt a Active Member

DRUGS AND SIDE EFFECTS

Agranulocytosis
• Clozapine
Aplastic Anemia
• Chloramphenicol • NSAIDs • Benzene
Atropine-like Side Effects
• Tricyclics
Cardiotoxicity
• Doxorubicin • Daunorubicin
Cartilage Damage in children
• fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin)
Cinchonism
• Quinidine
Coronary Steal Phenomenon
• Dipyridamole
Corneal micro deposits
• Amiodarone
Cough
• ACE Inhibitors
Diabetes Insipidus
•Lithium
Disulfiram-like effect
• Metronidazole • Sulfonylureas (1st generation)
Extrapyramidal Side Effects
• Antipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine)
Fanconi’s Syndrome
• Tetracycline
Fatal Hepatotoxicity (necrosis)
• Valproic Acid • Halothane • Acetaminophen
Gingival Hyperplasia
• Phenytoin
Gray Baby Syndrome
• Chloramphenicol
Gynecomastia
• Cimetidine • Azoles • Spironolactone • Digitalis • Estrogen & testosterone •
INH & ethionamide • Clomiphine • Phenytoin • Reserpine & Methyldopa
Hand Foot Syndrome
• 5-Flurouracil (5-FU)
Hemolytic Anemia in G6PD-deficiency
• Sulfonamides • Isoniazid • Aspirin • Ibuprofen • Primaquine
Hemorrhagic Cystitis
• Cyclophosphamide • Ifosamide (Treat by Mesna & Acetylcysteine Bladder Wash)
Hepatitis
• Isoniazid
Hot Flashes, Flushing
• niacin • Tamoxifen • Ca++ Channel Blockers
Hypertension: Postural
• Prazocin
Hypertension: Rebound
• Clonidine withdrawal
Increased intra cranial tension (¬ ICT)
• Amiodarone • Hypervitaminosis A • OCP’s • Tetracycline • Quinolones
Induce CP450
• Barbiturates • Phenytoin • Carbamazepine • Rifampin
Inhibit CP450
•Cimetidine • Erythromycin • Ketoconazole • Isoniazid (INH) [remember CEKI]
Interstitial Nephritis
• Methicillin • NSAIDs (except Aspirin) • Furosemide • Sulfonamides
Milk Alkali Syndrome
• Calcium Carbonate (CaCo3)
Monday Disease
• Nitroglycerin Industrial exposure ® tolerance during week ® loss of tolerance during
weekend ® headache, tach, dizziness upon re-exposure
Nephrotoxicity
• Cephaloridine • Gentamycin • Amphotericin
Orange Body Fluids
• Rifampin
Osteoporosis
• Heparin • Corticosteroids
Pancreatitis
• L-Asparginase • Glucocorticoids
Photosensitivity
• Lomefloxacin • Pefloxacin
Positive Coombs’ Test
• Methyldopa
Pulmonary Fibrosis
• Bleomycin • Amiodarone
Rabbit Syndrome (Perioral tremors)
• Phenothiazines
Red Man Syndrome
• Vancomycin (rapid IV)
Severe HTN with Tyramine
• MAOIs
SLE- Drug Induced[Anti Histone Antibody Characteristic of this]
• Chloropromazine • Hydralazine • Isoniazid • Methyldopa • Procainamide •
Quinidine [ remember CHIMP -Q]
Tardive Dyskinesia
• Antipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine)
Tinnitus
• Aspirin • Quinidine
Torsades de Pontis
• Terfanadin
9. Neha Gupt a Active Member

IMPORTANY BODIES

Starry sky pattern? Burkitt's lymphoma


most commonly recieves mets? Adrenal gland (rich blood supply)
most common testicular tumor in children? in Men? Yolk sac tumor, Seminoma
Auer's rods? Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML)-M3
Aschoff's bodies? Rheumatic fever
Birbeck granules? Histiocytosis X
Neurofibrillary tangles? Alzheimer's disease
Bence-Jones proteinuria? Multiple myeloma
Cal-Exner bodies? Granulosa/thecal cell tumor of the ovary
Cowdry type A bodies? Herpes virus
Codman's triangle on an x-ray? Osteosarcoma
Councilman bodies? Toxic or viral hepatitis
Calf pseudohypertrophy? Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Reed-Sternberg cells? Hodgkin's lymphoma
Heinz bodies? G-6-PD deficiency
Homer-Wright rosettes? Neuroblastoma
Curschmann's spirals? Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Kayser-Fleischer rings? Wilson's disease
Lewy bodies? Parkinson's disease]
Orphan Annie cells? Papillary carcinoma of the ovary
Russell bodies? Multiple myeloma
Reinke's crystals? Leydig cell tumor
Blue sclera? Osteogenesis imperfecta
Soap-bubble appearance on an x-ray? Giant cell tumor of the bone
Pseudorosettes? Ewing's sarcoma
Lucid interval? Epidural hematoma
Bloody tap on lumbar puncture? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Pseudopalisades? Glioblastoma multiforme
Charcot-Leyden crystals? Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Cafe au fait spot on the skin? Neurofibromatosis
Streaky ovaries? Turner's syndrome
Keratin pearls? Squamous cell carcinoma
Signet ring cells? Gastric carcinoma
Mallory's bodies? Chronic alcoholism
Blue-domed cysts? Fibrocystic change of the breast
Schiller-Duval bodies? Yolk sac tumor
Senile plaques? Alzheimer's disease
WBCs in the urine? Acute cystitis
RBCs in the urine? Bladder carcinoma
RBC casts in the urine? Acute glomerulonephritis
WBC casts in the urine? Acute pyelonephritis
Renal epithelial casts in the urine? Acute toxic or viral nephrosis
Waxy casts? Chronic end-stage renal disease
Cause of chronic metal poisoning? Lead
Cause of congenital cyanotic heart disease? Tetralogy of Fallot
Congenital cardiac anomaly? Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Cardiac tumor? Left atrial myxoma
Vasculitis? Temporal arteritis
Primary tumor of the liver? Hemangioma (benign)
Primary malignant tumor of the lungs? Adenocarcinoma (30% to 35%)
most Cause of nephrotic syndrome? Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
most cause of nephrotic syndrome in children? Lipoid nephrosis
most common: Organism that causes pyelonephritis? Escherichia coli
most common: Renal cell cancer type? Clear cell
most common: Tumor of the liver? Metastatic cancer (GI, breast, lungs)
most common: Malignant tumor of the esophagus? Squamous cell carcinoma
most common: Tumor arising within the bone? Multiple myeloma
most common: Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the world? Cervical
neoplasia
most common: Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the US?
Adenocarcinoma of the cervix
most common: Tumor of the female genitourinary tract? Leiomyoma
most common: Benign tumor of the ovary? Serocystadenoma
most common: Benign tumor of the breast? Fibroadenoma
most common: Benign lesion that affects the breast? Fibrocystic change of the breast
most common: Malignant tumor of the breast? Invasive ductal carcinoma
most common: Tumor in men between the ages of 15 and 35? Testicular tumors
most common: Germ cell tumor in men? Seminoma
most common: Testicular tumor in infants and children? Yolk sac tumor
most common: Malignant germ cell tumor in women? Choriocarcinoma
most common: Solid tumor in the body? Nephroblastoma
most common: Acquired GI emergency of infancy? Necrotizing enterocolitis of infancy
most common: Primary malignant tumor of the ovary? Serocystadenocarcinoma
most common: Cardiac tumor of infancy? Rhabdomyoma
most common: Acute metal poisoning? Arsenic
most common: Proliferative abnormality of an internal organ? Benign prostatic hyperplasia
(BPH)
most common: Malignant tumor in the bone of teenagers? Osteosarcoma
most common: Site of a cerebral infarct? Middle cerebral artery
10. Neha Gupt a Active Member

Which RNA is the most abundant? rRNA - rampant


Which RNA is the longest? mRNA - massive
Which RNA is the smallest? tRNA - tiny
Which RNA polymerase encodes rRNA? RNA polymerase I (site of action of
Rifampin)
Which RNA polymerase encodes mRNA? RNA polymerase II (site of α-amantin
Which RNA polymerase encodes tRNA? RNA polymerase III
IMP GENETIC DISEASES
Which diseases are caused by trinucleotide repeats? Huntington's, myotonic dystophy,
Fragile X, and Friedreich's ataxia
Which trisomy has mental retardation, flat face, epicanthal folds, a simian crease, doudenal
atresia, and and ASD? Down's Syndrome (21)
Which trisomy has rocker-bottom feet, micrognathia, low set ears, clenched hands, and
congenital heart disease? Edward's Syndrome (18)
Which trisomy has rocker-bottom feet, microphthalmia, microcephaly, cleft lip/palate,
holoprosencephaly, and polydactyly? Patau Syndrome (13)
Which disorder is characterized by elfin faces, mental retardation, hypercalcemia, extreme
friendliness to strangers? William's Syndrome (think of Will ferrel in ELF)
Cri-du-chat is caused by microdeletion of what chromosome? Chromosome 5p
What is the cause of DiGeorge Syndrome (Velocardiofacial syndrome)? 22q11 deletion
What disease is caused by lack of α-galactosidase A? Fabry's Disease
What disease is caused by lack of β-glucocerebrosidase? Gaucher's Disease
What disease is caused by lack of Sphingomyelinase? Niemann-Pick Disease
What disease is caused by lack of Hexosaminidase A? Tay-Sachs
What disease is caused by lack of Galactocerebrosidase? Krabbe's Disease
What disease is caused by lack of arylsulfatase A? Metachromatic leukodystophy
What disease is caused by lack of α-L-iduronidase? Hurler's Syndrome
What disease is caused by lack of Iduronate sulfatase? Hunter's Syndrome
Which Lysosomal storage diseases are passed in an X-Linked recessive fashion? (rest are
recessive) Hunter's and Fabry's Disease
Which Lysosomal storage disease has a cherry red spot? Niemann-Pick and Tay-Sachs
Disease
Which LSD has Crumpled tissue paper cytoplasm? Gaucher's Disease
Which LSD has Onion skin lysosomes? Tay-Sachs
Which LSD has Foam cells? Niemann-Pick Disease
What is the difference between Hunter's and Hurler's Hurler's has corneal clouding, Hunter's
does nt
Which disease is cause by lack of Glucose-6-phosphatase? Von Gierkes
Which disease is caused by lack of α-1,4-glucosidase (acid maltase)? Pompe's Disease
Which disease is caused by lack of α-1,6-glucosidase (debranching enzyme)? Cori's Disease
Which disease is caused by lack of glycogen phosphorylase? McArdle's Disease
Which diseases causes severe fasting hypoglycemia, glycogen buildup in liver, increase
blood lactate, and hepatomegaly? Von Gierkes
Which disease causes Cardiomegaly and early death? Pompe's Disease (Pompe's trashes
the pump)
Which disease causes fasting hypoglycemia, some glycogen buildup, and increased blood
lactate, and hepatomegaly? Cori's Disease (hard to differentiate between Von Gierkes
11. Neha Gupt a Active Member

AUTOANTIBODIES IMP FOR FMGE

Antigliadin -- Celiac disease


ANtimitochondrial -- Primary biliary cirrhosis
Antiplatelet -- Idiopathic immune thrombocytic purpura
Anti-basement membrane -- Goodpasture’s syndrome
Anti SS-A (anti-Ro) & Anti SS-B (anti-La) -- Sjogren’s syndrome
Anti ds DNA & Anti Sm (ANAs) -- SLE
Antihistone -- Drug induced lupus
Anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl 70) -- Diffuse Scleroderma
Anticentromere -- CREST Syndrome
Anti-IgG (Rheumatoid factor) -- Rheumatoid arthritis
Antithyroglobulin & Antithyroid peroxidase (antimicrosomal) -- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Anti-desmoglein 3 -- Pemphigus vulgaris
c-ANCA -- Wegener granulomatosis
p-ANCA -- Microscopic polyangitis & Churg-Strauss syndrome
Antiphospholipid -- Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (Ex:SLE)
Anti-perietalcell -- Pernicious anemia

12. Neha Gupt a Active Member

MURMURS
Carey Coombs murmur- Mid diastolic murmur, in rheumatic fever
Austin Flint murmur- mid- late diastolic murmur,in Aortic Regurgitation.
Graham- Steel murmur- high pitched, diastolic, in pulmonary regurgitation.
Rytands murmur - mid diastolic atypical murmur, in Complete heart block.
Docks murmur-diastolic murmur, Left Anterior Descending(LAD) artery stenosis.
Mill wheel murmur- due to air in RV cavity following cardiac catheterization.
Stills murmur- inferior aspect of lower left sternal border, systolic ejection sound,
vibratory/musical quality,in subaortic stenosis, small VSD
13. Neha Gupt a Active Member

MOST COMMON CAUSE ASKED IN PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS


==================================================

MCC of intracranial metastasis-Ca lung

MCC of hepatic metastasis - Bronchogenic carcinoma

MCC of hepatic mets from GIT ñ Colonic ca

MCC of Intrauterine Growth retardation-C/c pyelonephritis?

MCC of HTN in children-A/c Glomerulonephritis

MC complication of CSOM-Temporal lobe abscess

MC ovarian tumour in pregnancy-Teratoma/Dermoid cyst

MC joint involved in Osteo Arthritis-Knee joint

MCC of interstitial/atypical pneumonia- Mycoplasma

MC Glycogen storage disease-GaucherÃs disease

MC porphyria-Porphyria cutanea tarda.

MC cause of childhood nephrotic syndrom-Minimal change disease

MC cause of adult nephrotic syndrome- Membranous glomerulonephritis.

MC cancer-Lung cancer

MC cancer in females-Breast cancer

MC cause of maternal deaths-Obstetric hemorrhage(PPH)

MC cause of Blindness in India-Cataract

MC site of Gastrinoma- Duodenum.

MC Paraneoplastic Syndrome-Hypercalcemia

MC paraneoplastic endocrinopathy-Cushings syndrome

mc presentation of meckelÃs diverticulumóñbleeding

mc s/e of radiation on heart óó pericardial effusion

m.c. cause of cushingÃs disease- pituitary microadenoma

mcc of primary hyperaldosteronism- b/l cortical hyperplasia

mc aldosterone producing adrenal tumour- u/l adrenal adenoma

mcc of post trauma vegetative state- diffuse axonal injury


mc asso anomaly with coarctation of aorta- bicuspid aortic valve

mcc of vasculitis in child- henoch-schonlein purpura

mc feature of aortitis on x-ray- calcified ascending aorta

MC intra-abdominal malignancy in children ñ Neuroblastoma


2nd MC intra-abdominal malignancy in children ñ WilmÃs tumor
MC hepatic malignancy in children ñ Hepatoblastoma
MC soft tissue sarcoma ñ Rhabdomyosarcoma
MC site for rhabdomyosarcoma ñ Head and neck
MC Pediatric tumor ñ ALL
2nd MC Pediatric tumor ñ Brain tumor
MC brain tumor in children ñ Astrocytoma
MC brain tumor in infancy ñ Supratentorial
MC brain tumor between 1-10 yrs of age ñ Infratentorial
MC brain tumor after 10 yrs of age ñ Supratentorial
MC embryonal brain tumor ñ Medulloblastoma
MC renal mass in neonates ñ Multicystic renal dysplasia
MC malignant tumor of kidney ñ WilmÃs tumor

mc tumours in parts of mediastinum-

anterior- thymomas
mid- cyst
posterior- neurogenic tu

mc tumour of mediastinum- neurogenic tu


most malignant masses of mediastinum- lymphomas

mc site of colonic volvulus- sigmoid

MC cause of renal artery stenosis

old age- atherosclerosis


young(india)- Takayasu arteritis
young( western world)- fibro muscular dysplasia
MC of eye in AIDS
1. Lesion- microvasculopathy of conjunctiva and retina
2. Infection- chorioretinitis
3. Neoplasm- kaposi sarcoma
4. Cause of chorioretinitis- CMV
5. Finding in HIV retinopathy- cotton wool spots
6. Rx of CMV retinitis- ganciclovir,foscarnet

MOST COMMON site in GIT

small bowel carcinoid-ILEUM

Ulcerative colitis,hirsprung disease-RECTUM

Polyps in peutz jegher syndrome,pneumatosis cystoid intestinaleñJEJUNUM


Amoebic colitis,volvulus-SIGMOID COLON

Bleeding from angiodysplasia-RIGHT COLON

BrennerÃs gland-1ST PART OF DUODENUM

MC cause of maternal death- obst haemorrhage

MC of isoniazid resistance- kat G gene mutatio

14. Neha Gupt a Active Member

AUTOANTIBODIES IMP FOR FMGE

Antigliadin -- Celiac disease


ANtimitochondrial -- Primary biliary cirrhosis
Antiplatelet -- Idiopathic immune thrombocytic purpura
Anti-basement membrane -- GoodpastureÃs syndrome
Anti SS-A (anti-Ro) & Anti SS-B (anti-La) -- SjogrenÃs syndrome
Anti ds DNA & Anti Sm (ANAs) -- SLE
Antihistone -- Drug induced lupus
Anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl 70) -- Diffuse Scleroderma
Anticentromere -- CREST Syndrome
Anti-IgG (Rheumatoid factor) -- Rheumatoid arthritis
Antithyroglobulin & Antithyroid peroxidase (antimicrosomal) -- HashimotoÃs thyroiditis
Anti-desmoglein 3 -- Pemphigus vulgaris
c-ANCA -- Wegener granulomatosis
p-ANCA -- Microscopic polyangitis & Churg-Strauss syndrome
Antiphospholipid -- Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (Ex:SLE)
Anti-perietalcell -- Pernicious anemia
15. Neha Gupt a Active Member

For MRSA Infection-Vancomycin


For Malaria in Pregnancy-Chloroquine
For Whooping Cough or Perteusis- Erythromycin
For Kawasaki disease-IV Ig
For Warferin Overdose-Vit-K
For Heparin Overdose-Protamine
For hairy Cell Leukemia-Cladirabine
For Multiple Myeloma- Melphalan
For CML-Imatinib
For Wegner's granulomatosis-Cyclophosphamide
For HOCM- Propranolol
For Delirium Tremens-Diazepam
For Drug Induced Parkinsonism-Benzhexol
For Diacumarol Poisoning-Vit-K
For Type-1 Lepra Reaction-Steroids
For Type- 2 Lepra Reaction-Thalidomide
For Allergic Contect Dermatitis-Steroids
For PSVT- 1st-Adenosine, 2nd-Verapamil, 3rd-Digoxin
For Z-E Syndrome- Proton Pump Inhibitor
For Chancroid-Cotrimoxazole
For Dermatitis Herpetiformis-Dapsone
For Spastic Type of Cerebral Palsy-Diazepam
For Herpis Simplex Keratitis-Trifluridine
For Herpes Simplex Orolabialis-Pancyclovir
For Neonatal Herpes Simplex-Acyclovir
For Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia- CotrimoxazoleFor Nodulo Cystic Acne-Retinoic acid
For Trigeminal Neuralgia-Carbamezapine
For Actinomycosis-Penicillin
For Plague- Streptomycin
For Opioid Withdrawal- Methadone 2nd-Clonidine
For Alcohol Withdrawal- Chlordiazepoxide 2nd-Diazepam
For Post Herpetic Neuralgia- Fluphenazine
For WEST Syndrome-ACTH
For Diabetic Diarrhoea- Clonidine
For Lithium Induced Neuropathy-Amiloride
16. Neha Gupt a Active Member

LIST OF SYNDROMES
SYNDROMES

ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME: Radiation exposure.


12 hours post-exposure: Vomiting
24 hours post-exposure: Prostration (extreme exhaustion), fever, diarrhea
Later: Petechial hemorrhage, hypotension, tachycardia, profuse bloody diarrhea, maybe
death.

CHINESE RESTAURANT SYNDROME: MSG reaction ------> Chest Pain, burning sensation
over parts of body.

BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME: Damage (injury) to half of spinal cord ------> symptoms:


Loss of pain and temperature sensation on contralateral side of body.
Loss of proprioception and discriminatory touch on ipsilateral side of body.

EISENMENGER'S SYNDROME: Ventricular-Septal Defect ------> Pulmonary hypertension


and cyanosis.

FLOPPY-VALVE SYNDROME: Mitral Incompetence due to myxomatous degeneration of the


leaflets.

BEHCET'S SYNDROME: Vasculitis ------> secondary symptoms:


Oral and genital ulcers
Uveitis
Optic atrophy

SHOULDER-HAND SYNDROME: Pain in shoulder and swelling in hand, sometimes occurring


after Myocardial Infarction.

SICK SINUS SYNDROME: Chaotic atrial activity; continual changes in P-Waves. Bradycardia,
alternating with recurrent ectopic beats and runs of tachycardia.

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME: Caused by a tumor. Obstruction of SVC ------>


Edema
Engorgement of the vessels of face, neck, and arms.
Nonproductive cough
Dyspnea

TAKAYASU'S SYNDROME: Arteritis of the Aortic Arch, resulting in no pulse. Seen in young
women.

WOLF-PARKINSON WHITE SYNDROME: ECG pattern of Paroxysmal Tachycardia.


Short PR interval
Delta wave = early QRS complex.

ASHERMAN'S SYNDROME: Adhesions within the endometrial cavity, causing amenorrhea


and infertility.
Adhesions probably were caused by surgery.

CARCINOID SYNDROME: Carcinoid tumor producing Bradykinin + Serotonin ------>


secondary symptoms:
Cyanotic flushing
Diarrhea
Bronchial spasm
Edema, ascites.

GARDNER'S SYNDROME: Multiple inherited tumors, hereditary dominant trait.


Skull osteomas, Fibromas, Epidermoid cysts
Colonic polyposis (APC gene) ------> predisposition to colonic adenocarcinoma.

LAMBERT-EATON SYNDROME: Progressive proximal muscle weakness secondary to a


carcinoma.
MEIGS' SYNDROME: Fibroma of ovary with ascites and hydrothorax

PANCOAST SYNDROME: Tumor near pulmonary apex ------>


Neuritic pain of chest and arm
Muscle atrophy of the arm
Horner's Syndrome (impaired cervical sympathetics)

PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME: Polyposis (hamartomas) of small intestine


Also see melanin pigmentation of buccal mucosa and skin around mouth and lips

DANDY-WALKER SYNDROME: Obstruction of Foramina of Magendie and Luschka in infants


------> Hydrocephalus.

DIGEORGE SYNDROME: Congenital absence of 3rd and 4th Branchial Arches (Thymus and
Parathyroid Glands) ------> secondary symptoms:
No cell-mediated immunity ------> Frequent viral and fungal infections
Characteristic facial deformities

DOWN SYNDROME: Trisomy 21. Mental retardation, characteristic facial features, Simeon
crease in hand.
FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type I: Bone-marrow hypoplasia ------> refractory anemia,
pancytopenia.

FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME: Fetal malformations, growth deficiencies, craniofacial


anomalies, limb defects.

GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME: Autoantibodies against basement membranes ------>


Glomerulonephritis (kidney) and hemoptysis (lungs).
Often, death by renal failure

KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME: Trisomy XXY ------> testicular atrophy, increase in


gonadotropins in urine.

LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME: Deficiency of HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phospho-


ribosyltransferase ------>
Hyperuricemia, uric acid kidney stones
Choreoathetosis
Mental retardation, autism, spastic cerebral palsy
X-Linked recessive

MARFAN SYNDROME: Connective Tissue disorder ------>


Arachnodactyly: Abnormally long digits and extremities
Subluxation of lens
Dissecting aortic aneurism

POSTRUBELLA SYNDROME: Infantile defects resulting from maternal Rubella infection


during first trimester.
Microphthalmos, cataracts
Deafness
Mental retardation
Patent ductus arteriosis, Pulmonary arterial stenosis

PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: Short stature, mental retardation, polyphagia with marked


obesity, sexual infantilism.

RENDU-OSLER-WEBER SYNDROME: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.


SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME: Unexplained death in sleeping infants.

TURNER'S SYNDROME: XO monosomy.


Dwarfism
Webbed neck
Valgus of elbow.
Amenorrhea

WILSON SYNDROME: Congenital defect in Ceruloplasmin, leading to buildup of copper ------


> mental retardation, cirrhosis, hepatolenticular degeneration.

CONN'S SYNDROME: Primary Hyperaldosteronism ------> muscular weakness,


hypertension, hypokalemia, alkalosis.

CUSHING'S SYNDROME: Hypersecretion of cortisol ------> secondary symptoms and


characteristics:
Fatness of face and trunk with wasting of extremities
Buffalo hump
Bone decalacification
Corticoid diabetes
Hypertension

SHEEHAN'S SYNDROME: Post-partum pituitary necrosis ------> hypopituitarism.

KARTAGENER'S SYNDROME: Situs Inversus (lateral transposition of lungs) resulting from


chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis.

MIDDLE-LOBE SYNDROME: Chronic pneumonitis and atalectasis of middle lobe of right


lung.

CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME: Allergic Granulomatous Angiitis: Asthma, fever, eosinophilia.


INFECTIOUS

GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME: Infectious Polyneuritis of unknown cause.


HUNT'S SYNDROME: Herpe's Zoster infection of Facial Nerve (CN VII) and Geniculate
Ganglion ------> facial palsy.
Zoster of ear

PARINAUD'S SYNDROME: Preauricular lymph node enlargement on the same side as


conjunctivitis.

REYE'S SYNDROME: Loss of consciousness and seizures in kids, after a viral infection
treated by aspirin.

REITER'S SYNDROME: Symptom cluster. Etiology is thought to be Chlamydial or post-


chlamydial.
Urethritis
Iridocyclitis (Conjunctivitis)
Arthritis
Skin lesions like karatoderma blenorrhagicum
Also can see fatty liver or liver necrosis.

SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME: S. Aureus toxic epidermal necrolysis


.
STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Erythema Multiforme complication.
Large areas of skin slough, including mouth and anogenital membranes.
Mucous membranes: stomatitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis.
Headache, fever, malaise.

TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME: Caused by superabsorbent tampons. Infection with Staph


Aureus and subsequent toxicity of exotoxin TSST ------> systemic anaphylaxis.
Fever, vomiting, diarrhea
Red rash followed by desquamation

WATERHOUSE-FRIEDRICHSON SYNDROME: Meningeococcal Meningitis ------> DIC,


hemorrhagic infarct of adrenal glands ------> fulminant adrenal failure.
Vomiting, diarrhea.
Shock
Extensive purpura, cyanosis, circulatory collapse.
RENAL

BARTTER'S SYNDROME: Juxtaglomerular Cell Hyperplasia ------> secondary symptoms:


Hyperaldosteronism, Hypokalemic Alkalosis, elevated renin and angiotensin
No hypertension.
Compare to Conn's Syndrome

FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type II: Renal aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hypophosphaturia,


cysteine deposition, rickets.

CARPAL-TUNNEL SYNDROME: Compression of Median Nerve through the Carpal Tunnel ---
---> pain and parasthesia over distribution of Median N.

ACUTE-BRAIN SYNDROME: Delirium, confusion, disorientation, developing suddenly in a


person that was previously psychologically normal.

HORNER'S SYNDROME: Loss or lesion of cervical sympathetic ganglion ------>


Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Enophthalmos (caved in eyes)

KORSAKOFF SYNDROME: Loss of short-term memory


in chronic alcoholism, caused by degeneration of mamillary bodies.
GASTROINTESTINAL

MALLORY-WEISS SYNDROME: Laceration of lower end of esophagus from vomiting ------>


hematemesis. Often seen in alcoholics.

MALABSORPTION SYNDROME: Impaired absorption of dietary substance ------> diarrhea,


weakness, weight loss, or symptoms from specific deficiencies.

BARRETT SYNDROME: Chronic peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, resulting in metaplasia
of esophageal columnar epithelium ------> squamous epithelium.

ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME: Gastrin-secreting tumor in pancreas ------> Severe


peptic ulcers, gastric hyperacidity.

PLUMMER-VINSON SYNDROME: Esophageal Webs, leading to dysphagis and atrophy of


papillae of tongue.
Also see hypochromic anemia, splenomegaly.

BUDD-CHIARI SYNDROME:
ACUTE: Hepatic Vein Thrombosis ------> Massive ascites and dramatic death.
CHRONIC: Gradual hepatomegaly, portal hypertension, nausea, vomiting, edema, ulimately
death.

DUBIN-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Defect in excretion of conjugated bilirubin ------> recurrent


mild jaundice. Buildup of direct builirubin in blood.

CHIDIAK-HIGASHI SYNDROME: Abnormalities in leukocytes with large inclusions.

LOFFLER'S SYNDROME: Eosinophilia with transient infiltrates in lungs.

PARINAUD'S SYNDROME: Preauricular lymph node enlargement on the same side as


conjunctivitis.

SJOGREN'S SYNDROME: Autoimmune complex


Keratoconjuctivitis Sicca (dry eyes and mouth)
Dryness of Mucous membranes
Telangiectasias in face
Parotid enlargement
17. Part ha Sarkar Guest

Comparison of hypersensitivity types

type I: Allergy (immediate)


Atopy
Anaphylaxis
Asthma

II Cytotoxic, antibody-dependent:
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Erythroblastosis fetalis
Goodpasture's syndrome
Membranous nephropathy
Graves' disease
Myasthenia Gravis

III Immune complex disease:


Serum sickness
Arthus reaction
Rheumatoid arthritis
Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis
lupus Nephritis
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (Hypersensitivity pneumonitis)

IV Delayed-type hypersensitivity[2] [3](DTH), cell-mediated immune memory response,


antibody-independent:

Contact dermatitis
Mantoux test
Chronic transplant rejection
Multiple sclerosis [4]
T-cells

V Autoimmune disease, receptor mediated :


Graves' disease
Myasthenia Gravis
18. Part ha Sarkar Guest

WHO criteria for obesity, based on BMI:

1. Underweight- <18.5
2. Normal BMI- 18.5 to 25
3. Pre-obesity- 25 to 30
4. Obesity I degree- 30 to 35
5. Obesity II degree- 35 to 40
5. Obesity III degree- >40

19. Part ha Sarkar Guest

K!ssing disease-glandular fever/inf mononucleosis


k!ssing ulcer-ant n post duodenal ulcers/vulval ulcer
k!ssing tonsils-hyprtrophd parenchymtous tonsils(grade 4)
Kissing virus-EBV
Kissing peptide-GNRH
Kissing lesion-donovanosis
Kissing arthritis-tb knee
Kissing app on x-ray-bladder papilloma

Strawberry tongue - Scarlett fever(white followed by red),Kawasaki's disease .


Strawberry vagina/cervix - Trichomoniasis .
Strawberry Gingivitis - Pathognomic of wegner's granulomatosis .
Strawberry Gallbladder - Diffuse cholesterolosis .
Strawberry Hemangioma/nevus -Birth marks .
Strawberry picker's Palsy -peroneal nerve compression .
strawberry skull-edwards dz

20. Part ha Sarkar Guest

* MEN 1 (Wermer Syndrome) – Parathyroid Tumor (Hypercalcemia), Pancreatic


Tumor(Gastrin), Pituitary Adenoma (Prolactin, ACTH).

MEN 2a (Sipple syndrome)– Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid (Calcitonin),


Pheochromocytoma and Parathyroid Tumor.

MEN 2b – Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid, Pheochromocytoma,Marfanoid


Features/Mucosal Neuromas
21. Part ha Sarkar Guest

Important culture media you need to know in Microbiology:


1. Levinthal & Mannitol salt agar: Staphylococcus Aureus
2. Crystal Violet blood agar: Streptococcus pyogenes
3. Loeffler's serum slope & Potassium tellurite blood agar: Corynebacterium
diphtheriae
4. Saboraud's dextrose agar: Nocardia
5. Robertson cooked meat medium: All Anaerobic bacteria
6. PLET medium: Bacillus Anthracis
7. Thayer martin or New york city medium: Gonococcus & Meningococcus
8. MacConkey's agar: All Enterobactericeae
9. Selenite F Broth & Tetrathionate broth: Salmonella and shigella
10. Bordet gengue medium: Bordetella pertussis

22. Part ha Sarkar Guest

VACCINE STRAINS

Measles – Edmonston Zogreb Strain


Typh-Oral – Ty21a Strain
Chicken Pox – OKA Strain
Rabies – Pitts Moore Strain
BCG – Danish 1331
Polio – Lancing, Leon, Brunhilde Strain
Mumps- Jeryll Lynn Strain
Yellow Fever- 17 D vaccine Strain
Hep A – HM175/GBM strain
Rubella- RA 27/3 Strain
Diphtheria- Park Williams 8 Strain
japanese encephalitis: SA 14-14-2, beijing and nakayama strains
23. Part ha Sarkar Guest

Important culture media you need to know in Microbiology:


1. Levinthal & Mannitol salt agar: Staphylococcus Aureus
2. Crystal Violet blood agar: Streptococcus pyogenes
3. Loeffler's serum slope & Potassium tellurite blood agar: Corynebacterium
diphtheriae
4. Saboraud's dextrose agar: Nocardia
5. Robertson cooked meat medium: All Anaerobic bacteria
6. PLET medium: Bacillus Anthracis
7. Thayer martin or New york city medium: Gonococcus & Meningococcus
8. MacConkey's agar: All Enterobactericeae
9. Selenite F Broth & Tetrathionate broth: Salmonella and shigella
10. Bordet gengue medium: Bordetella pertussis
11. Castneda method: Brucella
12. Cetrimide or dettol agar: Pseudomonas
13. Lowenstein jensen (L-J medium) or dorset egg medium: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
14. PPLO medium: Mycoplasma
15. skirrow's medium: H.pylori

24. Part ha Sarkar Guest

Important shelf-lives of contraceptives you need to know for FMGE:


(Shelf-life is only important for IUDs)
1. Copper IUDs - 3-5 yrs
2. Progestasert - 1 year
3. CuT 200 - 4 years
4. Nova T - 5 yrs
5. LNG IUD - 7-10 yrs
6. CuT 380A - 10 yrs

25. Part ha Sarkar Guest

swimming pool conjuctivitis-chl.trachomatis and adenovirus

Swimmer's itch-schistosoma japonicum

Swimming pool granuloma-m.marinum

swimmers view-best 2view C7&T1

swimming pool urine odor-hawkinsinuria

swimmer ear-ps.aeruginosa

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