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OBJECTIVE

• To determine the “end state” properties of air and water from tables or charts.

• To determine energy and mass balances using steady flow equation on selected

system.

• To investigate the effect of cooling load on “Wet Bulb Approach”.

• To investigate the effect of air velocity on: (a) Wet Bulb Approach, (b) pressure

drop through the packing.

INTRODUCTION

Cooling tower is a heat removal device that uses water to transfer process waste

heat into the atmosphere. Consider an air stream passing over the surface of a warm water

droplet or film. Assuming that the water is hotter than the air, then the water will be cooled

down by radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation. Radiation effect is normally

very small and may be neglected. Conduction and convection will depend on a lot of aspect

for example the temperature difference, the surface area, air velocity and others. Therefore,

the effect of evaporation is the most significant where cooling takes place as water

molecules diffuse from the surface into the surrounding air.

The water leaving will be at wet bulb temperature of the incoming air for a cooling

tower of infinite size with an adequate air flow. In order to calculate the effectiveness of

the cooling water, the difference between the temperature of water leaving cooling tower

and local wet bulb temperature, wet bulb approach, was used.

Figure 1 shows System A

Consider System A for a cooling tower as defined in Figure 1. It can be seen that for this

system, indicated by the boundary line,

• heat transfer at the load tank (Q) and possibly a small quantity to surroundings

• work transfer at the pump (P)

• low humidity air (𝑚̇𝐴 ) enters at point A

• high humidity air (𝑚̇𝐴 ) leaves at point B

• make-up water (𝑚̇𝐸 ) enters at point E, the same amount as the moisture increase in

the air stream

1

𝑚̇𝐴 = 1+ × mass flow rate of air/vapour mixture

1 𝑥(1+ )

= 1+ × 0.0137√ 𝑣𝑎𝑏

𝑥

= 0.0137√𝑣

𝑎𝑏 (1+ )

= humidity ratio of mixture

𝑄 − 𝑃 = 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝐻𝑖𝑛

𝐴

If the enthalpy of the air includes the enthalpy of the steam associated with it, and this

quantity is in terms of per unit mass of dry air, the equation may then be written as:

The term 𝑚̇𝐸 ℎ𝐸 can usually be neglected since its value is relatively small.

Lets redefine the cooling tower system to be as in Figure 2 where the process heat

and pump work does not cross the boundary of the system. In this case warm water enters

the system at point C and cool water leaves at point D.

Again from the steady flow energy equation, 𝑄 − 𝑃 = 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝐻𝑖𝑛 , where 𝑃 = 0.

𝑄̇ may have a small value due to heat transfer between the unit and its surroundings:

𝑄 = 𝑚̇𝑎 ℎ𝐵 + 𝑚𝑤 ℎ𝐷 − (𝑚̇𝑎 ℎ𝐴 + 𝑚̇𝑤 ℎ𝑐 − 𝑚̇𝐸 ℎ𝐸 )

Rearranging,

ii. Distilled water

iii. Beaker (500 mL)

Droplet Arrester

Water Distributor

Column B

Makeup tank

Control Panel

Blower

Receiver Tank

Figure 3 shows the Cooling Tower Demonstration Unit used in this experiment

The cooling tower demonstration unit contains:

• Load tank:

o 9 Litres tank fitted with 0.5 kW and 1.0 kW heaters, totalling up to 1.5 kW

heating.

• Make-up tank:

• Pump:

• Air distribution chamber:

• Tower:

o Dimension of 15 cm × 15 cm × 60 cm.

o Fitted with 8 decks of inclined packing.

o Packing density of 110 m2/m3 for Tower A and 200 m2 /m3 for Tower B.

• Water circuit:

• Air circuit:

• Temperature sensors:

o T1 Dry Bulb Inlet Air Temperature

o T2 Wet Bulb Inlet Air Temperature

o T3 Dry Bulb Outlet Air Temperature

o T4 Wet Bulb Outlet Air Temperature

o T5 Inlet Water Temperature

o T6 Outlet Water Temperature

o T7 Make-up Tank Temperature

o T8 Hot Water Tank Temperature

• Differential pressure sensor:

o V5 remains open at all times

o Orifice differential pressure: open V4.

o Pressure drop across packing: open V3 and V6.

DATA AND CALCULATION

Experiment 1:

Temperature Heating

Water Pressure Power

Time T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Level(mm) (Pa) (W)

5 24.2 22 27.7 26.5 30.1 24.4 24.1 255 92.5 935

10 24.4 22.1 26.9 26.3 30 24.3 24.3 222 92.5 934

Average 24.3 22.05 27.3 26.4 30.05 24.35 24.2 92.5 934.5

Initial

Pressure : 35 Pa

Initial

water

level: 285mm

Cooling

load: 1.0kW

Air Flow Maximum

Experiment 2:

Temperature Heating

Water Pressure Power

Time T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Level(mm) (Pa) (W)

10 24.5 22.4 30.9 29.9 36.5 26.7 24.3 198 95 1377

Average 24.5 22.35 31.65 30.55 37.75 27.1 24.3 95 1378.5

Initial

Pressure : 35 Pa

Initial

water

level: 285mm

Cooling

load: 1.5kW

Air flow maximum

Experiment 3:

Heating

Water Pressure Power

Temperature Level(mm) (Pa) (W)

Time T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7

5 24.6 22.5 31.8 31 37.2 27.8 24.3 230 260 920

10 24.5 22.4 28.7 28.1 33 25.9 24.4 195 260 917

Average 24.55 22.45 30.25 29.55 35.1 26.85 24.35 260 918.5

Initial

Pressure : 35 Pa

Initial

water

level: 285mm

Cooling

load: 1.0kW

Air flow 50%

𝑋 = 𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑝 𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 = 3.2 cm = 0.032 m

60𝑠

𝑡 = 10 min × = 600 s

𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝜌 = 1000 kg/m3

𝑚̇𝐸 = × 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒

𝜋𝑑2 𝑋 1

𝑚̇𝐸 = × ×𝜌

4 𝑡

𝜋(0.074)2 (0.032) 1

𝑚̇𝐸 = × × 1000

4 (600)

Make-up rate of water, 𝑚̇𝐸 = 2.2938 × 10−4 kg/s

Using the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature for point A and point B, from the

Psychrometric Calculator, the following reading is obtained,

At Point A (low humidity air / dry air entering the tower),

Dry Bulb Temperature: T1 = 24.2 ℃

Wet Bulb Temperature: T2 = 22.0 ℃

𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒, (𝑉𝑎𝑏 )𝐴 = 0.863155 m3 /kg

𝐸𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦, ℎ𝐴 = 64.5713 kJ/kg

At Point B (high humidity air / air and steam mixture leaving the tower)

Dry Bulb Temperature: T3 = 27.3 ℃

Wet Bulb Temperature: T4 = 26.4 ℃

𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒, (𝑉𝑎𝑏 )𝐵 = 0.87967 m3 /kg

𝐸𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦, ℎ𝐵 = 82.26819 kJ/kg

1 m H2 O

𝑥 = 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 273.4091 Pa × + 10.33 m H2 O

9.80665 × 103

= 10.33943 m H2 O

At point A, dry air flow rate,

𝑥

(𝑚𝑎̇ )𝐴 = 0.0137√

(𝑉𝑎𝑏 )𝐴 (1 + 𝜔𝐴 )

10.33943

= 0.0137√

(0.863155)(1 + 0.01577)

= 0.046989kg/s

At point B, flow rate of air and steam mixture through the orifice (outlet) is given by,

𝑥(1 + 𝜔𝐵 )

(𝑚𝑎̇ )𝐵 = 0.0137√

(𝑉𝑎𝑏 )𝐵

(10.33943)(1 + 0.0215)

= 0.0137√

0.87967

= 0.047471 kg/s

Mass Balance,

𝑚̇𝐸 = 1.5913 × 10−5 kg/s

(𝑚𝑎̇ )𝐵 − (𝑚𝑎̇ )𝐴 = 4.82 × 10−4 kg/s

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = | | × 100 %

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

1.5913 × 10−5 − 4.82 × 10−4

=| | × 100 %

1.5913 × 10−5

= 96.7 %

Energy Balance,

by using steady flow equation,

𝑄 − 𝑃 = 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝐻𝑖𝑛

= 𝑚𝑎̇ (ℎ𝐵 − ℎ𝐴 ) − 𝑚̇𝐸 ℎ𝐸

𝑄 − 𝑃 = 𝑚𝑎̇ (ℎ𝐵 − ℎ𝐴 )

𝑄 − 𝑃 = 934.5 − 40 = 884.5 W

The experimental result,

𝑚𝑎̇ (ℎ𝐵 − ℎ𝐴 ) − 𝑚𝑤 𝐶

̇ 𝑝( 𝑡6 − 𝑡5 ) = 1.9626 kW

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = | | × 100 %

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

884.5 − 1962.6

=| | × 100 %

884.5

= 114.2961 %

A Humidity Ratio 0.01577 kg/kg tB Ratio 0.0215 kg/kg

Specific 0.86315 Specific

Volume 5 m3/kg Volume 0.87967 m3/kg

82.2681

Enthalpy 64.5713 Kj/Kg Enthalpy 9 KJ/Kg

10.3394

X (orifice differential) 3 m H2O

Dry air flow 0.04698 Air & Steam 0.04747

rate 9 kg/s Mixture 1 kg/s

Mass Balance, 0.00048

ms 2

96.7007

6

% Error (Mass)

Energy Balance

power result 1.962597 kW

% Error 114.2961

Table 4: Tabulation of Results for Experiment 1

Calculation Result for Experiment 2:

Point Point

A Humidity Ratio 0.016131 kg/kg B Humidity Ratio 0.027637 kg/kg

Specific Volume 0.86422 m3/kg Specific Volume 0.900914 m3/kg

Enthalpy 65.68947 Kj/Kg Enthalpy 102.5162 Kj/Kg

X (orifice differential) 10.340 m H2O

Air & Steam

Dry air flow rate 0.046951 Mixture 0.047049

Mass Balance, ms 9.81E-05

% Error (Mass) 85.52689

Energy Balance

power result 21.98563 kW

% Error 1497.797

Table 5: Tabulation of Results for Experiment 2

Point Point

A Humidity Ratio 0.016258 kg/kg B Humidity Ratio 0.026177 kg/kg

Specific Volume 0.864537 m3/kg Specific Volume 0.89476 m3/kg

Enthalpy 66.0656 Kj/Kg Enthalpy 97.30829 Kj/Kg

X (orifice differential) 10.357 m H2O

Air & Steam

Dry air flow rate 0.046978 Mixture 0.047216

Mass Balance, ms 0.000238

% Error 94.12858

Energy Balance

power result 1.467704 kW

% Error 64.14845

Table 6: Tabulation of Results for Experiment 3

wet bulb temperature vs total cooling load

5

4.5

4

Temperature (deg C) 3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

Cooling Load (kW)

Velocity

300

Pressure Drop across packing (Pa)

250

200

150

100

50

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Norminal Velocity

Wet bulb approach vs Norminal Air Velocity

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Sample Calculation for Experiment 2

Experiment 2

= 𝑇6 − 𝑇2

= 24.35 ℃ − 22.05 ℃

= 2.3 ℃

1.0 2.3

1.5 4.75

Sample Calculation for Experiment 3

Experiment 3

𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑄 = × × = 0.1108𝑚3 /𝑠

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1𝑓𝑡 3 60𝑠

𝑄 0.1108𝑚3 /𝑠

Nominal Air velocity, V= = = 4.92 𝑚/𝑠

𝐴 0.0225𝑚2

From Table 1,

0.1108𝑚3 /𝑠

𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑄 = = 0.0554 𝑚3 /𝑠

2

0.0554𝑚3 /𝑠

Nominal Air velocity, V= = 2.46 𝑚/𝑠

0.0225𝑚2

From table 3,

Table 8: Nominal Air Velocity, Wet Bulb Approach and Pressure Drop at Different Air

Flow

DISCUSSION

serves with a purpose of removing heat from the industrial power plant or process. In the

cooling tower, the air and water are brought into direct contact with each other in order to

reduce the water’s temperature (Marley, Nil). Therefore, a small amount of water is

evaporated, thus reducing the temperature of water being circulated through the cooling

tower. The objective of this experiment is to study the performance of water cooling tower

at different operating states by changing the cooling load and the flow rate. We will

determine the relationship between that particular variable and the performance of the

cooling tower. The experiment was repeated twice for an interval of 5 mins in order to get

an average reading for temperature from T1 to T7, pressure, water power and make-up

water supply level.

Experiment 1

maximum flow rate. Psychrometric chart is a graphical representative f the psychrometric

process of air and it includes physical and thermal dynamic properties of air such as dry

bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, air humidity, enthalpy and air density ( Autodesk,

Nil). Therefore, we are not only able to retrieve the information of air at various dry and

wet bulb temperature but also the air humidity ratio and specific volume of air inlet and

outlet from psychrometric chart. Theoretically, the relative humidity of outlet should be

higher compared to the inlet. This can be explained by the heat was removed out from the

water through evaporation process and water vapour will build up at the outlet stream

which leading to the increase of humidity. Meanwhile, the water from the make-up tank

will replenish the load tank in order to refill the cooling tower. We will be using the

equation below to calculate the make-up rate of water and the flow rate for both dry air and

air mixture with the steam respectively.

The mass and energy balance were able to verify by using the steady flow equation.

According the fundamental of Newton’s First Law of Thermodynamics, the energy are not

able to be created nor destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to another form

of energy. Therefore, the total energy output of the system should be equivalent to the input

of the system. However, the theoretical value (884.5 W) that we obtained is not the same

as the experimental value (1962.6 W). As a result, the percentage error that we calculated

from this system was 114.2961 %.

Experiment 2

In the Experiment 2, heater power supply was varying from 1.0 kW to 1.5kW in

order to observe the relationship between wet bulb approach and the total cooling load. As

we know that wet bulb approach is the difference between the outlet water temperature, T6

and the wet bulb inlet air temperature, T2. The efficiency of the cooling tower was based

on the value of the wet bulb approach obtained. After calculations, we found that the wet

bulb approach for 1.0 kW total cooling load was 2.3 ºC and 4.4 ºC for 1.5 kW total cooling

load. The relationship between the wet bulb approach and the total cooling load was plotted

as shown in Graph 1. As we can observe from the graph was that the wet bulb approach

was increasing linearly with total cooling load. Hence, the wet bulb approach increase

when the total cooling load increase. Total cooling load is refer to the amount of the heat

energy needed to remove in order to maintain a constant temperature. The increase in total

cooling load will leading to more heat energy needed to be removed. Therefore, the wet

bulb approach increase. However, the maximum efficiency of the cooling tower is limited

by wet bulb inlet air temperature. The lower the wet bulb inlet air temperature, the higher

the efficiency of cooling tower.

Experiment 3

In the experiment 3, the observation of the effect of air velocity to the wet bulb

approach and pressure drop was obtained. During this experiment, the air flow rate was

changed to 50%. The heater power supply, valves and water flow rate are fixed as

experiment 2. Based on the Table 2, the nominal air velocity for 50 % air flow rate is 2.46

m/s with a wet bulb approach of 4.4 ºC and the pressure drop was 225 Pa whereas for 100 %

air flow rate, nominal air velocity 4.96 m/s with a wet bulb approach of 2.3 ºC and the

pressure drop was 57.5 Pa. When the air flow rate changed, the nominal air velocity also

will changed. The higher the air flow rate, the higher the nominal air velocity. The nominal

𝑄

air velocity was calculated using V = 𝐴 . Based on the graph 2, we can see that the pressure

decrease linearly with increasing nominal air velocity. According to Bernoulli’s principle,

as the nominal air velocity increase, the pressure drop across the packing decrease.

Therefore, as the nominal air velocity increases, pressure drop will decrease. From graph

3, we know that the wet bulb temperature approach decrease as the nominal air velocity

increase. This is might due the higher nominal air velocity leading to the contact time

between the air and water decrease. So, there is insufficient time for the heat transfer

between the air and the water occurs. Since there were not much heat transfer occurs, there

is not much different between wet bulb inlet air temperature and outlet water temperature.

To further discuss about the cooling tower, some of other applications that have the

similar function with cooling tower demonstration system are found. As the examples,

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system and computing room air

handler (CRAH) are similar to this demonstration system. Firstly, HVAC performs heating

and cooling for industrial buildings as well as provides fresh air to dilute interior

contaminants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). There are a few types of AC

systems such as chilled water system and window air conditioners. In a chilled water

system, the target liquid in the system is pumped to the “chilled water coils”. A chiller plant

is needed to cold down the liquid. The chilled water system is showed in the figure below

(Florida, 2007).

Figure 4: Chilled Water System

Next, a window air conditioner is installed in a window. A window air conditioner can only

cool down a small areas but not enough to provide cooling to a bigger zone. These air

conditioners are only can provide cooling and heating but couldn’t provide fresh outdoor

air (Florida, 2007).

In addition, the tower packing density is defined as the ratio of total surface area to

volume. The tower packing density will directly affect the efficiency of the cooling tower.

As the packing density increases, the efficiency of the cooling tower will increase as well.

This is due to when the packing density increases, the bigger surface area will be exposed

to air, leading to bigger effective heat exchange surface with air, hence, the heat transfer

rate between water and air and the water-to-air mass flow ratio will increase. Therefore,

the efficiency of cooling tower will be higher since the cooling effect increases. According

𝐿 𝑊

to the formula of 𝜀 = 𝑍 (𝐺 ) , whereby 𝜀 represents the efficiency of cooling tower, 𝑍 is

𝐿

the packing density constant, 𝐺 is the water-to-air mass flow ratio, and 𝑊 is a constant

independent of the packing material. The tower efficiency increases as the water-to-air

mass flow ratio increases due to bigger effective heat exchange surface. In short, as the

tower packing density increases the efficiency of the cooling tower (Higazy, et al., 1999).

There are some errors in this experiment which affect the accuracy of the results

obtained. There are heat loss to the surrounding due to the equipment is not well insulated.

Therefore, the reading of temperature we obtained might be accurate. Hence, a more

effective insulation equipment should be replaced in this experiment in order to obtain

results that are more accurate. On the other hand, the flowrate of the inlet water was

controlled manually without using a digital flowmeter with higher sensitivity, leading to

low accuracy of water flow rate. Besides, the cooling tower demonstration unit in this

experiment should undergo maintenance frequently to ensure this unit can function well.

The unit used in this experiment should also be cleaned frequently to clean out those

impurities in the water.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the percentage errors calculated using the result obatined from the

experiment was consider very high for all of the experiment which is over 50%. This

happened maybe due to the unsteady state of equipment and there are heat loss to the

surrounding or other errors occurred during the conduction of experiment. From the result

obtained, the wet bulb approach increases as the total cooling load increase was shown.

Next, the higher the nominal air velocity, the lower the approach of wet bulb and the larger

the pressure drop across packing.

REFERENCE

1. Autodesk. (Nil, Nil Nil). Psychrometric Charts. Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

Autodesk Sustainability Workshop:

https://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/psychrometric-charts

Retrieved March 27, 2018, from http://www.firstunitedqatar.com/?page_id=305

3. Florida. (2007). Florida Solar Energy Center. Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/buildings/commercial/hvac.htm

4. Higazy, M., Gaith, A., & Sakr, R. (1999). Optimization of Counter Flow Wet

Cooling Towers Characteristics Performance. Engng. Res. Journal, 65, 106-126.

5. Marley. (Nil, Nil Nil). What Is A Cooling Tower? Retrieved March 27, 2018,

from SPX: http://spxcooling.com/coolingtowers

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