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Exploration & Production

GENERAL SPECIFICATION

PIPING VALVES VESSELS

GS EP PVV 542

Fire tube boilers

03 10/2009 Update of reference documents


02 10/2005 Addition of “EP” root to GS identification
01 10/2003 Change of Group name and logo
00 07/2001 First issue
Rev. Date Notes

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.
Exploration & Production

General Specification Date: 10/2009

GS EP PVV 542 Rev: 03

Contents

1. Scope .......................................................................................................................4

2. Reference documents.............................................................................................4

3. Definition of design data ........................................................................................6


3.1 Basic data ..........................................................................................................................6
3.2 Particular Data ...................................................................................................................7

4. Rules of design .......................................................................................................8


4.1 Boiler shell .........................................................................................................................8
4.2 Fire tube, Flue gas tubes and Header Boxes ....................................................................8
4.3 Burner and heating equipment ..........................................................................................9
4.4 Liquid fuel preparation unit ................................................................................................9
4.5 Fan...................................................................................................................................10
4.6 Casing and insulation ......................................................................................................10
4.7 Instrumentation and control .............................................................................................10
4.8 Valves ..............................................................................................................................13
4.9 Stairs, walkways and platforms .......................................................................................13
4.10 Stack................................................................................................................................13

5. Manufacture of pressurised parts .......................................................................14


5.1 Welding............................................................................................................................14
5.2 Stress relieving Post Weld Heat Treatment.....................................................................15
5.3 Fabrication coupons ........................................................................................................16

6. Inspection, test and acceptance ..........................................................................16


6.1 Inspection of pressurised parts........................................................................................16
6.2 Testing of boilers .............................................................................................................18
6.3 Performance tests............................................................................................................19

7. Preparation before shipping ................................................................................22


7.1 Surface Preparation.........................................................................................................22
7.2 Packaging ........................................................................................................................22
7.3 Identification.....................................................................................................................22

8. Accessories and spare parts ...............................................................................22

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8.1 Accessories .....................................................................................................................22


8.2 Spare parts ......................................................................................................................23

9. Supplier documents package ..............................................................................23


9.1 Boiler and pressure vessels.............................................................................................23
9.2 Other materials ................................................................................................................23

10. Supplier's liability..................................................................................................23


Appendix 1 Radiation losses (ABMA code) ..........................................................................25
Appendix 2 Process data sheet ............................................................................................26
Appendix 3 Mechanical construction data sheet...................................................................28

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General Specification Date: 10/2009

GS EP PVV 542 Rev: 03

1. Scope
This specification relates to the thermal and mechanical design, and the manufacture, of fire
tube boilers, in which steam is produced from combustion of a gaseous or liquid fuel.
This type of boiler mainly consists of the following parts:
• A shell and two tube sheets forming the body of the boiler
• A fire tube serving as the combustion chamber and forming the first pass for the flue
gases
• A set of internal flues or "smoke tubes" forming the second and possibly the third pass(es)
for the gases before they are exhausted to the stack
• A set of headers or "smoke boxes", including: the back return header box placed at the
end of the fire tube, the forward return header box located at the end of the second pass
in a three-pass boiler, and finally the flue gas exhaust header, located at the end of either
the second or the third pass, depending on the design
• Heating equipment, including the burner, the fan and the liquid fuel conditioning unit
The boilers shall always be supplied in package form.
This document applies to boilers generating solely saturated steam and having the following
maximum ratings:
• Continuous rated output: 16 t/h
• Design pressure: 18 bar g.
Boilers with maximum ratings higher than those mentioned above shall be the subject of a
Particular Specification prepared by Engineering.

2. Reference documents
The reference documents listed below form an integral part of this General Specification. Unless
otherwise stipulated, the applicable version of these documents, including relevant appendices
and supplements, is the latest revision published at the EFFECTIVE DATE of the CONTRACT.
In the case where the user country has its own regulations, the latter shall apply whenever they
are stricter than the main code.
Consequently, the strictest requirements as between the local regulations and the main code
must be applied.
Exceptions:
Waivers of requirements in the reference documents may be granted by exception by the
COMPANY at Contractor's request, if justified.
Such exceptions shall be the subject of a special agreement before signing of the order.
In the event of conflict between this Specification and any of the Reference Documents, the
Supplier shall notify the COMPANY, who will decide. It should be understood that in all such
cases, the strictest requirement shall be overriding, unless waived officially by the COMPANY.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Standards

Reference Title
ASME B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads
ASME B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.11 Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded
ASME B16.21 Non-metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
ASME B16.25 Butt welding Ends
ASME B31.1 Power Piping
ASME B46.1 Surface Texture
NF E32-104 Code for the construction of steam generators - Part IV: Particular
rules for shell boilers

Professional Documents

Reference Title
ABMA American Boiler Manufacturers Association

Regulations

Reference Title
Not applicable

Codes

Reference Title
ASME Section I Power boilers
ASME Section II Materials Specification
ASME Section V Non-destructive Examination
ASME Section VIII div.1 Pressure Vessels
ASME Section IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications

Other documents

Reference Title
Not applicable

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Total General Specifications

Reference Title
GS EP COR 350 External protection of offshore and coastal structures and
equipment by painting
GS EP INS 102 Instrumentation identification
GS EP INS 900 Instrument hook-up diagrams
GS EP PVV 142 Valves
GS EP PVV 202 Standard drawings for accessories and equipment of vessels
GS EP PVV 211 Design and fabrication of pressure vessels according to
ASME VIII
GS EP PVV 611 Welding of pressure containing piping and equipment
GS EP PVV 771 Thermal Insulation (hot service)
SD EP PVV 201 * Tolerances of pressure vessels

* see GS EP PVV 202


Particular specifications:
Engineering will issue a Particular Specification to include all amendments, exceptions and
complementary details pertaining to the project involving the supply of this equipment. The
Particular Specification will in particular state which Codes and Standards, if any, must be taken
into account, according to local Regulations and any other location-specific requirements
affecting the unit in which the equipment is installed.
Data Sheets:
• Process Data
Engineering will prepare a Process Data Sheet for each boiler, giving the operating data
necessary for design.
These data will be formatted as shown Appendix 2.
• Mechanical Data
A Mechanical Data Sheet shall provide details of the calculation conditions and of the
main geometrical characteristics of each boiler.
This data will be formatted according to Appendix 3.

3. Definition of design data


3.1 Basic data

3.1.1 Pressures
All pressures mentioned are relative expressed in bar gage.
• Operating Pressure (OP)
This means the steam pressure at the boiler outlet in normal operation.

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• Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP)


This means the pressure at the boiler outlet constituting a temporary rate, due to various
causes, such as: setting at start-up, OP increase from an occasional adjustment,
temporary overpressure in a certain phase of operation.
It is therefore the maximum pressure expected during a complete operating cycle of the
boiler under the most severe conditions.
• Design Pressure (DP)
This means the pressure allowed for in the mechanical design for the boiler's various
pressurised elements.
It is equal to the pressure prevailing in the boiler, corresponding to the above-defined
MOP plus 10%.

3.1.2 Temperatures
All temperatures mentioned are expressed in degrees Celsius.
• Operating Temperature (OT)
This means the steam saturation temperature associated with the OP.
• Maximum Operating Temperature (MOT)
This means the steam saturation temperature associated with the MOP.
• Design Temperatures (DT)
These are defined according to French Standard NF E32-104.

3.1.3 Maximum, Continuously Rated output (MCR)


This is the maximum steam output the boiler can produce continuously for 8000 h per year, at
the above-defined OP and OT.

3.2 Particular Data


All of the following, plus any relevant items will be specified in the Particular Specification.

3.2.1 Weather Conditions


• Air temperature and humidity
• Wind speed and direction
• Snowfall
• Rainfall
• Seismic data.

3.2.2 Utilities
• Type and HHV of fuels
• Water supply characteristics
• Electrical supply characteristics.

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3.2.3 Scope of supply


This will be defined by Engineering by agreement with Supplier.

4. Rules of design
Material grades for pressure parts shall be selected in accordance with Table 1.

4.1 Boiler shell


Supplier shall state in the appended Data Sheet the times over which maximum rated output will
be maintained between the normal level and the low level alarm on the one hand, and between
the low level alarm and the very low level shutdown on the other hand.
The liquid level shall in all circumstances be maintained at 6 cm at least above the flue gas
tubes located in the uppermost portion of the boiler.
The boiler shell shall mandatorily be cylindrically shaped and shall have all the openings
necessary for inspection purposes and for easy access to all parts and internal portions.

4.2 Fire tube, Flue gas tubes and Header Boxes


Each boiler shall comprise only a single fire tube.
The tube sheet/fire tube assembly shall be designed to absorb the differential thermal
expansions. Therefore, the following types of fire tube shall be utilised, in order of preference:
• Corrugated fire tubes
• Corrugated, partly smooth fire tubes
• Smooth fire tubes.
Fire tube length shall be so calculated as to ensure that combustion is complete at the tube
outlet.
The headers shall be designed to allow easy cleaning of the flue gas tubes.
A safety door opening in the event of an explosion shall be provided.
The following methods of joining the smoke tubes to the tube sheets may be used, in order of
preference:
• Tubes expanded and welded
• Tubes welded
• Tubes expanded.

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Table 1 - Selection of materials according to design temperatures

Steel Rolled Forged Threaded


Temp. Tubes Nuts
type sheets parts rods
A 515 A 181 A 106
or A 516

+ 427°C Grade 1
Carbon Grade 60 for series
to Grade B A 193-B7 A 194 Gr2H
Steel Grade 65 150 lbs
+ 21°C Grade 70 300 lbs
A 105 for
series more
than 300 lbs

4.3 Burner and heating equipment


The burner shall be designed to use either a liquid fuel or a gaseous fuel.
The burner's range of correct operation in automatic mode shall, as a rule, be from 25% to
100% of the steam output at maximum continuous rating. However, a wider automatic operating
range may be required in certain cases and will be so specified by Engineering in a Particular
Specification.
The recommended excess air for safe boiler operation shall be 10% to 15% of the theoretical air
requirement for the continuous rated output. Should a different excess air value be required, this
shall be specified by Engineering in the Particular Specification.
The burner shall be equipped with a gas-fed pilot, for lighting the start-gas or the liquid fuel
lighting tube. The pilot circuit shall be separated from the main gas supply circuit. It shall be
equipped with high energy electrical lighting means and a flame detector. Pilot operation may be
permanent or intermittent and the pilot shall be designed to prevent flame blow-off when the
main burner is ignited or extinguished.
The burner, like the pilot, shall have its own flame detector.
When fuel gas containing appreciable quantities of H2S is used, the regulating nozzles shall be
plugging-proof or cleanable with steam. The lighting tubes shall be easily removable from the
header.
If liquid fuel is used, atomisation shall be mechanical with a return system device or steam-
assisted.
In all operating rates, steam consumption shall be less than 10% of the liquid fuel flow on weight
basis.
All parts of the burner exposed to radiant heat shall be made of alloy steel of a grade suited to
the purpose.

4.4 Liquid fuel preparation unit


This equipment shall be provided whenever liquid fuel is not available at the site in the quantity
and quality required for the burner. Redundancy shall be provided for the main components of
the unit (filter, pump and heater).

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The filters shall be cleanable in service. Heating shall be by means of steam-fed tube-bundle
heat exchangers. The atomising pumps shall be driven by electric motors; each motor shall
have its own source of electrical power. They shall circulate the fuel in the heater and in the
distribution circuits to the burner. The pumps shall be screw-type or geared. If necessary, an
accumulator shall be provided to maintain fuel pressure at the burner during changeovers
between pumps.

4.5 Fan
Unless otherwise stipulated, the fan shall be sized to accommodate a fuel flow 15% greater than
the flow in maximum continuous rated operation with 25% excess air.
The fan shall be driven by a direct-coupled electric motor. The motor/fan coupling shall be a
flexible type, without any kind of clutch mechanism. Flow regulation shall be accomplished by
means of inlet guide vanes. Vibration sensors shall be provided. Unless otherwise specified, the
noise level measured at 1 meter shall be less than 85 dB(A).
The air intake shall be protected and equipped with a noise suppressor.
Fan bearings shall be watertight and shall be ring lubricated.
The scavenging and sealing air shall be taken from the fan output.
Supplier shall furnish the fan's pressure/flow characteristics and start-up time.

4.6 Casing and insulation


The thickness of the thermal insulation shall be calculated so that the temperature of the outside
wall of the casing does not rise more than 30°C above the temperature of the surrounding air.
The lagging shall be designed and installed in accordance with Specification GS EP PVV 771.
In all cases, the boiler's casing shall be designed to allow access to the various parts and
assemblies requiring inspection, repair or adjustment.
All equipment in front of which personnel may be stationed shall be protected from rain by a
suitably arranged canopy. The lagging material used may be either solid insulation consisting of
compressed silica-, lime-, magnesia-, alumina-based, etc., powders or fibrous insulation such as
glass wool or mineral wool. These materials shall be free of any elements which might cause
corrosion of the insulated items or the protective casing.

4.7 Instrumentation and control

4.7.1 Principle of boiler control


The boiler shall be lighted and controlled locally by means of two sets of components, as
follows:
• An electrical portion grouping the local control pushbuttons for the auxiliary motors,
together with their indicators, the fault alarms, the motor ammeters, possibly the
emergency shutdown pushbutton and the electrical terminal strip for sending and
receiving information to and from the control room.
• An instrumentation portion grouping the following:
- The flame control equipment
- The control valve controls

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- The steam pressure regulator with its control servomotor for combustion control. The
control system shall be a positioning control type, provided the HHVs of the fuels used
are constant over time
- The safety indicator lights
- An alarm horn
- The instrumentation terminal strip for sending and receiving information to and from the
control room.
Engineering shall define the elements, if any, that should be installed in the control room,
namely:
• Steam pressure and top-of-stack flue gas temperature recorders
• Oxygen and carbon dioxide analysers
• Indicator of flue gas temperature at boiler exit
• Fuel flow indicator
• High level, low level, very low level, main safety and secondary safety alarms.
A separate relay cabinet shall be provided for all the relays, automatic sequence controllers and
alarm and safety sequences.
All instruments and control equipment shall conform with the reference documents.

4.7.2 List of equipment


The equipment to be supplied shall comply with applicable regulations and shall be selected by
Engineering from the following list:
• Volumeters
- Feed water.
• Controllers
- Fuel oil pressure
- Gas pressure
- Differential pressure of atomisation steam and fuel oil
- Fuel oil temperature
- Water level
- Steam pressure.
• Indicators
- Temperature of flue gas leaving the boiler
- Water level
- Steam pressure
- Gas pressure
- Fuel oil pressure

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- Gas flow rate


- Fuel flow rate.
• Recorders
- Opacity
- CO2
- O2
- Top-of-stack flue gas temperature
- Boiler tank pressure.
• Measuring Instruments
- Boiler tank level pressure tap bottle
- Tank pressure tap
- Gas pressure tap
- Fuel oil pressure tap
- Fuel oil temperature measuring insertion pyrometer
- Orifice plate for measuring fuel oil flow
- Orifice plate for measuring gas flow
- Orifice plate for measuring water flow
- Differential pressure of atomising fluid and fuel oil
- Insertion pyrometer for measuring boiler exit gas temperature
- Insertion pyrometer for measuring top-of-stack flue gas temperature
- Automatic viscosimeter on fuel preparation unit.
• Transmitters
- Boiler tank level transmitter
- Differential pressure gauge fuel oil flow transmitter
- Differential pressure gauge gas flow transmitter
- Steam pressure transmitter
- Atomising fluid/fuel oil differential pressure gauge.
• Transmitter tracing
Heat tracing shall be provided for the transmitter lines mentioned below if climate so
requires:
- Fuel oil flow
- Boiler tank level
- Steam pressure
- Atomising fluid/fuel oil differential pressure.

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• Control devices
- Feed water regulating valve
- Fuel oil regulating valve
- Gas regulating valve
- Fan air intake paddles servomotor.

4.8 Valves
The boiler shall be equipped with all the valves necessary for its operation, including, in
particular:
• Isolating valve and bypass valves
• Isolating valves on the feed water lines, the steam lines from the boiler, the fuel oil, gas
and atomising steam lines
• Isolating valves on the pressure taps and water levels
• Safety valves on the steam tank
• Safety temperature and pressure devices on the fuel oil, gas and atomising steam circuit
• Steam separator and blowdown valve on the atomising steam circuit
• Compressed air pressure-reducing filters.
All valve items shall conform to the reference documents.

4.9 Stairs, walkways and platforms


These items shall be provided to enable access to the different parts of the boiler and to all
equipment requiring permanent or temporary manning, the object being to ensure rational
operation of the plant through the following operations:
• Service operation
• Inspection and maintenance
• Intervention at critical points
• Measurement of the various operating parameters
• Reading of instruments.
Consequently, the following main plant items shall be served:
• Burner
• Inspection doors and peepholes
• Main valves.
Stairs, walkways, catwalks and platforms shall conform to the reference documents.

4.10 Stack
Unless otherwise stipulated in the Particular Specification prepared by Engineering, each boiler
shall have its own stack.

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The stack dimensions shall be determined by the most constraining of the two following factors:
• The necessary draft
• Compliance with the anti-pollution regulations in force.

5. Manufacture of pressurised parts


All other equipment, structures, rotating machines and stacks shall be manufactured according
to the General Specifications mentioned in the reference documents.

5.1 Welding
Welding shall comply with the COMPANY General Specification GS EP PVV 611.

5.1.1 Welding procedure


No manufacturing work shall be undertaken before the Supplier submits to Engineering for
approval, a welding procedure comprising at least the following headings:
• Reference
- COMPANY or Engineering Order Number
- Designation and item number of the boiler
- Place of manufacture.
• Diagrams
To represent the types of joint together with the welding sequences and with dimensions
of the plates (length, width, thickness) and pipes (diameter, wall thickness, length).
Plus:
- The grades of the materials
- The joint coefficients
- The construction and inspection codes.
• Welding description (on Form QW 482 of ASME Section IX)
This description must include:
- A reference to the qualification test reports for the welding procedures used (report to
be provided as a Form QW 483 appendix to ASME Section IX Form QW 482)
- Welds identification
- Form of weld preparation (oxygen cutting, grinding, machining, etc.)
- Welding process
- Welding position
- Welder or operator references (qualification)
- Consumables (rods, electrodes) and their diameters
- Protection flux
- Refractory electrode (diameter)

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- Characteristics of the electrical current


- Speed of execution of each welding pass
- Pre- and post-heating temperatures
- Welding equipment (hardware)
- Gouging (method)
- Heat treatment after welding
- Weld inspections: X-ray, ultrasonic, dye or fluorescent penetration test, etc.
• Qualification of welding processes
Qualification testing of welding processes shall be done in accordance with the procedure
described in the COMPANY General Specification GS EP PVV 611.

5.1.2 Qualification of welders and operators


The Supplier shall prepare the list of qualified welders according to ASME Section IX. This list
should specify the following in particular:
• The identification label of each welder.
• The number and date of the qualification report. (This report to be appended as an
ASME Section IX, QW 484 form.)
• The expiration date of the qualification.
This list must be certified by the Inspection Agency. Specific qualification tests for welders and
operators shall be conducted according to the procedure described in the COMPANY General
Specification GS EP PVV 611.

5.2 Stress relieving Post Weld Heat Treatment

5.2.1 General case


A Post Welding, stress relieving heat treatment (PWHT) must be applied if required by the main
code or local regulations.
Reminder: The ASME code is based on "P numbers" which define the need for heat treatment
of each ASTM-coded material, according to material and thickness. If equivalent materials are
accepted, the P-number criterion assigned by the code to equivalent ASTM materials must also
be applied.
The heat treatment curves shall be established by the Supplier.

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5.2.2 Special cases


A post welding, stress relieving heat treatment must also be applied in the following cases:
• To components subjected during their manufacture to surface deformations in excess of
5%, if formed at a temperature less than 427°C, considering the following:
100e ⎛ 1 − Rf ⎞
% deformatio n = ⎜ ⎟
Rf ⎝ Ro ⎠
e Thickness of the component
Rf Radius after forming
Ro Radius before forming (= infinite for flat parts)
• If Supplier proposes such treatment when he deems it necessary, even if it is not required
by the basic code or local regulations.
• Other cases, as specified in the Particular Specifications.

5.3 Fabrication coupons


Test coupons shall be provided in the following cases:
• When required by the basic code or local regulations
• When a part must receive a heat treatment as stipulated in Section 5.2.
For each element falling into one of the above categories, the Supplier shall produce two test
coupons with the same welding methods as used for assembly of the part, made of the same
materials (base metal and filler metals) and at the same time as the assembly. The specimens
shall be as thick as the thickest wall, not including stiffeners, if any. In addition, the specimens
shall be subjected to the same heat treatments as the part itself, if the part is so treated, at the
same time, in the same furnace.
The mechanical tests to be performed on these specimens are those required for qualification of
the corresponding welding processes and the tests shall be judged according to the same
criteria.
The results shall be certified by the Inspection Agency and reported to Engineering.

6. Inspection, test and acceptance


6.1 Inspection of pressurised parts
For all other equipment besides pressure parts, refer to the General Specifications mentioned in
the reference documents.
The boiler shall be inspected during its manufacture and after its completion, by the Supplier
himself and by Engineering inspectors and/or the inspectors of an Inspection Agency
designated by the COMPANY.

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The inspections to be made are those specified in the main code and by the local regulations,
i.e. mainly the following:

6.1.1 Materials inspection


This inspection shall be performed when the materials are received at the Forge. In cases
where the Particular Specification does not mention receiving of materials at the Forge works,
the Supplier shall apply the following rules:
• Pressure parts
The materials making up the main pressure parts must go through an acceptance
procedure carried out by the Forge itself.
The latter shall notify Engineering and the Inspection Agency, at least eight days in
advance, of the dates on which it will carry out the acceptance procedure.
The acceptance tests shall also include the tests stipulated in Sections 6.1.4 and 6.1.5 of
this Specification.
• Internal or external non-pressure- parts
The materials of these parts shall be received under the conditions stated in
Section 7.2.1.1, according to their grade and service conditions, i.e. corrosion and
temperature. This choice is specified in the Particular Specifications.
The materials for some carbon-steel parts excluded from the above cases may be
accepted on presentation of their materials certificates (mechanical characteristics,
chemical analyses). Certificates of conformity shall not be accepted.

6.1.2 Visual and dimensional inspection


• Visual inspection
By a visual inspection of the outside and the inside of the boilers, the Inspectors check
that there are no deformations, impact marks or other anomalies. They may ask the
Supplier to do any handling necessary to allow all the accessible parts to be examined.
Welds shall be particularly examined. They should not exhibit any of the defects refused
by the main code or the local regulations.
• Dimensional inspection
This inspection must demonstrate compliance with the dimensions specified in the
drawings approved by the COMPANY and/or Engineering to the tolerances required by
the main code or local regulations.
Specification SD EP PVV 201 reviews and complements certain tolerances of the main
code. In the event of differences between the tolerances specified by these documents,
the strictest requirements shall apply.

6.1.3 Radiographic inspection of welds


• Choice of total or partial inspection
The choice of total or partial radiographic inspection shall be made on the basis of the
main code, but must also be in agreement with the local regulations.

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However, total inspection of some parts may be imposed by the Particular Specifications
for certain items of equipment or proposed by the Supplier, even though the main code or
the local regulations do not require it.
As a reminder, ASME Section VIII div. 2 requires full X-ray inspection.
A film identifying and labelling plan shall be established for each unit of equipment.
• Partial X-ray inspection
Partial X-ray inspection shall be understood to mean: at least one x-ray per weld
connection, plus the films showing 10% of the developed length of the welds, both circular
and longitudinal.
• Interpretation of films
The films shall be interpreted in accordance with the main code. Welds deemed to be non
conforming by the Inspectors shall be given a second, full-length radiographic inspection
after repair, at Supplier's expense.

6.1.4 Ultrasonic inspection


Plates thicker than 30 mm shall be ultrasonic tested per ASME Section V - SA 435, by
peripheral probing and the grid method.
Ultrasonic inspection may also be used for other elements, for example if radiographic
inspection is not practicable or if there is a doubt about the nature of a defect observed on an
X-ray film.

6.1.5 Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant inspections


Corner welds and welds not able to be inspected by radiographic and ultrasonic means shall be
inspected using magnetic particles or with a dye penetrant test in accordance with the methods
specified by the main code.
Some exceptions to this rule may be approved in the case of welds on carbon steels having a
rupture strength less than or equal to 520 MPa and where assemblies neither directly nor
indirectly stressed by pressure are concerned.
The rule applies to all welds, including the weld zones of temporary fastenings used in
manufacture.

6.1.6 Supplementary tests


Supplementary inspection and test procedures are detailed in the Particular Specifications.
They apply to special cases, most often involving corrosion effects.
Examples (non exhaustive): Metallurgical testing by microscopic and macroscopic means
(macroscopic examinations of plate edges), ferrite content of alloy steels, Huey tests, etc.

6.2 Testing of boilers


Each boiler shall be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test in accordance with the ASME main
code.
This test must be carried out at the pressure calculated on the basis of the ASME code.
If the boiler is subject to a local regulation, it shall be subjected to a second, official test after the
first.

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In order to determine these test pressures, the Manufacturer shall base his calculations on the
Design Pressure (DP) specified in Section 3.1.1.
The tests must demonstrate the perfect pressure-tightness of the parts under pressure and the
absence of permanent deformation.

6.2.1 Factory testing


Transportable boilers shall receive the above tests in the factory, in a position compatible with
their size.

6.2.2 Temperature and quality of the test water


The water used for the hydraulic pressure tests shall be at a temperature at least 10°C higher
than the lowest transition temperature of the materials making up the pressure parts. If the
transition temperature is not known, the water temperature shall be at least 20°C for walls with a
thickness greater than or equal to 20 mm (The temperature shall be checked by sampling prior
to the test) (The temperature of the external skin of pressure vessels must not be less than
+15°C during the hydraulic test).

6.3 Performance tests

6.3.1 Preliminary tests


The preliminary tests shall be designed to prepare the boiler for the tests for checking
performance ratings guaranteed by the Supplier.

6.3.2 Preliminary Checks


Full visual inspection of the boiler. Verification of the cleanliness of heating surfaces on the
water-side and the gas-side and of the tightness of water, steam and air circuits.
Verification of the characteristics of the fuels, including viscosity and calorific value as
determined by Mahler's calorimetric bomb and conversion of HHV to LHV according to the
practice of the Inspection Agency.

6.3.3 Guaranty testing


As soon as the required conditions have been met, these tests shall be intended to check the
correct operation of the equipment and its compliance with guarantees.
They shall be carried out by an approved Inspection Agency, attended by Engineering and the
COMPANY.
• Testing proper
Tests to check the guarantees shall be made at constant load and, if possible, in the
maximum continuous rated operating regime. If the steam produced in such operation
cannot be entirely evacuated via the existing network, the tests shall be conducted at a
slower regime and the results extrapolated to maximum rated boiler operation by
approved formulas.
These tests shall last from 6 to 8 hours and shall be preceded by a build-up of the boiler to
the steady state in order to achieve thermal equilibrium for the unit as a whole. A
satisfactory smoke level must be maintained throughout the tests.

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• Measurements
Measuring instruments other than those provided with the installation shall be supplied
and installed at Engineering's expense and shall be checked, as required, by the
Inspection Agency. The Supplier shall be given the opportunity to verify them.
Steam and water pressures shall be measured with calibrated pressure gauges.
Water, air, flue gas and fuel temperatures shall be measured with insertion pyrometers
and calibrated thermometers.
Steam, water and air flows shall in principle be measured using orifice plates that will be
fitted to the installation.
Fuel flows shall be measured by the gauges, volume meters or orifice plates fitted to the
plant, according the possibilities of the installation. These measurements shall be
determined and taken by agreement with the Supplier.
• Miscellaneous
At the end of each test, the boiler's pressure, level and firing state shall be returned to the
values of the initial conditions.
The COMPANY shall supply the consumables used in carrying out the planned tests.
The Supplier shall assume the cost for the qualified personnel he deems necessary to
delegate for the tests.
The tests shall entail the preparation of test reports signed by the representatives of the
COMPANY, of the Inspection Agency, of the Supplier and of Engineering. The reports
shall mention any necessary repairs and/or adjustments.
In the event of disagreement by any of the parties about any of the tests, a counter test
(cross examination) shall be possible, under the same conditions as previously specified.
• Main measurements to be made during the tests
- Steam flow
- Steam pressure
- Water temperature beyond the control valve
- Discharge pressure of feed pumps
- Analysis of the fuels used in testing and determination of the basic LHV
- Temperature and pressure of the fuels used in testing
- Boiler exit gas temperature
- O2 and CO2 content
- Weighting factor
- Fuel consumption
- Analysis of water and steam samples.
The following parameters shall be kept constant throughout the tests:
- Feed water temperature
- Air temperature

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- LHV and density of the Fuels


- Excess air at the fan.
• Characteristics to be guaranteed by Supplier at maximum continuous rating
- Steam flow rate
- Steam pressure
- Efficiency at LHV, with blowdowns closed
- Steam dryness
- Mechanical power absorbed at the fan motor shaft
- Atomising steam flow rate.
The Supplier shall furthermore guarantee the following characteristics:
- Steam flow rate produced at the technical minimum rate
- Noise level: Supplier shall guarantee that the sound level from all noise sources
(except the safety valves) shall not, unless otherwise specified, exceed 85 dB(A) at
1 meter from the source.
Comment: The above guarantees shall be understood to hold provided the plant is
operated in compliance with Supplier's operating guidelines.
The Supplier shall accept that the tolerances regarding guaranteed features include the
tolerance for the measuring instruments used to check performance of the guarantees, in
the following conditions:
- Checking of guarantees shall be effected by an approved Inspection Agency
- Arrangements for checking the guarantees shall be made by agreement with the
Supplier
- All instruments used shall be recalibrated before starting the tests.
• Measurement of efficiency
Efficiency (R) shall be measured by the direct method, using the following formula:
(N − T) Qv
R = 100
Qc (P + HC2 - HC1) + Qa (Ha2 − Ha1)

Where:
P Net calorific value of the fuel (LHV)
N Enthalpy of the steam leaving the boiler
T Enthalpy of feedwater entering the boiler
Qv Steam flow rate
Qc and Qa Fuel and air flow rates corresponding to the steam flow rate
HC2 and HC1 Enthalpies of the preheated fuel and at the reference temperature
Ha2 and Ha1 Enthalpies of the combustion air at ambient temperature and at the
reference temperature

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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If the value obtained by this method, allowing for the tolerances, deviates from the
guaranteed values, a check shall be made to determine the heat losses as follows, based
on the pressure and temperature readings:
- Loss through the sensible heat of the dry gases
- Loss through the sensible heat of the water vapour due to the hydrogen in the fuel and
the air moisture
- Loss through unburned gases calculated from the volumetric analyses of the boiler exit
gases using an Orsat device
- Residual loss through radiation and convection: this cannot be directly measured, but
should have a value compatible with that obtained using the nomograph of the
American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA) reproduced in Appendix 1.

7. Preparation before shipping


The boilers shall be prepared for shipping as follows, after inspection and factory acceptance:

7.1 Surface Preparation


All outside surfaces shall be sand blasted and protected by one or more coats of paint,
according to the Particular Specifications.

7.2 Packaging
Machined parts shall be protected by a peelable varnish (flange coupling surfaces, chamfered
edges, etc.).
All orifices shall be plugged with tight wooden or plastic plugs designed to protect against
impacts and to isolate the interior of the units.
Special packing requirements may be specified in the Particular Specifications.
Separate items such as spare parts, valve and device accessories, etc. must be packaged and
labelled.
Stainless-type items must be separated from their temporary supports by means of isolating
materials such as wood when they are moved and stored at worksites. If marine transport is
used, the package must be sealed against sea spray.

7.3 Identification
The supply shall be identified by painted markings of the order numbers and drawing reference
of each piece of equipment.
These references shall be marked on the bodies of the equipment and on the separately
delivered parts and accessories.

8. Accessories and spare parts


8.1 Accessories
Besides any accessories as may be covered by the Particular Specifications. Supplier shall also
be required to supply the tooling necessary to dismantle removable parts.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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8.2 Spare parts


The spare parts shall include at least the following:
• 2 sets of gaskets
• 5% of bolting
• 1 fuel oil lighting tube.
The Particular Specifications shall specify the other parts and accessories, if any, necessary for
operation and maintenance.

9. Supplier documents package


9.1 Boiler and pressure vessels
• As-built layout and detail drawings
• Calculation notes
• Drawings of radiographic inspection locations with the numbers of the plates, the numbers
of the welders' stamps and an indication of the hardness values after heat treatment
• Records of heat treatment temperatures
• Materials acceptance reports (certificates)
• Description of welding procedures
• Qualification reports for welding procedures
• Qualification reports for welders and operators
• Non-destructive inspection reports (penetrant, US)
• Hydraulic pressure test reports
• Certificate of conformity and of inspection of the unit
• Reports on tests witnessed by an official agency
• Descriptive statement
• List of consignment and markings
• Photograph of the identification plate
• All other documents required by local regulations.

9.2 Other materials


The list of documents to be supplied regarding the structure, the piping and valving, rotating
machines and instrumentation is given in the general documents of the concerned trades.

10. Supplier's liability


The Supplier shall have full responsibility for the boiler he manufactures for as long as it is under
warranty.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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The main code, the local regulations and this Specification shall not relieve the Supplier of
liability in the event of failure of the boiler.
By mutual agreement, the Supplier shall be responsible for the thermal performance and the
mechanical strength and behaviour of the boiler (resistance to pressures, temperatures and
various loads specified to him or which he determines on his own in accordance with Section 3).
Comments made by the COMPANY and/or Engineering on the Supplier's documents shall not
release him from his liability.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1 Radiation losses (ABMA code)

Example:
• Heat release: 100.106 kcal/h
• 3 water-cooled walls
• Losses at 100.106 kcal/h: 0.32% of HHV
• Losses at 50.106 kcal/h: 0.63% of HHV
• 43210 - Number of fire tube barriers
• Coefficients for air-cooled walls
- Radiation losses (% GCV)
- Surface T - Air T = 28°C
- Air velocity = 30.5 m/min
• Coefficients for water jackets

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Appendix 2

Appendix 2 Process data sheet

Issue Approved Issue Approved Project no. Item: Page 1/


1 1 3 3
2 2 4 4 Location: Unit:
1 Service
2 Duty Type:
3 Production lot Mrf:
4 Operating conditions
5 Units
6 Steam output
7 Design pressure
8 Steam pressure
9 Feedwater temperature
10 Fire tube exit gas temperature
11 Second pass exit gas temperature
12 Boiler exit gas temperature
13 Excess air
14 Flue gas flow rate
15 Combustion air flow rate
16 Pressure in fire tube
17 Air pressure at fan outlet
18 Fuel type and LHV
19 Fuel consumption
20 Efficiency LHV
21 Blowdown rate
22 Losses from unburned products
23 Stack losses
24 Blowdown losses
25 Wall losses
26 Total losses
27 Fan power requirement
28 Boiler water characteristics
29 Total salinity
30 Total alkalinity
31 Silica-content

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Appendix 2

Issue Approved Issue Approved Project no. Item: Page 1/


1 1 3 3
2 2 4 4 Location: Unit:
32 Oxygen
33 Steam characteristics
34 Dryness
35 Conductivity
36 Total heat release
37 Power absorbed by the fire tube
38 Power absorbed by the smoke tubes
39 Heat flux transferred in the fire tube
40 Heat flux transferred in the smoke tubes
41
42
43
44
45
46
47 Comments
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Appendix 3

Appendix 3 Mechanical construction data sheet

Issue Approved Issue Approved Project no. Item: Page 1/


1 1 3 3
2 2 4 4 Location: Unit:
1 Service
2 Duty Type:
3 Production lot Mrf:
4 Design basis
5 Manufacturing code
6 Design pressure
7 Test pressure
8 Design temperature
9
10
11 Description
12
13 Boiler body Shell ∅ Thickness
14 Length Material
15
16 Tube sheets Ep. Material
17
18 Fire tube Type ∅ Thickness
19 Length Material Corrugations
20
21 Smoke tubes 2nd pass ∅ Thickness
22 Length Material Number
23
24 Smoke tubes 3rd pass ∅ Thickness
25 Length Material Number
26
27 Return header Back return Material Thickness
28
29 Return header Front return Material Thickness
30
31 Framework, stairs, platforms Type Material

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Appendix 3

Issue Approved Issue Approved Project no. Item: Page 1/


1 1 3 3
2 2 4 4 Location: Unit:
32
33 Heat insulation Type Thickness
34
35 Refractory lining Type Thickness
36
37 Burner Type Flame detector
38 Fuel oil light tube mat. Start-gas lighting tubes
39
40 Fuel oil preparation unit
41 Pumps Heater
42
43 Fans Type Speed
44 Material Drive
45
46 Casing Type Thickness
47
48 Instrumentation - Control
49 Pressure regulation
50 Level regulation
51
52 Dimensions Height Length Width
53 Weight Empty In service
54
55 Comments
56
57
58
59

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