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Fundamental Hydraulic Equations

Conservation of matter (or mass) or Continuity Equation

Conservation of Energy
Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of matter (or mass) or Continuity Equation

For small time interval δt, Steady and Incompressible fluid => Mass flow entering = Mass flow leaving. The
change of mass within the control volume is ZERO.

Any continuity equation can be expressed in an "integral form" (in terms of a flux integral), which applies to any
finite region, or in a "differential form" (in terms of the divergence operator) which applies at a point.

The way that this quantity q is flowing is described by its flux. The flux of q is a vector field

The dimension of flux is "amount of q flowing per unit time, through a unit area". For example, in the mass
continuity equation for flowing water, if 1 gram per second of water is flowing through a pipe with cross-
sectional area 1 cm2, then the average mass flux j inside the pipe is (1 gram / second) / cm2, and its direction is
along the pipe in the direction that the water is flowing. Outside the pipe, where there is no water, the flux is

Conservation of Energy

For small time interval of fluid travelling δt overt the length L, If No External Energy Supply, Then Ein =Eout

Total Energy is the sum of the Work Done, the Kinetic Energy and the Potential
P1A1L + ½ ρ1A1Lu12 + ρ1A1LgZ1 (1 denote the entering face into control volume)
Incompressible fluid ρ is constant (ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ)

We then have Bernoulli Equation

Conservation of Momentum

Newton’s Second Law

In classical mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or

simply momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg · m/s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an
object, quantified in kilogram-meters per second. It is dimensionally equivalent to impulse, the
product of force and time, quantified in newton-seconds. Newton's second law of motion states
that the change in linear momentum of a body is equal to the net impulse acting on it. For
example, a heavy truck moving rapidly has a large momentum, and it takes a large or prolonged
force to get the truck up to this speed, and would take a similarly large or prolonged force to bring
it to a stop. If the truck were lighter, or moving more slowly, then it would have less momentum
and therefore require less impulse to start or stop.
Linear momentum is a vector quantity, possessing the same direction as the velocity: p = mv

Ff can be representing the resistant

force of baffle blocks if any.