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KINGDOM of CAMBODIA

State Secretariat of Civil Aviation

Advisory Circular
POLAR ROUTE OPERATIONS

Number : AC.OPS 27 /10


Effective Date: 13.07.2010

1 GENERAL. Advisory Circulars (ACs) are issued by the St at e Se cret a ria t of Civil
Aviation ofC a mbo di a (SSCA) and contain information about standards, practices and
procedures acceptable to the Authority. The revision number of the AC is indicated in
parenthesis in the suffix of the AC number.

2 PURPOSE. This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance to the operator applying for
operational approval for Polar Route Operations.

3 APPLICABILITY. This AC applies to all Cambodia AOC holders.

4 CANCELLATION. This is the first AC issued on this subject.

5 EFFECTIVE DATE. This AC is effective from 13 July 2010.

6 REFERENCES. The following materials were referred to for the development of this AC:

(a) Boeing AERO series Publication on Polar Route Navigation;

(b) FAA Order 8900.1 Flight Standard Information Management System; and

(c) FAA AC 120-42B

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7 DEFINITIONS.

7.1 Polar Regions are defined as follows:

(a) North Polar Region – the entire area that lies north of latitude 78º00´ North; and

(b) South Polar Region – the entire area that lies south of latitude 67°00´ South.

8 INTRODUCTION.

8.1 Operations using the Polar routes are likely to involve long duration and range. Hence, it is
important that operators should refer to AOCR Chapter 4, paragraph 21 and Appendices C1
and C2 for ULR requirements for which an Authority approval is required.

8.2 Before commencement of operations using Polar routes, operator must ensure that approval
from the Authority has been granted.

8.3 Should there be any in-flight diversion to airfields in the Polar region, the operator must ensure
it has an operational plan to ensure safety, cater to physiological needs and expeditious
evacuation of passenger and crew. This plan should cover but not limited to the equipment
required and the configuration of the airplane.

9 CONSIDERATIONS.

9.1 The Polar Regions have some of the harshest landscapes and atmospheric environments with
challenges that require special considerations.

9.2 The following are some of the areas of particular concern associated with Polar operations:

(a) Fuel Freeze and cold fuel management;

(b) Anomalies associated with Magnetic and True heading references due to the area of
magnetic unreliability (AMU) and converging meridians when nearing the Pole;

(c) Limitations on use of HF, VHF and satellite communication;

(d) Space weather activity affecting air navigation, human health and HF communication;

(e) In-flight diversion and evacuation of passengers and crew from a diversion airport;
and

(f) En-route alternate airports.

10 FUEL FREEZE STRATEGY AND MONITORING.

10.1 The operator may develop his fuel freeze strategy and monitoring programme in lieu of using
the standard minimum fuel freeze temperatures for specific types of fuel used. In such cases,
the operator’s fuel freeze analysis and monitoring programme for the aeroplane fuel load is
subjected to SSCA approval.

10.2 The operator should have established procedures that require coordination between
maintenance, dispatch and assigned flight crew to convey the determined fuel freeze
temperature of the fuel load on board the aeroplane.

11 COLD FUEL MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE.

11.1 During long flight duration in very cold air mass, the fuel temperature could potentially
approach freezing point. It is imperative that a cold fuel management procedure be developed
for dispatch and in-flight use.

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12 NAVIGATION.

12.1 Operators are to provide information and procedures with regard to the use of Magnetic and
True directional references for navigation through the area of magnetic unreliability (AMU) and
near or over the True Geographical Pole.

13 COMMUNICATION.

13.1 Effective voice communications and/or data-link capability must be available for all portions of
the flight route. There must be an established communication plan and may be accomplished
using HF voice, HF data-link, SATCOM voice or SATCOM data-link.

13.2 Solar flare activity prediction and its effects must be taken into consideration when dispatching
a flight using polar route/s.

Note 1: It is recognised that SATCOM may not be available for short periods during flights
over the poles.

Note 2: Communication capability with HF radios may also be affected during periods of solar
flare activity.

14 RADIATION.

14.1 The operator must regularly monitor space weather activity and provide radiation forecast to
the crew.

14.2 A clear dispatch policy guideline on Solar, Electromagnetic and/or Geomagnetic Radiation
must also be in place.

Note: For further information on Radiation refer to:

(a) FAA AC 120-52 – Radiation Exposure of Air Carrier Crewmember.

(b) FAA AC 120-61 – Crewmember Training on in-flight Radiation Exposure.

15 IN-FLIGHT DIVERSION.

15.1 Apart from engine failure, an in-flight decision to divert could be caused by events including
but not confined to:

(a) medical alerts;

(b) depressurisation;

(c) hydraulic failure; and

(d) smoke warning in cargo-hold, in-flight entertainment system or Avionics.

15.2 An in-flight diversion within the Polar Region should take into account remoteness of the
region, weather conditions as well as limited supporting facilities. In this regard the operator
should develop appropriate procedures and processes to facilitate decision-making for in-flight
diversion.

15.3 Guidelines on medical emergencies, especially when no medical personnel are found on
board, must be provided.

16 DESIGNATION OF EN-ROUTE ALTERNATE AIRPORTS.

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16.1 An operator should designate a set of alternate airports, regardless of their distance from the
planned route, such that one or more can reasonably be expected to be available in a variety
of weather conditions, to support a diversion.

16.2 The aeroplane must be able to make a safe landing and manoeuvre off the runway at the
selected diversion airport. The airport must also have capability to remove disabled aeroplane
following landing, so as not to block the operation of a recovery aircraft.

16.3 In addition, these designated airports should be capable of protecting the safety of all
personnel by being able to:

(a) deplane the passengers and crew in a safe manner during possible adverse weather
conditions;

(b) provide for the physiological needs of passengers and crew for the duration of the stay
until safely evacuated, and

(c) safely and expeditiously extract passengers and crew.

Note: A time frame of 12 to 48 hours for execution and completion of a recovery is


considered acceptable.

17 RECOVERY PLAN.

A very important aspect of an unplanned diversion in the Polar Regions is the recovery plan.
In addition to paragraph 9.2 above, the operator:

(a) should demonstrate his ability to launch and conduct the recovery plan during initial
application for Polar route approval; and

(b) must conduct annual audit of his recovery plan for accuracy and completeness.

18 TRAINING.

The operator should address the following training requirements in his approved training
programmes:

(a) QFE/ QNH and meter/feet conversions (required for flight crew and dispatch);

(b) Fuel freeze (training for maintenance, dispatch, and flight crew);

(c) Route-specific training on weather patterns;

(d) Relevant aircraft system limitations e.g. fuel temperature limits;

(e) Maintenance control role in providing aeroplane systems capability information to


dispatch and flight crew to aid pilot-in-command in diversion decision-making;

(f) Crew training on the use of arctic suits;

(g) Dispatch and crew considerations during Solar flare activity; and

(h) Training of flight crew and dispatcher for role in the operator’s passenger recovery
plan.

19 MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST.

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The following MEL items must be serviceable and carried on board:

(a) Fuel Quantity Indicating System and fuel tank temperature indicating system ;

(b) Auxiliary Power Unit including pneumatic and electrical power;

(c) Auto-thrust system ;

(d) Communication system(s) relied on by the flight crew to satisfy the requirement for
effective communication capability; and

(e) Expanded medical kit to include automated external defibrillator (AED) .

20 FLIGHT VALIDATION.

20.1 In order to receive approval to conduct Polar operations, the operator must complete a
successful Authority-observed validation flight which should include demonstration of its
reaction and recovery plan in the event of a diversion to one of its designated en-route
alternate airports with emphasis on:

(a) Communications;

(b) Coordination;

(c) Facilities;

(d) Accuracy of NOTAM and weather information ; and

(e) Operability of ground equipment during the simulated diversion.

20.2 For aeroplane weight and balance purposes, revenue cargo may be carried in a validation
flight.

The Authority may permit the operator to complete the reaction and recovery plan exercise
rior to validation flight. In such case, the validation flight may be conducted with commercial

Head of SSCA
MAO HAVANNALL

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