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# Disk Brake: define and investigate

friction coefficients.

Simuleon B.V.
Sint Antoniestraat 7 5314 LG Bruchem
T. +31418644-699 E. info@simuleon.nl W. www.simuleon.nl
1. Introduction
This exercise will show you how to include friction as interaction property and
how to investigate its effects for a disk brake system.

In this example, a disk brake with initial rotational velocity will be put in contact
with a disk pad. Effects of friction will be an increase of disk temperature due to
heat generated by energy dissipation and the reduction of rotational velocity.

## The model will be already pre-defined in terms of geometry, meshing and

material properties. Your only task will be to define the interactions with the two
approaches provided by Abaqus, complete the model, run the analyses and post-
process the data.

2. Preliminaries
- Double click on the file Contact3.cae, this will open an Abaqus database where
you will already find a model called Model-DISK including the geometric parts,
the instance positioning in the assembly and the discretization of the parts.

- The model (Figure 1) is actually half of the model shown in the title page to
exploit the symmetry occurring in the X-Y plane and reduce the cost of the
analysis.

## Figure 1. Assembly of the disk brake model.

3. Material and section properties

Simuleon B.V.
Sint Antoniestraat 7 5314 LG Bruchem
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- Double-click Materials in the Model Tree. In the Edit Material dialog box, name
the material Aluminium. From the material editor’s menu bar, select Mechanical
→ Elasticity → Elastic, enter a Young Modulus value of 70,000 MPa and a
Poisson coefficient equal to 0.3. Select Thermal → Conductivity. Enter a value
of 0.15 W/mm/°C. From the material editor’s menu bar, select Thermal →
Specific Heat. Enter a value of 670,000 J/tonn/°C. Select General → Density
and enter a value of 8E-8 tonn/mm3 (this value is slightly higher than reality and it
is done to artificially fasten the simulation time for this tutorial). Click OK to exit
the material editor.

## - Now create a new solid homogeneous section called Section-Aluminium by

clicking on Sections in the model tree. Choose Aluminium as material and click
OK.

Simuleon B.V.
Sint Antoniestraat 7 5314 LG Bruchem
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- Assign the section to both the Disk and the Pad. In the model tree, explode the
Parts container, explode the part called Disk and double-click on Section
Assignment. Select the whole geometry and the Section called Section-
Aluminium. The part should turn from grey to green. Repeat the same for the Pad
part.

- Double click Assembly in the model tree, and click on the View Mesh Icon and
check the assembly and its already predefined mesh.

Simuleon B.V.
Sint Antoniestraat 7 5314 LG Bruchem
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4. Define the analysis steps
- Double-click on Steps in the model tree and create a new Dynamic, Temp-disp,
Explicit step. Make sure Nlgeom parameter is set as on and enter 0.1 as Time
Period.

## - Explode the container called Field Output Requestss and double-click F-

Output-1, make sure that the variables ThermalNT and ThermalTemp are
selected.

## 5. Define boundary and loading conditions

Three boundary conditions, two predefined fields and one loading condition are
applied to this model.

## - Define a Symmetric displacement condition to the disk in the z direction.

Double click on BCs in the model tree, call the boundary condition as BC-SYMM-
Z, select Initial as step and Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre as type. Select the
disk face highlighted in the following Figure as region and then Z-SYMM as type.
Keep the CTRL button pressed to select multiple object.

Simuleon B.V.
Sint Antoniestraat 7 5314 LG Bruchem
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- Create now a new Boundary condition called BC-Encastre to encastre the
centre of the disk. Select Initial as step and Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre as
type. Click on Sets in the lower toolbar and select predefined set called Disk-
1.Set-CENTER as region and then ENCASTRE as type.

## - Create a Displacement/Rotation boundary condition called BC-PAD. Select

Initial as step, Displacement/Rotation as type, select the predefined set called
Pad-1.Set-BC and fix U1 and U2 degrees of freedom.

- Create a new pressure load on the Pad part to push it towards the disk. Double-
click on Loads in the model tree, choose Pressure as type of load, select the
external surface of the pad as region and enter 10 as magnitude of the load.
Select the predefined amplitude Amp-1 as load amplitude (linear ramp).

## - Create a new Initial temperature assignment to the system. Double-click on

Predefined Fields in the model tree. Enter Predefined-Temperature as Name,
select Initial as Step, Other as Category and Temperature as Type. Select the
whole model in the viewport, keep the default settings and enter 20 as
Temperature. Click OK.

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- Create a new initial velocity assignment to the disk. Double-click on
Predefined Fields in the model tree. Enter Predefined-Velocity as Name, select
Initial as Step, Mechanical as Category and Velocity as Type. Select the
predefined set called Disk-1.Set-Velocity as region, choose Rotational only as
definition type, enter 100 as angular velocity, 0,0,0 and 0,0,1 as axis points. Click
OK.

## 6. Define Interactions using Contact Pair approach

- Create new Interaction Property by double-clicking Interaction Properties in
the model tree, call it IntProp-1 and select Contact as Type. Select Hard contact
for Mechanical Normal Behaviour. Select MechanicalTangential
Behaviour, select Penalty as Friction formulation and enter 0.1 as friction
coefficient. Select Thermal Heat Generationand accept all the default values.
Click OK.

## - Create now a new Surface-To-Surface interaction. Double click on

Interactions, select Initial as Step, call the new interaction as INT-DISK and
choose Surface-to-Surface as type. Select the disk surface as master. To ease
the selection process of the slave surface, right click the Disk-1 instance in the
model tree under the AssemblyInstances container. In the menu that appears,
select hide to make the internal surface of the pad selectable. Click the red x in
the lower toolbar and select the internal pad surface as slave. Select IntProp-1 as
global interaction property. Right-click the disk instance and select ‘Show’ to
restore the visibility of the disk.

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7. Create and Submit a Job
- Double-click Jobs in the model tree and create a new Job called Contact3-
FR_0p1. Select the Model-DISK and click Continue and then ok. Now, right-click
on Jobs and open the Job-Manager. Highlight the job Contact3-FR_0p1
previously created and click on Submit to start your analysis and on Monitor to
monitor the advancement of the analysis. Once it is terminated click on Results.

## 8. View the Results

- Visualize the complete model. In the main menu bar, click on View  Odb
Display options and enter the Mirror/Pattern tab. Tick the XY mirror planes to
mirror the model and exploit the symmetry of the system. Click OK.

## - Visualize the displacement, temperature and the stress contour plots.

Animate the analysis using the tools highlighted in the following picture. Then
return on the model tree bu clicking on the Model tab on top on the left.

Simuleon B.V.
Sint Antoniestraat 7 5314 LG Bruchem
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- In order to plot the history of velocity on a node, click on the ‘Create an X-Y
plot’ icon, select ODB field output as source, Unique Nodal as Position and
Velocity Magnitude as output variable. Move to the Elements/Nodes tab, click
Edit Selection and pick a node of the disk edge from the viewport. Click Plot. In
the Results tree, rename the XYData as XT-FR0p1.

Simuleon B.V.
Sint Antoniestraat 7 5314 LG Bruchem
T. +31418644-699 E. info@simuleon.nl W. www.simuleon.nl
9. Modify the Friction coefficients
- If wanted, vary the friction coefficients with a range from 0.01 to 0.3. Plot the
different velocity profiles in the same chart and investigate the effect of friction on
the braking system.
- For each friction coefficient, edit the friction value in the interaction property,
create a new Job with a different name and submit it. You do not need to create a
new model for each coefficient.

Simuleon B.V.
Sint Antoniestraat 7 5314 LG Bruchem
T. +31418644-699 E. info@simuleon.nl W. www.simuleon.nl