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CHAPTER 11

ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS


11.1

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Department, National Highway Zone
CHAPTER 12

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


12.1 Introduction
This Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report presents the environmental assessment
of the proposed improvements for Feasibility Study, Detailed Project Report, Survey And
Preparation Of Land Plan For Widening To Two Lane With Paved Shoulders From Km.
125.626 to 182.126 of NH 167 Hagari to Andhra Pradesh Border Section viz., Tungabhadra
river Bridge (AP Border) to Krishna River Bridge (Telangana Border) in the State Of
Karnataka EPC Mode, and the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to minimise or
mitigate the impacts identified. Guidelines formulated by Ministry of Environment and Forest
(MoEF) were referred for preparing the EIA. Apart from this, various Indian acts and
regulations were reviewed such as Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,
1974(amended in 1978 and 1988), Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and EIA Notification, 2006. Following are the major
tasks conducted as part of EIA Study

 Preliminary reconnaissance survey and collection of secondary information to


identify environmentally sensitive issues relating to the project;
 Identification of base-line status of various environmental parameters through
environmental monitoring study;
 Assessment of potential impacts of the project on these base-line conditions;
 Formulation of Environment Management Plan (EMP) incorporating appropriate
mitigation measures to offset the identified adverse impacts and Environmental
Monitoring Plan for evaluating the effective implementation of EMP;
 Estimation of cost for EMP and Monitoring Plan; and
 Formulation of institutional arrangements for the implementation of EMP.
Based on the above mentioned improvement proposals the present chapter is an attempt to
understand impact on environment and its mitigation measures to overcome these impacts.
This chapter also discusses objective of environmental assessment, EA process adopted in the
study, existing characteristics of the proposed road and potential environmental impact

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Department, National Highway Zone
because of proposed improvement. Section of this chapter also analyzes mitigation measures
required for the impact caused because of proposed improvement.

12.2 Objectives
The report in hand is prepared in accordance with the Government of India (GoI) guidelines
on Environmental Assessment and to meet the statutory requirement of Ministry of
Environmental and Forest (MoEF) under Environmental protection Act 1986 (EA notification
September 2006), State Pollution Control Board (SPCB), State Forest Department, etc. The
objectives of this study are stated below:

To present to decision makers a clear assessment of potential impact associated with the
proposed project intervention,

To apply a methodology which assesses and predict potential impacts and provides a) the
means for impact prevention and mitigation, b) the enhancement of project benefits, and c)
the minimization of long-term impacts;

To provide a specific forum in which consultation is systematically undertaken in a manner


that allows stakeholders to have direct input to the environmental management process.

To assess the analysis of alternatives to bring environmental considerations into the upstream
stages of development planning as well as the later stage of site selection, design and
implementation, and

To recommend the environmental management measures to reduce adverse impacts.

12.3 Project Benefits


 The implementation of the project will have the following direct benefits. The project
will ensure improved safe and efficient connectivity along various cities due to
enhanced Level of Service along the project road
 Improved quality of life for the population in the project area. Economic boost to the
local population by facilitate easy transportation of materials and having better
connectivity for the commercial centres.
 Improved quality of life for the population in the project area. Economic boost to the
local population by facilitate easy transportation of materials and having better
connectivity for the commercial centres.
 Provides employment facility for the local population.

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Department, National Highway Zone
 Improvement accessibility to tourist centres like Mantrayalam.
 Improvement connectivity to Industrial Cities like Shakthinagar and Yermaras
 Development of agricultural and forest based industries in these regions

12.4 Generic Structure of Environmental Impact Assessment Document


In terms of the EIA notification of the MOEF dated 14th September 2006, the generic
structure of the EIA document shall be as under:

 Introduction
 Project Description
 Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site)
 Description of the Environment
 Anticipated Environmental Impact & Mitigation Measures
 Environmental Monitoring Program
 Additional Studies
 Project Benefits
 Environmental Cost Benefit Analysis
 Environmental Management Plan
 Summary & Conclusion
 Disclosure of Consultants engaged

12.5 Existing Characteristics


The National highway 167, originating from Hagari on NH 167 (Old NH - 63) in Karnataka,
connecting Mahabubnagar and Terminating at Jadcherla on NH – 44 (Old NH – 7) in the
state of Telangana vide Gazette of India notification No. SO. 1832(E) dated; 14-08-2012. The
total length of this Highway is 283.055 Km. The length of this highway traversing in the state
of Karnataka is 71.40 km i.e., from km 0.00 to 14.900 i.e., 14.90 km in Bellary district and
from 125.626 (Tungabhadra Bridge) to 182.126 (Krishna Bridge) i.e., 56.50 km in Raichur
district.

The Alignment of the project starts at km 125.626 of NH – 167 at Tungabhadra River Bridge
and runs through nearby villages namely Gilesugur, Gunjalli, Tuntapura, Raichur, Yegnur,
Yegnur and Shaktinagar and ends at nearby Krishna River Bridge at km 182.126 of NH 167.

The total length of the project road stretch is 56.500 km in Raichur district

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Department, National Highway Zone
12.6 Salient Features of Project Road
Table 12- 1 Salient Features of NH 167 Project Road
Sl. No Description Details
1 Name of the Road NH-167
Start of the Project (Tungabhadra
2 Ch: 125.626 Km
River Bridge, AP Border)

End of the Project (Krishna river


3 Ch: 182.126 Km
Bridge, Telangana Border)

Total Length of the Project Road after


55.815 km
re-designing of curves

4 Two Lane + Paved Shoulder 25.346 km


Four lane in all built up areas 4.828 km
Four Lane + Paved Shoulder 19.381 km
6.26 km (Not considered in the project
Raichur City Limits
length)
5 Right Of Way (ROW) Varies From 26m to 45m
Proposed Lane Configuration (Rural
6 2-lane With Paved Shoulders
areas)
Proposed Lane Configuration (Built-up 4-lane divided carriage way with Rigid
7
areas) Pavement, Footpath, CC Drain, Railings
CD Structures

Reconstruction @ existing locations Two Lane (Nos.) Four Lane (Nos.)

Pipe Culvert 23 16
Box Culvert 6 5
Slab Bridge 6 1
Girder Bridge 1 0
Total 58 Nos.
8
New construction @ Realignment Two Lane Four Lane

Pipe Culvert 6 0
Box Culvert 2 0
Slab Bridge 1 0
Girder Bridge 0 0
Total 9Nos.

Widening of Existing CD Two Lane Four Lane

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Department, National Highway Zone
Sl. No Description Details
Pipe Culvert 11 9
Box Culvert 0 0
Slab Bridge 0 1
Girder Bridge 1 1
Total 23 Nos.
Junctions
Major Junctions 4
9
Minor Junctions 22
Total 26
Tungabhadra, Gillesugur, Perebudur,
Hanchanala, Gunjalli, Yeragera,
10 City/ Villages along the project stretch
Tuntapura, Raichur, Yermaras, Chiksugur,
Hegganahalli, Shakthinagar, Deosugur.
It connects Bellary, Raichur, Yadgir
districts and important places RTPS and
YTPS in the state of Karnataka and Alur,
11 Major Connectivity
Adoni, Mantralayam, Mehaboobnagar,
Jadcherala (NH-7) and Hyderabad in the
state of Telangana.
Road Marking with Retro-reflective
enamel Paint, Retro-reflective Sign
Boards, Road Side Safety Barriers such as
12 Project Safety Features Proposed Guard Stones, W-Beam Metal Beam Crash
Barrier, Foot paths, Median Barricades,
Road Studs, Cat Eyes, Chevron Boards and
all Safety features During Construction

Pedestrian footpath / Walk way Facilities,


Street Lighting, Wayside Amenities, Truck
13 Proposed Project Facilities
Lay Byes, Bus Bays, Bus Shelters, Cattle
Crossing, Traffic & Medical Aid Post etc
It connects Bellary, Raichur, Yadgir
districts and important places RTPS and
YTPS in the state of Karnataka and Alur,
14 Major Connectivity Adoni, Mantralayam, Mahaboobnagar in
the state of Andhra Pradesh and Jadcherala
(NH-7) and Hyderabad in the state of
Telangana.
Further provision for construction of toll
plaza at suitable locations will be made
15 Toll Plaza
after obtaining the approval of the
alignment

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Department, National Highway Zone
12.7 Proposed Improvements
The proposal consists of a design speed of 80-100 kilometres with partial access controlled
highways. The proposed two lanes with paved shoulder have length of 25.346 km and Four
lane with Paved Shoulder with a length of 24.209 highways Respectively .Detailed about
Proposed Improvements is presented in Table 12.2.

Table 12- 2 Proposed Improvements and its length

Chainage Length
Sl No. Remark
From To (Km)

1 125.626 126.226 0.6 Overlay (Mastic Asphalt)

2 126.226 127.926 1.7 Reconstruction Two Lane with Paved Shoulder

3 127.926 128.026 0.1 Reconstruction Two Lane with Paved Shoulder

4 128.026 128.6 0.574 Reconstruction Two Lane with Paved Shoulder


Reconstruction Four Lane with Footpath In
5 128.6 129.48 0.88
Built up Area
Widening and Strengthening with Paved
6 129.48 129.95 0.47
Shoulder
Realignment- New construction for Two Lane
7 129.95 130.45 0.5
with Paved Shoulder
Widening and Strengthening With Paved
8 130.45 130.95 0.5
Shoulder
Strengthening and Widening to 4 lane With
9 130.95 131.65 0.7
Footpath in Built up Area
Widening and Strengthening With Paved
10 131.65 133.1 1.45
Shoulder
Strengthening and Widening to 4 lane With
11 133.1 133.35 0.25
Footpath in Built up Area
Widening and Strengthening With Paved
12 133.35 137.2 3.85
Shoulder
Strengthening and Widening to 4 lane With
13 137.2 137.85 0.65
Footpath in Built up Area
Reconstruction to Four lane with paved
14 137.85 137.95 0.1
shoulders
Realignment- New construction for Two Lane
15 137.95 138.35 0.4
with Paved Shoulder
Reconstruction Four Lane with Footpath In
16 138.35 138.55 0.2
Built up Area

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Department, National Highway Zone
Realignment- New construction for Two Lane
17 138.55 139 0.45
with Paved Shoulder
18 139 140.5 1.5 Reconstruction Two Lane with Paved Shoulder
Reconstruction Four Lane with Footpath In
19 140.5 141.648 1.148
Built up Area
20 141.648 146.15 4.502 Reconstruction Two Lane with Paved Shoulder

21 146.15 146.4 0.25 Reconstruction Two Lane with Paved Shoulder

22 146.4 149.2 2.8 Reconstruction Two Lane with Paved Shoulder


Realignment- New construction for Two Lane
23 149.2 152.45 3.25
with Paved Shoulder
24 152.45 154.7 2.25 Reconstruction Two Lane with Paved Shoulder
Reconstruction Four Lane with Footpath In
25 154.7 155.8 1.1
Built up Area
26 155.8 162.06 6.26 Previous Project
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
27 162.06 163.95 1.89
Divided Carriageway With Footpath & Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
Divided Carriageway With Footpath
28 163.95 164.51 0.56
( Existing Median Area)
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
29 164.51 165.2 0.69
Divided Carriageway With Footpath & Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
30 165.2 166.35 1.15
Divided Carriageway With Earthen Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
31 166.35 167.5 1.15
Divided Carriageway With Footpath & Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
32 167.5 169.6 2.1
Divided Carriageway With Earthen Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
33 169.6 171.25 1.65
Divided Carriageway With Footpath & Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
34 171.25 172.45 1.2
Divided Carriageway With Earthen Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
35 172.45 173 0.55
Divided Carriageway With Footpath & Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
36 173 173.75 0.75
Divided Carriageway With Earthen Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
37 173.75 174.05 0.3
Divided Carriageway With Footpath & Drain

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Department, National Highway Zone
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
38 174.05 176.5 2.45
Divided Carriageway With Earthen Drain
Strengthening and Widening to Four Lane
39 176.5 179.65 3.15
Divided Carriageway With Footpath & Drain
40 179.65 181.9 2.25 Realignment-new construction

TOTAL LENGTH 56.274

12.8 Scope of Environmental Assessment (EA)


Based on above mentioned improvement proposals, proposition of bypasses acquisition of
private land and properties are in evitable. These improvements will also have impacts on
flora and fauna of the region. Thus the environmental assessment scope includes screening
and scoping, environmental assessment and environmental management plans for the
individual project roads as required. The EA process also envisages to develop a
comprehensive environmental management frame work for the entire project which will
adopted as part of the corporate environmental policy. The whole environmental assessment
process adopts environmental regulations and guidelines of Government of India (GoI). The
EIA process adopted has to follow these regulations of GoI and state Government
regulations.

Table 12- 3 Environmental Regulations and Legislations


Sl. Applicable Reason for
Act / Rules Purpose Authority
No Yes/ No Applicability
As all
environmental
MoEF. Gol;
Environment To protect and notifications,
DoE, UP and MP
1 Protection improve overall Yes rules and
State Gov.
Act-1986 environment schedules are
SPCB
issued under this
act.
To provide
Environmental environmental
Impact clearance to new This notification
YES
2 Assessment development is applicable to MoEF. EIAA
Notification activities following Project road,
14th Sep-2006 environmental
impact assessment

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Department, National Highway Zone
Sl. Applicable Reason for
Act / Rules Purpose Authority
No Yes/ No Applicability
Reuse large Surplus Quantity
quantity of fly ash Available as it is
Notification discharged from Project Road fall
3 for use of fly thermal power YES within the 100 --
ash plant to minimize Km Radius of
land use for Thermal Power
disposal Station
Coastal
Regulation Road is not
Protection of
4 Zone(CRZ) NO located along
fragile coastal belt
Notification coastal belt
1991 (2002)
Address
National
Grievances Grievances if
Environment
regarding the any will be dealt
5 Appellate Yes NEAA
process of with, within this
Authority Act
environmental act.
(NEAA) 1997
clearance.
This act will be
applicable to as
there will be
Set out rule for acquisition of
The Land Revenue
acquisition. of land for
6 Acquisition Yes Department State
land by widening,
Act NH 1956 Government.
government geometric
improvements,
bypasses and
realignments.
Not applicable as
MOEF Circular Defining per
on Marginal “marginal land’ Environmental
7 Land acquisition NO Impact MoEF
Acquisition and relating to the Assessment
Bypasses 1999 1997 Notification Notification
14th Sep-2006
The Forest
To check
(Conservation)
deforestation by
Act 1927 The project road
restricting Forest
The Forest passes through
8 conversion of Yes Department, Go
(Conservation) reserved /
forested areas into Karnataka
Act. 1980 forest protected forest.
non- forested
(conversion )
areas
Rules 1981

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Department, National Highway Zone
Sl. Applicable Reason for
Act / Rules Purpose Authority
No Yes/ No Applicability
This act is not
applicable to as Chief
To protect
there are NO Conservator
Wild Life wildlife through
points of wildlife Wildlife, Wildlife
10 Protection Act certain of No
crossings near Wing, Forest
1972 National Parks
forest area, on Department, Go
and Sanctuaries
following project Karnataka.
or routes.
This act will also
To control air
be applicable
pollution by &
during
Air Transport
construction; for
(Prevention controlling
obtaining NOC Karnataka
11 and Control of emission of air Yes
for establishment SPCB
Pollution) Act, Department.
of hot mix plant,
1981 Pollutants as per
workers' camp,
the prescribed
construction
standards.
camp, etc.
This act will be
To control water
applicable during
Water pollution by
construction for
Prevention and controlling
(establishments Karnataka
12 Control of discharge of Yes
of hot mix plant, SPCB
Pollution) pollutants as per
construction
Act1974 the prescribed
camp, workers'
standards
camp, etc.
This act will be
applicable as
vehicular noise
The standards for on project routes
Noise
noise for day and required to
Pollution
night have been assess for future Karnataka
13 (Regulation Yes
promulgated by the years and SPCB
and Control
MoEF for various necessary
Act) 1990
land uses. protection
measure need to
be considered in
design.

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Department, National Highway Zone
Sl. Applicable Reason for
Act / Rules Purpose Authority
No Yes/ No Applicability
This act not
applicable as the Archaeological
Ancient
project route is Dept Gol, Indian
Monuments
Conservation of not have direct Heritage Society
and
cultural and impact on and Indian
14 Archaeological Yes
historical remains Ancient National Trust for
Sites and
found in India Monument, Art and Culture
Remains
declared Heritage
Act1958
protected under (INTACH).
the act.
Contractor need
Public Protection form to stock
Liability and hazardous hazardous
15 Yes
Insurance Act materials and material like
1991 accidents. diesel, Bitumen,
Emulsions etc.
Safe For transporting
Explosive Act transportation, and storing Chief Controller
16 Yes
1984 storage and use of diesel, bitumen of Explosives
explosive material etc.
Regulate use of District
Minor Mineral
For opening new minor minerals Collector /
17 and concession Yes
quarry. like stone, soil, Deputy
Rules
river sand etc. Commissioner
Central Motor
This rules will be
Vehicle Act
To check applicable to
1988 and Motor Vehicle
18 vehicular air and Yes road users and
Central Motor Department
noise pollution. construction
Vehicle
Machinery.
Rules1989
To maintain This policy will
National Forest ecological be applicable as
Forest
Policy1952 stability through project
Department,
19 National Forest preservation and Yes intervention
Gol and Go
Policy(Revised) restoration of requires forest
Karnataka
1988 biological land to be
diversity. acquired.
The construction
of project road
will require
The mining act
aggregates. Department of
The Mining has been notified
20 Yes These will be mining. State
Act for safe and sound
procured through Gov.
mining activity.
mining from
riverbeds and
quarries

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Department, National Highway Zone
12.9 Environmental Screening and Scoping

Environmental screening exercise of the project roads were undertaken to facilitate inputs on
environmental considerations, apart from social, economic, and traffic & transport
considerations in selection of project roads. Further, this report also provides scoping inputs
in determining the major environmental issues and defines the scope of work for conducting
environmental assessment. As per the Guideline specified in EA notification Sept 2006,
Environmental Assessment has been carried out for the project roads. The scoping exercise
defines geographical boundaries for the project roads for impact assessment as well as
defining the project influence area to assess the impacts due to project activities.

12.10 Preliminary Environmental Assessment


The EA for project roads includes establishing environmental baseline in the study area,
identify the range of environmental impacts, specify the measures to avoid, minimize, and
mitigate negative impacts and maximize positive impacts and integrate possible
environmental enhancement measures. The proposed measures will be formulated in the form
of an environmental management plan with necessary budget and institutional roles for
effective implementation. The EMPs for individual projects and integration of the same in to
project implementation agreements, including construction contract documents.

12.11 Environmental Management Framework


An Environmental Management Framework has been designed for the implementation of the
project. The environmental management frame work shall consists of overall framework
which will be developed as a guidance document providing environmental planning and
design criteria for of the current as well as future project roads, generic environmental
management measures, institutional mechanism for implementation, capacity building and
training process, function adequately to mainstream the environmental management.

12.12 The Project Area

12.12.1 General Characteristics


The Alignment of the project starts at km 125.626 of NH – 167 at Tungabhadra River Bridge
and runs through nearby villages namely Gilesugur, Gunjalli, Tuntapura, Raichur, Yegnur,
Yegnur and Shaktinagar and ends at nearby Krishna River Bridge at km 182.126 of NH 167.

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Department, National Highway Zone
The total length of the project stretch is 56.500 km in Raichur district. The land use is
principally of four categories: Urban, rural agricultural, rural barren and Industrial areas.
Agriculture plays a predominant role in the economy of the region particularly with respect to
generation of employment and share in the GDP. The land use along the alignment is of
mostly agriculture and dry land. There are lot of stone quarries surrounding project road up to
km 25 from Tungabhadra Bridge to Raichur City. Following table gives summary of land
use along the project road.

Table 12- 4 Summary of Land use along project road

Sl. No Land use Description % of Length


Agricultural/Semi Built-
1 65.60
up
2 Barren Land 13.26
3 Industrial Area 4.66
4 Commercial Area 15.05
5 Others 1.43
Total 100.00%
12.12.2 Forest Area:
Project road is passing through forest area at many places. Total length of road passing
through forest area is 2.00 km. Table 12.50 gives detail about the location of Forest area.

Table 12- 5 Locations of Forest Area


From To Length (km) Name of Forest Area
155.00 157.000 2.00 Maliabad Forest Area

Total Length 2.00

12.12.3 Topography and Geology

12.12.3.1 Topography
The undulating black cotton soil strips, cut by numerous nalas, characterise the region of the
Dharwar schists, thoeilitic basalt and Deccan /trap which is now practically denuded of trees and
presents a monotonous landscape, while the gneissic region is generally more or less broken and
covered with a thin mantle of red loamy soil. Gneissic hills, Sedimentary formations, which
cover a small belt of the region adjoining the confluence of the Krishna and the Tungabhadra
rivers, occupy more or less flat plateaus.

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Regionally viewed, the hills in the area present some structural features which are of interest in
relation to the geology of the area: 1) Taking the most south westerly group, the hills of
Karigudda, Manvi and Rabhinakal show a continuity along roughly north-west south-east
directions: 2) from Sirwar and Yermasagar, running in a roughly south-east direction, may be
recognised the hill of Madhugiri, Neermanvi, Gorkal, Kurvi and the one two miles west of
Kamalahatti; 3) between Masarakal and Gabbur, a number of gneissic hills are seen at Kakargal.
Jinnapur, Hungundabad. Ramdurga, Jagatkal, Khardigud, Maladkal and Gabbur . The hills
around Uttanur are seen to be in line with the south- western group of hillocks in the above areas
also the hill-clusters around Kalmala and Kallur, are seen to be situated in the same north-west
and South-east disposition as that of the group of gneissic hills enumerated above; and 4) the
hills around Raichur, which constitute a prominent landmark in the area, may also be seen
roughly to display north-west and south-east trends.

12.12.3.2 Location
Raichur district lies between 15 deg. 09 min. and 16 deg. 34 min. N latitude and 75 deg. 46 min.
and 77 deg. 35 min E longitude and in between two major rivers, namely, the Krishna and the
Tungabhadra. The general slope of the district is from the north-west towards the south-east, its
average height above the Mean Sea-Level being just 1,311 feet.

12.12.3.3 General boundaries


The district is bounded on the north by the district of Gulbarga, on the west by the districts of
Bijapur and Dharwad, on the east by the district of Mahabubnagar of Andhra Pradesh, and on
the south by the districts of Kurnool, north by Hyderabad district. The two rivers, the Krishna
and the Tungabhadra, form the entire northern and southern boundaries of the district.

12.12.3.4 Rainfall
The region around Raichur gets the least amount of rainfall in the district while towards the
south as well as the east, rainfall increases. During the south-west monsoon months, viz., June to
September, the district received about 71% of the annual rainfall, September being the month
with the highest rainfall. In the post-monsoon months of October and November also, the district
receives some rain. The variations in the annual rainfall from year to year are large as is the case
in the neighbouring districts.

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12.12.3.5 Humidity
The district on the whole has a dry climate, the period from November to May being the driest
part of the year. Even during the south-west monsoon period, the humilities are not very high.

12.12.3.6 Cloudiness

Skies are moderately to heavily clouded in the south-west monsoon months. In the post-
monsoon months, clouding is somewhat less. Clear or lightly clouded skies are common in the
rest of the year.

12.12.4 Air Quality

The study area represents mostly rural environment with predominately agricultural fields and
Industries, The various sources of air pollution in the region are dust arising from Raichur
thermal power station, unpaved village roads and emissions from vehicular traffic. The Air
quality will be examined at three locations, two Near Raichur thermal power station ,Yermarus
thermal power station and another Kurnool Junction.

Table 12- 6 Planned Locations of Air quality Monitoring

Sl No. Location / Chainage (Km) Name of Village Remarks


1. Ch:180.626 Near RTPS, Shakthinagar
2. Ch:168.000 Near YTPS, Yegnur
3. Ch:138.000 Gunjalli village

12.12.5 Noise Levels

The Noise level will be monitored at 3 locations, this location represents industrial and
Commercial/Residential area. The results essentially draw to the necessity of noise pollution
control measures along the project corridor.

Table 12- 7 Planned Locations of Noise Levels Monitoring

Sl . No. Location / Chainage (Km) Name of Village Remarks

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Department, National Highway Zone
1. Ch:180.626 Near RTPS, Shakthinagar -
2. Ch:168.000 Near YTPS, Yegnur -
3. Ch:161.000 Near Basaveswara Circle, Raichur City -

12.12.6 Water Quality

Two Surface water and three ground water samples will be collected to assess surface and
ground water quality along the project road. The samples of surface water were collected from
pond at different chainages, ground water samples were collected from hand pumps. The
analysis report were compared with the relevant standards; IS:10500 for ground water and
IS:2296 for surface water samples.

Table 12- 8 Planned Locations of Surface Water Quality Monitoring

Sl. Location / Chainage


No Name of Village Remarks
(Km)
1. Ch:155.0 Pond Near Racihur City -
Open Well near Navodaya College,
2. Ch:155.0 -
Raichur City

Table 12- 9 Planned Locations of Ground Water Quality Monitoring

Sl No. Location / Chainage (Km) Name of Village Remarks


1. Bore Well at Ch:138.0 Gunjalli -
2. Bore Well At Ch:157.0 Raichur City -
3. Bore Well at Ch:180.0 Shaktinagar -

12.12.7Soil Characteristics

The soil in the study area belongs to the Raichur City , The undulating black cotton soil strips,
cut by numerous nalas, characterise the region of the Dharwar schists, thoeilitic basalt and
Deccan /trap which is now practically denuded of trees and presents a monotonous landscape,
while the gneissic region is generally more or less broken and covered with a thin mantle of red

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Department, National Highway Zone
loamy soil. Gneissic hills, Sedimentary formations, which cover a small belt of the region
adjoining the confluence of the Krishna and the Tungabhadra rivers, occupy more or less flat
plateaus. This soil is fine grained, montmorillonitic, hyperthermic and typic halusterts in nature.
It is developed over the basaltic rock. The soil is well drained and has a very low permeability.
It commonly supports Paddy, Cotton, and Rice crops in this region.

12.12.7.1 Physical Characteristics of Soil

Physical characteristics of soil are delineated through specific parameters viz. particle size
distribution, bulk density, porosity, water holding capacity and texture. Regular cultivation
practices increase the bulk density of soils thus inducing compaction, which results in reduction
in water percolation rate and penetration of root through soils. The soils with low bulk density
have favourable physical condition whereas those with high bulk density exhibit poor physical
conditions for agriculture crops.

Soil porosity is a measure of air filled pore spaces gives information about movement of gases,
inherent moisture and development of root systems and strength of soil.

12.12.7.2 Chemical Characteristics of soil

The chemical characteristics of soils were analysed for selected parameters viz. pH, EC, soluble
anions and cat ion, organic content.

pH is an important parameter indicative of alkaline or acidic nature of soil. It greatly affects the
microbial population as well as solubility of metal ions and regulates the nutrient availability.
Electrical conductivity, a measure of soluble salts in the soil. The important cat ions in the soil
are calcium and magnesium; Organic carbon content present in the soil influences its physical
and chemical properties that are responsible for the stability of soil aggregates.

Table 12- 10 Physicochemical and Chemical Characteristics of the Soil to be


conducted along the Project Road

Sl No. Location / Chainage (Km) Name of Village Remarks

1. Ch:180.626 Near RTPS, Shakthinagar -

2. Ch:168.00 Near YTPS, Yegnur -

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3. Ch:161.00 Near Basaveswara Circle, Raichur City -

12.12.8 Ecology

12.12.8.1 Flora
The ecological survey has been carried out to understand the present status of terrestrial and
aquatic ecosystem within 1.5 kilometre distance, on either side, from the RoW of proposed
project. The information provided is based on physical surveys and secondary sources such as
information collected from forest department. The prominent species include neem, mango,
tamarind, coconut and Drum Stick trees. Other trees include Eucalyptus and Custard Apple,
etc.

There are no endangered species of flora in the area. About 441 are likely to be cut with Girth
varying from 0mm to 1800mm because of proposed re-designed geometrical curve
improvement to adhere road safety.

Table 12- 11 Prominent species of Plants and Trees

Sl. Name of Vegetation / Plants / Sl. Name of Vegetation / Plants /


No. Trees No. Trees
1 Neem 7 Casuarina
2 Acacia nilotica 8 Cordia
3 Tamarind 9 Banni
4 Mango 10 Coconut
5 Subabul 11 Drum stick
6 Eucalyptus 12 Custard apple

12.12.8.2 Fauna
There are very few wild Animals in the forest, Indian fox, jungle cat, Poisonous snakes like
cobra, russel, viper and non-poisonous python are have also been reported in reserved forest
area.

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Livestock found in this district are cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, ponies, mules, donkeys and
pigs. Common birds like koyal, crow, parrot, vulture, bayal, bulbul, sparrow etc. are seen
here. The water bodies attract different types of water birds too.

12.12.9 Archaeological and Historical sites

 The hill fort of Raichur is constructed of huge blocks of well-dressed and nicely
fitted stones without the aid of any cementing material.

 Pir Sailani Shah Tomb is home to the tomb of Pir Salani Shah, a Muslim saint.

 Ramagadde is an attractive island in the Krishna River. It is said to be a holy place


since according to a legend, the island is where Sri Ramachandra had stayed for a year
and get consecrated while worshipping Shivalinga

 Roudkunda is one of the significant Neolithic sites in the Raichur District. At the
west of this village are two hillocks wherein one of it is a small fort that belonged to
the time of 16 or 17A.D.

 Mudgal is one of the significant places in Raichur District with historical interests.
The hillock on top of this village has built walls with bastions and houses of royalty.
The outer walls of the Mudgal cover and area of one-half square mile. It has a wide
moat of filled water. The moat width varies accordingly to several places.

 Citadel or Bala Hisar is a village built on top of the hillock. It has a good view of the
Raichur Fort interior and the surrounding areas as well. The village has various
natural depressions with rock on top that are used for storing water

12.13 Public Information and Consultation


Public consultations will be conducted at local level, institutional level and district level
during the baseline date generation period. The main purpose of these consultations was to
know the Community’s reaction to the perceived impact of proposed project on the people at
individual and settlement level. The issues of the most concern were related to rehabilitation

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Department, National Highway Zone
and resettlements and have been dealt with in social assessment report. It was also felt during
the public consultation process that most of the people are aware about the project but they
did not appreciate environmental problems associated with road projects. However, some
people were concerned about environmental issues mainly air and noise pollution and
acquisition of forest land. The other concerns raised during public consultation were demand
for bypasses, and safety problems. The issues raised by the public have been duly
incorporated in project design. Many of these concerns are well appreciated by news papers
also.

12.14 Existing Right-of-way


Right of way information has been collected from Raichur PWD Division divisions and the
same has been verified during reconnaissance / inventory survey at regular interval for the
entire length. Details of ROW are shown in the Table 12.6. Existing ROW is not enough for
partially access controlled 4 lane divided carriageway in addition to service lanes at built-up
areas and therefore land acquisition is inevitable along the project road.

Table 12- 12 Existing Right of Way (ROW)

Sl. No From To Length (Km) Left Right Total Remarks

Gillesugur,
1 125.626 126.426 0.8 22.5 22.5 45
Thungabhadra

Gillesugur,
2 126.426 130.526 4.1 22.5 22.5 45
Thungabhadra

3 130.526 139.726 9.2 22.5 22.5 45 Gunjalli

4 139.726 141.996 2.27 22.5 22.5 45

5 141.996 142.926 0.93 15 15 30 Yergera Village

6 142.926 154.826 11.9 22.5 22.5 45 Tuntapura

7 154.826 156.466 1.64 22.5 22.5 45

8 156.466 158.446 1.98 15 15 30 Raichur City

9 158.446 158.866 0.42 13.5 13.5 27 Raichur City

10 158.866 162.726 3.86 12 12 24 Raichur City

11 162.726 162.826 0.1 15 15 30 Raichur City

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Sl. No From To Length (Km) Left Right Total Remarks

12 162.826 164.826 2 15 15 30 Raichur City

13 164.826 165.526 0.7 15 15 30 Raichur City

Shaktinagar,
14 165.526 181.326 15.8 22.5 22.5 45 Hegsanhalli,
Chiksugur, Yegnur

15 181.326 182.126 0.8 22.5 22.5 45 Deosugur

12.15 Culverts & Bridges

The inventory data for the existing cross drainage structures, culverts and bridges, are dealt
with details in Chapter 4 section ‘f’ and chapter 8: Analysis & Interpretation of Engineering
Surveys and Investigations. Summary of the same is given below

Table 12- 13 Number of Culverts and Bridges

Culverts Bridges
Pipe Box Arch Total Slab Minor Major Total
69 1 6 76 5 1 2 3

Most of the culverts are arch culverts with brick masonry super structure. These culverts are in
very poor condition. Similarly minor bridges are also arch bridges with stone masonry sub
structure and brick masonry super structure. Hence all culverts and minor bridges need to be
reconstructed. Out of 4 major bridges, 3 are in good condition and 1 is in bad condition.
Currently heavy vehicles are not plying on this bridge. Hence, this bridge needs to be
reconstructed.

12.16 Environmental Impacts

12.16.1 Impact on Topography

During the construction of the proposed project, the topography will change due to
excavation of borrow areas, stone quarrying, cuts and fills for project road and construction
of project related structures etc. Provision of construction yard for material handling will also
alter the existing topography. There will be change in topography at realignments as these

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realignments have been proposed through agriculture fields. The change in topography will
also be due to the probable induced developments of the project. With adequate planning, all
topographical impacts could be made to enhance the local aesthetics. Similarly, it will invite
benefits in the form of land levelling and tree plantations in the vicinity of the project road.
The Details of Realignment are presented in Table 12.8

Table 12- 14 Details of Realignment Locations

Chainage
Sl. No Length (Km)
From To

1 129.950 130.450 0.50

2 137.850 138.350 0.50

3 138.550 139.000 0.45

4 149.200 152.450 3.25

5 179.650 181.700 2.05

Total Km 6.75

12.16.2 Impact on Climate


The widening and strengthening of project is not going to have impact on climate of the
region.

12.16.3 Impact on Air Quality


There will be rise in SPM levels due to the construction activities. Since the emission will be
fugitive in nature it is difficult to quantify the SPM standards even expected to be violated, as
the background values are not alarming at many places. Even if it is exceeded it will be for
very short period. There will be some increase in levels of gaseous pollutant also.

The baseline status of the ambient air quality will be established through a scientifically
designed network of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (AAQM) stations set up at 2 locations
with due consideration to the meteorological conditions of the area, topography / terrain of
the area, residential and sensitive areas within the study area, representatives of regional
background air quality / pollution levels, representatives of likely impacted areas and as per

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the MoEF guidelines. The parameters measured during the monitoring along with their
frequency of sampling are given in

Table 12- 15 Ambient Air Quality Parameters and Frequency of Sampling

Parameters Sampling Frequency

Suspended Particulate Matter, SPM

Respirable Particulate Matter, RPM Sample for 24 hours ‐ twice in a week for four weeks

Sulphur dioxide, SO2

Oxides of Nitrogen, NOx


24 hourly samples – twice in a week for four weeks
Carbon Monoxide, CO

Hydrocarbons

Pre‐calibrated Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) of Envirotech Instruments will be used for
monitoring of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM) and
gaseous pollutants like SO2 and NO2. Glass tubes were deployed for collection of grab
samples for estimation Hydrocarbons. CO monitors / analyzer was used for measuring CO,
which gives/reads the values directly.

Table 12- 16 Analysis techniques used for different air quality parameters

Technical Minimum
Sl. No Parameter Technique
Protocol Detectable Limit

Suspended
Respirable Dust Sampler
1 Particulate Matter IS‐5182 (Part‐4) 1.0 μg/m3
(Gravimetric method)
(SPM)

Respirable
Suspended Respirable Dust Sampler
2 IS‐5182 (Part‐4) 1.0 μg/m3
Particulate Matter (Gravimetric method)
(RPM)

3 Sulphur Dioxide Modified West and Gaeke IS‐5182 (Part‐2) 4.0 μg/m3

4 Sulphur Dioxide Jacob & Hochheiser IS‐5182 (Part‐6) 4.0 μg/m3

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5 Carbon Monoxide CO analyzer / monitor IS‐5182 (Part‐10) 1.0 ppm

6 Hydrocarbons Gas Chromatography IS‐5182 (Part‐17) 0.1.ppm

The prime objective of the baseline air quality study was to establish the existing ambient air
quality of the study area. This will be useful for assessing the conformity to standards of the
ambient air quality during the construction and operation phase of the project. The important
sources of air pollution in the region are vehicular traffic and domestic fuel burning activities.

12.16.4 Impact on Water Resources and Quality


The construction and operation of the proposed project roads will not have any major impacts
on the surface water and the ground water quality in the area. Contamination to water bodies
may results due to spilling of construction materials, oil, grease, fuel and paint in the
equipment yards and asphalt plants. This will be more prominent in case of locations where
the project road crosses water streams, major canals distributaries, etc. Mitigatory measures
have been planned to avoid contamination of these water bodies.

12.16.4.1 Surface Water


Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers are the perennial /Non perennial streams in the
study

12.16.4.2 Ground Water


Ground water is also used in an around the project site. The villages are dependent
on ground water for their everyday requirement. Ground water is fetched from
open dugas. Well as bore wells which are both mechanized and manual.

12.16.4.3 Baseline Data


The water quality in and around the project road will be assessed through
physicochemical analysis of surface and ground water samples collected. The sampling
procedure, preservation techniques and analysis method are as per the standard methods
of water and waste water by APHA, AWWA and WPCF, 13th Edition and IS Methods

Table 12- 17 IS Methods for Water Analysis

Sl. No. Test Parameters Unit Method

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Sl. No. Test Parameters Unit Method
1 Apparent Colour Hazen units IS : 3025 (Part 4)‐
2 Turbidity NTU NTU IS : 3025 (Part 10)‐
3 pH Value ‐ IS : 3025 (Part 11)‐
4 Total Hardness ( CaCO3) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 21)‐
5 Iron (as Fe) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
6 Chlorides (as Cl) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 32)‐
7 Electrical Conductivity at μs/cm IS : 3025 (Part 14)‐
8 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 16)‐
9 Calcium (as Ca) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 40)‐
10 Magnesium (as Mg) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 46)‐
11 Sulphate (as SO4) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 24)‐
12 Nitrates (as NO3) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 34)‐
13 Fluoride (as F) mg / l IS : 3025 1964
14 Total Alkalinity ( CaCO3) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 23)‐
15 Copper as(Cu) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
16 Manganese as (Mn) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
17 Cadmium as (Cd) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
18 Selenium as (Se) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
19 Arsenic as (As) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
20 Mercury as (Hg) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
21 Lead as (Pb) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
22 Zinc as (Zn) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
23 Aluminum as (Al) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
24 Boron as (B) mg / l IS : 3025 (Part II)‐
25 Chromium as (Cr +6) mg / l IS :3025(Part 52)‐
26 Cyanide as (CN) mg / l IS :3025 (Part 27)‐
27 Odour - IS : 3025 (Part 5)‐
28 Taste - IS : 3025 (Part 8)‐
29 Total Coliform MPN/100 ml IS : 1622‐1981
30 Anionic Detergents mg / l APHA 64401 Method
31 Phenolic Compunds mg / l IS : 3025 (Part 43)‐
32 Pesticides mg / l -
33 Mineral oil mg / l APHA 64401 Method

12.17 Impact on Noise Levels

Noise is composed of many frequency components of various loudness distributed over the
audible frequency range. Various noise scales have been introduced to describe, in a single

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number, the response of an average human to a complex sound made up of various frequencies
at different loudness levels. The most common and universally accepted scale is the A weighted
Scale which is measured as dB (A). This is more suitable for the audible range of sound, 20 to
20,000 Hz. The scale has been designed to weigh various components of noise according to the
response of a human ear. The impact of noise sources on surrounding community depends on

 Characteristics of noise sources (instantaneous, intermittent or continuous in nature). It


can be observed that steady noise is not as annoying as one, which is continuously
varying in loudness;
 The time of day at which noise occurs,
 The location of the noise source, with respect to noise sensitive land use, which
determines the loudness and period of exposure.
The environmental impact of noise can have several effects varying from Noise Induced
Hearing Loss (NIHL) to annoyance depending on loudness of noise. The assessment of
noise is carried out by considering various factors like potential damage to hearing,
physiological responses, annoyance and general community responses. It is possible to describe
important features of noise for noise levels measured over 24 hours using statistical methods.
These features of noise are the parameters used for describing the noise levels at a particular
location. Standards for permissible noise levels at various zones are set based on these
parameters. The notations used for various noise level parameters are described below.
Leq- Equivalent sound pressure level-the steady sound level that, over a specified period of time,
would produce the same energy equivalence as the fluctuating sound level actually occurring.
Leq (1 hr)- The equivalent noise level for a specific one-hour period
Leq (24 hr)- The equivalent noise level during a 24 hour period
Lday- The equivalent noise level from 6:00 hours to 22.00 hours.
Lnight- The equivalent noise level from 22:00 hours to 6.00 hours.
Ldn- It is similar to a 24 hr equivalent noise level except that during night time (10 PM to 6
am) a 10 dB (A) weighting penalty is added to the instantaneous sound level before
computing the 24 hr average. This night time penalty is added to account for the fact that
noise during night when people usually sleep is judged as more annoying than the same noise
during the daytime.
As part of the baseline environmental monitoring, noise monitoring survey was conducted at
2 locations in the study area representing residential and commercial zones. The main
objective of noise monitoring in the study area was to establish the baseline noise levels,

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which was used to assess the impact of the total noise generated by the proposed project
activities. Noise level monitoring was carried out continuously for 24 hours with one hour
interval at each location using a Luthron sound level meter capable of measuring the Sound
Pressure Level (SPL) in dB (A). Hourly Leq values were computed by the noise integrating
sound level meter and statistical analysis was done for measured noise levels at 8 locations in the
study area.

The impact of noise levels from the proposed project on the neighbouring communities is
addressed by carrying out Noise modelling using FHWA model developed by Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA). It has been concluded after mathematical modelling that
both day time and night time equivalent noise levels are within the permissible limits right
from start of project life.

Noise sensitive receptors have been identified along the project road. The noise sensitive
receptors include school, hospitals, colleges, etc. The predicted levels indicate that the noise
levels in future years will not exceed permissible limits right from start of project life. Hence
there is no need to protect these noise sensitive receptors.

12.18 Impact on Ecological Resources


There is no wildlife sanctuary in the close vicinity of the project road. The study area passes
primarily through agricultural land in plain areas. There will be temporary impact on
terrestrial ecology, as trees will be cut. But after construction no impact is anticipated as
compensatory afforestation is planned. There are no endangered species or rare species of
flora and fauna in the project area.

There is no major loss of vegetation hence adverse impact in terms of availability of nesting
sites for the bird doesn’t arise. Furthermore, there is no sensitive ecological area near the
existing project roads, so the impact will be insignificant. The number of trees affected by the
project is estimated 481 (approximately). To compensate this NHAI plans to plant trees as
per directives of respective forest department of state government.

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Table 12- 18 Potential Environmental Impacts

Project Pre Operation


Construction Phase
Activity Construction Phase
Earth
Asphalt
Component Land Site moving Contractor Quarries Construction
crusher Operation
affected acquisition clearance (borrow camps areas of highway
plants
pits)
Increase in
Loss of Soil
Loss of crops, Loss of top erosion, Pollution
productive contamination
Soil and increase soil and - siltation and Soil pollution due to
agricultural due to surface
in soil erosion erosion slope spills
land runoff
instability
Water Exploitation of
Ground Maintenance of
- - - extraction for water for
water trees / shrubs
drinking construction
Water
Water
Water pollution pollution Degradation
Change in logging
Surface from sanitary Water logging Change in due to due to spill
- water quality and
water and other problems water quality spill into overs and road
and siltation mosquito
wastes water run off
breeding
bodies
Change in Interference
Change in Modification
natural with natural Cleaning &
Drainage - drainage in Natural
drainage drainage, Maintenance
pattern drainage
pattern Water logging

Particulate Atmospheric Increase in


Increase in air SPM,
Air quality - matter Pollution due Dust pollution Dust pollution SPM, NOx,
pollution SO2
pollution to fuel burning CO

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Project Pre Operation
Construction Phase
Activity Construction Phase
Earth
Asphalt
Component Land Site moving Contractor Quarries Construction
crusher Operation
affected acquisition clearance (borrow camps areas of highway
plants
pits)
Vibrators, Increase in
Increase in
Reduced Vibration concrete noise levels
Noise noise levels Increase
- buffering of from blasting batching due to
quality due to in noise
noise operations plants noise increased
machinery
etc. traffic

Habitat loss, Encroachment


Loss of Loss of
Forest - and into forest Loss of Forest - -
forest habitat/ cover
vegetation Areas

Tree cutting Loss of


Trees Loss of trees Cutting of trees Tree cutting Loss of Trees - -
clearance trees

Temples / Removal /
Clearance - - - - - -
Mosques rehabilitation

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12.19 Impact on Drainage Pattern
The proposed widening and strengthening will not alter drainage pattern of the area as
adequate cross drainage structures have been planned along the new alignments and existing
culverts along the project road are planned for rehabilitation.(Please refer table above)

Construction of bridges across water streams may result in siltation of water body, which can
affect aquatic fauna. Proper mitigation measures have been recommended in EMP.

12.20 Impact on Human Use Values


Impact on human use values include common property resources such as temples, mosques,
wells, hand pumps, tube well, etc. Impact on these has been minimized through proper
planning of the alignments.

The environmental impacts have been summarized and are given in the Table below:

Table 12- 19 Summary of Impacts


Sl.
Attribute Impacts Level of Impact
No.

Pre Construction Phase


Impacts due to cutting of trees in Reserve
1. Flora and Fauna
Forest Area

2. Air Quality Impacts due to movement of vehicles

3. Noise Impacts due to movement of vehicles

Impacts due to temporary acquisition of


land for construction workers camp,
4. Land Resources
construction yard, hot mix plant crushers,
etc.

Impacts due to contamination on water


5. Water Quality
bodies due to vehicle movement

Construction Phase
Earthwork; impact due to borrow-pits
1. Land Resources development (existing)

Impacts on quarry sites (existing)

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Sl.
Attribute Impacts Level of Impact
No.

Sand will be taken from identified River


Bed.

Negative impact due to movement of


construction vehicles.

Dust pollution due to movement of


construction vehicles.
2. Air Quality Air quality impacts due to the
construction machinery engaged.

Negative impact due to ground level


emissions at construction yard is expected
within 400 m radius.

Impact due to movement of construction


vehicles.

Impact within 500 m from stationary


3. Noise Levels
construction equipment.

Negative impact possibility on


construction workers.

Impact on water bodies due to sediment


4. Water Quality
loaded run off during rainy seasons

5. Terrestrial Ecology Cutting of trees within the proposed RoW

Movement of trucks carrying construction


Traffic Congestion materials
6.
& Diversion
Impact from diversion of existing traffic

Workers Camp Impact due to sanitation and waste


7.
Construction disposal and local facilities

Impacts due to construction of bypasses


8. Cross Drainage
and realignments in agriculture areas.

Operational Phase
Change in air quality due to changing
1. Air Quality
traffic volume and speed.

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Sl.
Attribute Impacts Level of Impact
No.

Impact on residences about 25 m from


2. Noise Level edge of roadway

Impact on residential areas

3. Water Quality Impacts on water sources close to RoW

Impacts on flora fauna in PIA (Project


4. Flora and Fauna
Influence Area)

5. Drainage Impacts on cross drainage

Significant Impact Moderate Impact Insignificant Impact

12.21 Mitigation Avoidance and Enhancement Measures


The mitigation measures have been planned for identified adverse environmental impacts.
These mitigation measures have been identified as management plan during planning,
construction and operation phase.

12.21.1Design Phase
Impacts during design phase is limited to removal of trees, acquisition of land and structures,
relocation of water ways, identification and management of borrow pits as mentioned in
Table 12.13

Table 12- 20 Impacts during design phase

Impacts Mitigation Measures

Land Acquisition Alignment design to minimize the land acquisition

Major Bypasses and detours to be considered


Displacement

Removal of Trees Alignment design to reduce the number, widening on the side of the
road where less tree will be cut.
Compensatory plantation to be planned.

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Impact on public Alignment design to consider. In case of removal alternate
utilities e.g. arrangement to be done before.
community wells
etc.

Impact on Cultural Alignment design to consider. Public consultation may be needed if


Sites impact cannot be avoided

Relocation of Hydrology to be considered. Public consultation will be needed


waterways

Access Restriction Required alternatives, underpasses, proper signposts for people


should be included in design
Congestion in Service road to be provided
Settlement Areas

Borrow pits Locations to be selected considering minimum loss of productive


land and redevelopment
Environmental Environmental qualifications specification should be included in pre-
Specifications for qualification packages for the contractors
Contractors

12.22 Construction Phase


Environmental management during construction phase is more crucial because major impacts
during construction like earthworks, movement of heavy machineries etc cause lot of
disturbance and management becomes essential at this stage. The construction workers camp
will be located at least 500m away from habitations. The construction yard, hot mix plants,
crushers etc. will be located at 500m away from habitations and in downwind directions. The
minimum distance of these will be kept 3.0 km from reserve forest areas. Adequate cross
drainage structures have been planned to maintain proper cross drainage. In order to
compensate negative impacts on flora due to cutting of trees the project plans compensatory
plantation in the ratio of 1:3 i.e. for every to be tree cut three trees will be planted. The
acquisition of forest area will be minimal and will be compensated through compensatory
afforestation. The noise barriers have been planned closed to educational institute so that post
project noise levels are within the specified limits. The project will take an opportunity to
provide environmental enhancement measures to improve aesthetics in the project area. The
planned environmental enhancement measures include ponds enhancement, plantation in
median and in available clear space in RoW, seating arrangements around trees. The pond

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enhancement measures will include such as stepped access, washing plat form, seating
arrangement etc. Some of ditches will be filled up due to embankment construction in the
RoW. In order to avoid contamination of water bodies during construction sedimentation
chambers, oils and grease separators, oil interceptors at storage areas and at construction yard
have been planned. The bill of quantities for mitigation and enhancement measures has been
given in respective EMPs of construction packages. Table 12.4 below summarizes impacts
and its management.

Table 12- 21 Environmental Management Plan during construction period

Impacts Mitigation Measures

Soil Erosion Proper planning for slope stabilization, topsoil storage, plantation and turfing on slopes

Arable lands will be avoided for earth borrowing. If needed, topsoil will be separated and refilled after
Loss of topsoil
excavation.
Excavation from pre-selected locations. After excavation the borrow pits will be dressed to match with the
Borrowing of fill materials surroundings. In specific cases borrow pits can be excavated in consultation with local people to use those
pits as water harvesting points.
No haphazard dumping of construction waste. Only pre-selected location maintaining local environmental
Disposal of Construction waste
regulations will be used.
Disposal of human waste by Specific landfill sites should be identified to manage solid waste generated from habitation of construction
construction workers. workers.
Water will be sprayed during construction phase, in earth handling sites, asphalt mixing sites and other
excavation areas for suppression of dust.
In case fly ash is used, dust emission during its unloading, storage at open place and handling for road
construction should be suppressed by water sprinkling at regular interval.

Dust emission from piles of excavated material should also be controlled by spraying water on the piles.

Generation of Dust Special care should be taken when working near schools and medical facilities.

Dust emission is a high risk problem in the Stone Crushing activities. Workers are exposed to high level of
dust pollution. It will be responsibility of the project proponent to ensure that stone crushers supplying
materials for this project implement air pollution control and workers are provided with masks. Stone
crushing units should meet the requirements under Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986.

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Vehicles and machineries will be regularly maintained to conform to the emission standards stipulated under
Environment (Protection), Rules 1986.

Asphalt mixing sites should be sufficiently away from residential quarters and not in forest area.
Gaseous Pollution
Workers working in asphalt mixing and subsequent application of asphalt mix on road surface are exposed to
high level of carcinogenic emission. These workers should be provided with masks and it will be
responsibility of the supervising officers that the workers use the masks.

Noise levels of machineries used shall conform to relevant standards prescribed in Environment (Protection)
Rules, 1986.
Workers shall not be exposed to noise level more than permitted for industrial premises, i.e. 90 dBA (Leq) for
8 hours. Workers exposed to high noise level should use ear plugs
Construction work generating noise pollution near the nursing home and residential areas should be stopped
Noise
during night.

No work should be carried out after daylight in forest areas.

Noise attenuation measures e.g. planting of trees, noise attenuation structures to be done as required.

The waterbody or a part if lost will be replaced immediately. The embankments of waterbodies will be raised
Loss or impact on waterbodies
to prevent any contamination from road run-off.

Cofferdams or similar measures will be implemented during construction on rivers or major watercourses.

Siltation into waterbodies Vegetation will be done where possible on any steep slopes to prevent erosion which causes siltation.

No solid waste will be dumped near the waterbodies or rivers.

Flooding due to siltation of


Excavated earth, fly ash and other construction materials should be stored away to prevent washing away.
drainage channel

Water sources would be selected so that local availability is not affected. Local waterbodies, tubewells, wells
Water use for construction
will not be used. Borehole by contractors will be done with permission from State Ground Water Board.

All practical measures will be taken to prevent any uncontrolled effluent discharge from construction workers
Contamination from wastes camps and storages to water sources. The camp site will be provided with proper drainage connected with
local drain.

Contamination from fuel and Vehicle maintenance will be carried out in a confined area, away from water sources, and it will be ensured
wastes that used oil or lubricants are not disposed to watercourses.

Construction camp will be organised in a planned manner. Workers shall be provided proper sanitation
Sanitation and Water use in
facilities including toilets. Camps will have water supply facilities like tube wells or from other sources such
Construction Camps
as that local water sources are not affected.

Tree felling will be restricted to requirement of construction activities. About 95% have been saved by
alignment design.
Twice the number of trees cut will be planted. Besides there will be more plantation on roadsides where there
are no trees at present. Total length of the road including bypasses will be about 321 km. Considering 300
Loss of trees trees per kilometer altogether 96300 will be required to be planted. To compensate the felling of trees and
improve environmental quality trees will be planted in nearby areas beyond the project site. The species will
be selected depending on site, plantation design and in consultation with local community in the plantation
programme and
The trees will beforest department.
planted by projectTree plantation
authorities willroadside
by the continuewithin
as partROW.
of construction process
The cost for and will
plantation has be
been
included in Environmental Cost.

Forest Flora Efforts will be made to save medicinal trees. Afforestation programme will be taken up.

Impacts Mitigation Measures

Compensatory Plantation programme will be taken up. There will be also protection for wetlands for water
Loss of habitat for avifauna
birds.
No construction work will be done after evening in the forest areas. No use of surface water sources inside the
forest. No campsite inside forest area.

No harvesting of wild foods or hunting of animals


Impact on Wildlife
Speed restriction in night in forest areas.

Traffic Notification in forest areas

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12.23 Operation Phase
Environmental issues change during operation phase and its mitigation plan also has related
with vehicular movement, road safety, management of ecological issues. Environmental
aspects are thus more or less related to vehicular emission. The mitigation measures for
different environmental aspects are discussed below

Table 12- 22 Environmental Management during Operation Phase


Impacts Mitigation Measures

Dust Bad road maintenance of road gives rise to dust pollution. Road Surface will be
maintained properly.

Gaseous All vehicles should be checked for “Pollution Under Control” certificates and
Pollution occasional spot testing of emission from vehicles will be carried out.

Noise levels for different automobiles have been prescribed in Environment


Noise (Protection) Rules, 1986. Signs will be posted to restrict blowing of horns in
front of sensitive locations

Surface Surface runoff from the road will not be disposed directly in the water bodies
used by people for bathing etc. It should also not be disposed directly in to
runoff
any watercourse with good water quality.

There should be speed restrictions through specific forest area in the night to
Wild Life prevent accident with wild animals. There will be proper sign for the drivers
to inform about this.

Flora Tree plantations will be monitored continuously.

Safety Safety signs should be kept always clean and updated

Public
Bus Stops, Underpasses etc. should be kept in order.
amenities

12.24 Institutional Requirements and Environmental Monitoring Plan


NHAI has a well established Environmental management unit Head by a senior officer (IFS)
from Ministry of Environment and Forest who is supported by an officer of Dy GM rank
from State pollution control Board. Main responsibility of EMU will be to monitor the
progress regarding environmental management. At project level a PIU at Sivpuri will be
responsible for planning and execution of the project. Environmental management will be the

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responsibility of contractors and will be closely coordinated by the Engineer (supervision
consultant. Table 12.16 discusses about the remedial measures, location, time frame and
institutional responsibility.

Table 12- 23 Institutional responsibility of Remedial Measures


Environmental
Remedial Measures Location Time frame Responsibility
Component
Design
Avoid impacting
school, health
Throughout the During Design
Alignment facilities, water
project corridor design Consultant,
bodies and residential
quarters
Provision of service
Throughout the
roads, underpasses,
Public project corridor as During Design
safety signs,
Amenities mentioned in EIA design Consultant,
Bus Stops, Lay bye,
Report
Parking spaces etc.
Closure of Throughout the Contractor,
At the
Public Utilities project corridor as
Alternative beginning of
e.g. tube-wells, mentioned in Supervising
arrangement construction
wells, bus stops Social Impact Engineer
activities
etc. Assessment
Construction
Water Resources & pollution
Consultant,
Rivers/Nallas Throughout
Prevention of pollution Contractor,
Rivers/Nallas mentioned in EIA Construction
of water Supervising
Report Phase
Engineer
Arrange water without Contractor,
affecting local
requirement. Do not use
Water Throughout
local water bodies. Drill Throughout the
Requirement for Construction Supervising
Boreholes with required project corridor
construction Phase Engineer
permission. No water
collection within forest
area
Arrange water without Workers’ camps Throughout Contractor,
Drinking Water
affecting local Construction Supervising
Requirement Working Site
requirement Phase Engineer
Ensure proper Contractor,
sanitation and drainage.
Throughout
Wastewater from No direct wastewater
Workers’ camp Construction Supervising
Workers’ camp discharge in water
Phase Engineer
bodies or the
rivers/nallas
Air & Noise
Spraying of water, Throughout the Throughout Contractor,
Dust Generation
Proper handling of fly project corridor Construction Supervising

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Environmental
Remedial Measures Location Time frame Responsibility
Component
ash Phase Engineer
During Contractor,
Dust Generation Spraying of water, Schools, PHCs as Construction
near Sensitive Work during scheduled mentioned in EIA near the Supervising
Locations period only Report vulnerable Engineer
sites
Throughout Contractor,
Location away from Throughout the
Asphalt Plant Construction Supervising
sensitive areas. project corridor
Phase Engineer
Implementing proper Throughout Contractor,
Stone Crushers air pollution control Stone crushers Construction Supervising
measure as per law Phase Engineer
Ensure checking of Contractor,
Gaseous
vehicular emission Throughout
Emission from Throughout the
and obtaining Construction Supervising
Construction project corridor
Pollution Under Phase Engineer
work vehicles
Control Certificate
Ensure machineries Contractor,
Noise from
meeting noise level Throughout
machineries
standards. Blasting to Construction Supervising
and
be done with required Phase Engineer
construction
caution.
At Schools, PHCs
Work only at
as mentioned in During Contractor,
scheduled period.
Noise at EIA Report. Construction
Sensitive Construct Noise near the
Locations barrier if suggested. vulnerable Supervising
In forest areas
No work during night sites Engineer
in forest areas
Land
Storage of Contractor,
construction Prevent siltation from
Throughout the During rainy
materials, washing of Supervising
project corridor season
debris. Fly ash, construction materials Engineer
etc.
Proper planning for Contractor,
slope stabilization, Throughout
Throughout the
Soil erosion topsoil storage, Construction Supervising
project corridor
plantation and turfing Phase Engineer
on slopes.
Excavation from pre- Contractor,
selected locations. Selected borrow
Throughout
Borrow pits and After excavation the pits and quarries
Construction Supervising
queries borrow pits will be as given in EIA
Phase Engineer
dressed to match with Report
the surroundings.
Solid Waste Ensure dumping Throughout Contractor,

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Environmental
Remedial Measures Location Time frame Responsibility
Component
from outside city area with Construction
construction permission from local Phase Supervising
work authority or used as Engineer
landfill material.
Flora
Ensure plantation of Design
trees on both sides of Throughout the Throughout Consultant,
Tree felling road and around in project corridor Construction Contractor,
consultation with and beyond Phase Supervising
Forest Department Engineer
Fauna
No work after
evening. No use of Throughout Contractor,
Forest Area water bodies, In the forest area Construction
Safety regulations, Phase Supervising
No workers’ camp Engineer
Others
Ensure providing Contractor,
camp of proper
Throughout
dimension and
Workers Camp Workers’ Camps Construction Supervising
environmental quality
Phase Engineer
as given in EIA
Report
Throughout Contractor,
Ensure access to all Throughout the
Public facilities Construction Supervising
important locations project corridor
Phase Engineer
Ensure minimum Contractor,
Religious Throughout the Religious
disturbance during Supervising
places project corridor festivals
festival time Engineer
Planting flowering Contractor,
creepers on medians, Throughout
Throughout the
Aesthetics slope vegetations, Construction Supervising
project corridor
suitable design of Phase Engineer
restaurants etc.
Operation
Throughout Contractor,
Throughout the
Dust Road maintenance Operation Supervising
project corridor
Phase Engineer
Contractor,
Throughout
Gaseous Check the vehicles Throughout the Supervising
Operation
Pollution for pollution control project corridor Engineer,
Phase
Traffic Dept.
Speed Restriction Contractor,
Throughout Supervising
Forest Safety signs In forest areas Operation Engineer,
Phase Traffic Dept.
Underpass

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Environmental
Remedial Measures Location Time frame Responsibility
Component
maintenance
Contractor,
Throughout
Maintain all safety Throughout the Supervising
Safety Operation
provisions project corridor Engineer,
Phase
Traffic Dept.
Contractor,
Bus Stop and other Throughout
Public Throughout the Supervising
amenities to be Operation
Amenities project corridor Engineer,
properly kept Phase
Traffic Dept.

12.25 Findings and Recommendations


Based on the field survey and data available from secondary sources, it can be concluded that
the project will not have significant negative environmental impacts. The issues of concern in
the project are construction of bypasses, realignments, and bridges and acquisition of private
land and forest land. Proper environmental management plan compliance needs to be
ensured. The issues related to land acquisition and resettlement have been evaluated and
adequate compensation has been suggested in RAP document.

12.26 Conclusions and Budget


Based on the environmental assessment and surveys conducted for the project, associated
potential adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated to an acceptable level by adequate
implementation of the measures as stated in the EIA Report. Adequate provisions have been
made (about 12.99 crore) to cover the environmental mitigation and monitoring requirements
(including afforestation cost).

As already mentioned the proposed project, i.e. bypass will improve operational efficiency
and can act as an effective mechanism for reducing economic and environmental costs of the
road stretches. It may be noted that, in terms of prominent environmental impacts of road
projects on air quality and noise levels, the project brings considerable improvement to
possible exposure levels to population when compared with no project scenario. Overall, the
major social and environmental impacts associated with proposed projects are limited to the
construction period and can be mitigated to an acceptable level by implementation of
recommended measures and by best engineering and environmental practices.

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CHAPTER 13

SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


13.1 General
In this chapter all the land laws applicable in the state of Karnataka, the N. H. Act of 1956
under which the land acquisition in this project is going to be done along with the R & R
Policy of the NHAI have been discussed at length. The Resettlement Action Plan for this
Highway project will be prepared within the broad framework of the proposed R & R Policy

13.2 Laws Associated with Land

This section deals with the various land laws that may be of use during land acquisition in
this project.

13.2.1 National Highways Act of 1956

The salient features of the N. H. Act can be summarized likewise:

13.2.1.1 Land Acquisition

In view of section 3‐J of the said Act if any land is acquired for the purposes of
development and reconstruction as well as maintenance of National Highways then nothing
in the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 shall apply.

13.2.1.2 Procedure of Land Acquisition under the N. H. Act of 1956


1. The power to acquire land shall vest absolutely in the Central Government.

2. If land is required for the building, maintenance, management or operation of a


National Highway or part thereof a Notification shall be issued by the Central Govt.
in this behalf. Such Notification shall give a brief description of the land.

3. The Competent Authority (as defined under section 3 of N. H. Act of 1956) shall
give effect to such Notification issued under section 3 (a).

4. when Central Government is satisfied that for Public Purpose Land is required for
building maintenance management or operation of National Highway or part
thereof, it may, by notification in official gazette, declare the intention to acquire
such land under section 3 (A)
5. On Issue of Notification, a person authorized by the Central Government may :

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under section 3 (B)
 Make inspection, survey, measurement, valuation or inquiry.
Take levels.
 Dig or bore into sub‐soil.
 Set out boundaries and intended lines of work.
 Make such levels, boundaries and lines.
 Do such rear acts or things as laid down by Rules.

6. From the date of publication of Notification to acquire land, a person interested in


the land may within 21 days file objection if any, in respect to purposes and use of
land before the Competent Authority*.

7. On objection being filed, the Competent Authority shall give an opportunity to the
person of being heard regarding his/her objection. After hearing such objections and
making such further inquiry, if any, the Competent Authority by passing an order either
allow or disallow the objections. Any order passed by the Competent Authority shall be
final as per section 3C (3) of the NH Act.

8. Where no objection has been filed under sub‐section (1) of section 3C after the issue of
Notification to acquire land or where the objection has been disallowed, on report of
the competent Authority, the Central Government, by issue of Notification, shall declare
that land should be acquired for the purpose mentioned in sub section (1) of section 3(A).
on the publication of the declaration under sub‐section (1), the land shall vest absolutely
in Central Government free from all encumbrances.

9. It is obligatory that such declaration must be issued within one year from the date of
publication of Notification under sub‐section (1) of section 3A showing intention to
acquire land. This declaration made by Central Government under section (1) shall not be
called in question in any court or by any other authority.

10. Upon the land being vested in the Central Government after declaration, the
Competent Authority shall proceed for determination of compensation. If the
compensation determined is not acceptable, the amount shall be determined by the
Arbitrator appointed by the Central Government. The amount so determined shall
be deposited by the Central Government with the Competent Authority before taking
possession of the land.

11. The Competent Authority, on deposit of amount shall pay to the person or persons

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entitled thereto. Where several persons claim to be interested in the amount deposited, the
Competent Authority shall determine the person, who in its opinion, are entitled to receive the
payment.

12. In case of dispute as to the apportionment of the amount or right person to whom it is
payable the matter shall be referred to the Civil Court within the limits of whose jurisdiction
the land is situated.

13. Where the Arbitration amount is in excess of amount determined by Competent


Authority, there is provision of payment of interest to the person(s).

13. The Competent Authority by issuing a written notice shall direct the owner as well as
the other person(s), who are in possession of the required land, to surrender or deliver
possession to Competent Authority or to any person having authority on its behalf, within 60
days of the service of the said notice.

14. In case of refusal or non‐compliance of the direction to deliver possession, the Competent
Authority shall refer to the Commissioner of Police where the land is situated in
metropolitan area, and in other areas, to the Collector of the District. Accordingly parties
shall be enforced to surrender the land to Competent Authority.

15. Upon the land being vested in the Central Government, it shall be lawful to enter and
do the necessary act upon the land for carrying out the building, maintenance,
management or operation of a national highway or part thereof or any other work connected
therewith.
*A Competent Authority means any person or authority authorized by the Central Govt.
by notification for such area as specified.

13.2.1.3 Determination of Compensation

The Competent Authority shall take into account the following factors in
determination of the compensation amount under sub‐section (1) or sub‐section (5):

 The market value of the land on the date of publication of the notification.

 The damage, if any, sustained by the person interested, at the time of taking
possession of the land by reason of

 The land being severed from the other land

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 Acquisition injuriously affecting his other immovable property in any manner, or his
earnings

If the person interested is compelled to change his residence or place of business, the
reasonable expenses (if any) incidental to such change.

13.3 Land Laws of Karnataka

In the present case the N.H. Act 1956 is applicable and hence Karnataka Land
Acquisition Act 1961 is not explained here.

13.4 R & R Policy

The details of the R & R Policy have been presented in the annexes but the broad
entitlement framework for resettlement is as follows:

Table 13- 1 Broad Entitlement Frame Work

Broad Entitlement Framework For Resettlement & Rehabilitation

Land acquisition Inside ROW


Impacts and assistance criteria
Vulnerable Non‐Vulnerable Vulnerable Non‐Vulnerable

A. Corridor of Impact : Loss of land and other assets Support given to families and households

Consultation counselling
regarding alternatives and
1
assistance in identifying
   

new sites and opportunities

Compensation for land at


replacement cost plus
2    
allowances for the fees or
other charges

Advance notice to harvest


non perennial crops or
3    
compensation for
loss of standing crops

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Broad Entitlement Framework For Resettlement & Rehabilitation

Land acquisition Inside ROW


Impacts and assistance criteria
Vulnerable Non‐Vulnerable Vulnerable Non‐Vulnerable

Compensation for perennial


crops and
4 trees calculated as annual    
produce value for one
season

Compensation or R & R
5 assistance for structures or    
other non‐land assets

Right to salvage materials


6    
from existing structures

7 Shifting assistance    

Option of moving to
resettlement sites (in a
8 group of minimum 25   
families) incorporating
needs for civic amenities

B. Corridor of Impact: Lost or diminished livelihood Support given to adult individuals

Rehabilitation and
9 assistance for the lost or   
diminished livelihood

Additional support
mechanisms for vulnerable
10  
groups in re-establishing or
enhancing livelihood

Employment opportunities
11 in connection with project,  
to the extent possible

Any other impacts not yet Unforeseen impacts shall be documented and
12 identified, whether loss of mitigated based on the principles agreed upon in this
assets or livelihood policy frame‐work

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Broad Entitlement Framework For Resettlement & Rehabilitation

Land acquisition Inside ROW


Impacts and assistance criteria
Vulnerable Non‐Vulnerable Vulnerable Non‐Vulnerable

C. Indirect, group oriented impacts in the vicinity of the road corridor

Group oriented support will be provided to mitigate negative impacts on the community, and to
enhance development opportunities.

13.5 Entitlement Plan

This section deals with the R & R guidelines of the NHAI as well as the guidelines of the
government for the resettlement and rehabilitation of the project affected people.

13.5.1 R & R Guidelines


Table 13- 2 Detailed Entitlement Matrix

Type of Unit of
Category Entitlement Details
loss entitlement
1. If the replacement cost
(determined as per para 6.7(d) of
the policy framework) is more
than the compensation at “market
price” as determined by the
Competent Authority as per
para6.7(c) of the policy
framework, then the difference is
to be paid by the project in the
form of “assistance”2. PAPs will
Compensation
be explained the process
Agricultural Family (as at
Private and their views will be taken into
A land and defined in “replacement
Property consideration, while determining
assets para6.4.4) cost” or “actual
the market value.
market value”
3. If the residual plot(s) is/are not
viable i.e. less than MEH
(Minimum Economic Holding),
there are three options to be
given
to the EP.
• The EP remains on the plot, and
the compensation and assistance
paid to the tune of required
amount of the land to be

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Type of Unit of
Category Entitlement Details
loss entitlement
acquired.
• Compensation and assistance
are
given for the entire plot including
residual plot, if the owner of such
land wishes that his residual plot
should also be acquired by the
project authority provided
residual land is quantified less
than MEH. The residual plot so
paid will be acquired by the
project authority.
4. If EP is from the vulnerable
group,
compensation for the entire land
of equal or more productive
value
is available.
5. Transitional allowance for
9months if the residential land is
not viable or for 3months when
the residential land is viable.
6. In case of severance of
agricultural
land, an additional grant of 10%
of
the amount paid for land
acquisition.
7. All fees, taxes and other
charges,
as applicable under the relevant
laws, incurred in the relocation
and resource establishment, are
to
be borne by the project.

Unit of
Category Type of loss Entitlement Details
entitlement

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Unit of
Category Type of loss Entitlement Details
entitlement
1. If the asset (part/full) in
question is
a residential structure, then
the
replacement cost will be
calculated as equivalent to
the
cost of provision of
residential
structure of area equivalent
to
that lost, subject to relevant
“quality standards” of BSR
as
maintained by government
authorities or local bodies.
2. If the replacement cost is
more
than the compensation (at
“market price” as
determined by
Compensation
the Competent Authority),
at
Nonagricultural Family (as then
Private “replacement
IB land and defined in the difference is to be paid
Property cost” or
assets para6.4.4) by the
“actual
project in form of
market value”
“assistance”.3. Transitional
assistance in the form
of a grant to cover maximum
9
months rental
accommodation on
case to case basis.
4. A lump sum shifting
allowance
5. The tenants will receive
the
following:The amount of
deposit of
advance payment paid by
the
tenant to the landlord or the
remaining amount at the
time of
expropriation, (this will be
deducted from the payment
to

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Unit of
Category Type of loss Entitlement Details
entitlement
the landlord).
• Compensation for any
structure
that the tenant has erected on
the property, (this will be
deducted from the payment
to
the landlord).
• A sum equal to 3 months
rental
in consideration of
disruption
caused.
• Absentee landlords will
receive
only the compensation at
“replacement cost”.
• Right to salvage material
from
the demolished structure.
• Compensation for loss of
residential/commercial land
at
replacement value.
• Option for residential/
commercial plot at
resettlement
site if so opted by 25 or
more
number of PDPs on payment
basis except for vulnerable
groups

Unit of
Category Type of loss Entitlement Details
entitlement

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Unit of
Category Type of loss Entitlement Details
entitlement
1. This is valid for persons
indirectly
affected due to the
employer
being displaced on a case
to case
basis after suitably
determining
A grant equal
the monthly wage.
to
2A Livelihood Wage earning Individual 2. In individual cases,
six months lost
when the
income
Wage earner is the only
earner in
the family, then he will be
entitled to a suitable
higher
amount.
3. Training for up‐
gradation of skill.
1. They are entitled to be
given a
notice substantially 4
months in
advance.
2. Grant towards crop lost
Notice to before
Nonperennial
2B Family harvest harvest due to forced
crops
standing crop relocation,
equal to market value of
crop lost
plus cost or replacement
of seeds
for the next season’s
harvest.
1. Compensation for
perennial
Perennial Compensation crops and trees, calculated
2C crops such as Family at market as
fruit trees value annual produce value for
one
season.

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Unit of
Category Type of loss Entitlement Details
entitlement
1. Encroachers will be
notified a
time in which to remove
their
assets, (except trees) and
harvest
their crops.
2. To be assisted on case
to case
basis by considering
relevant
Will receive facts on family income
Illegal use no and
Illegal use of
3A of Family compensation existing assets only in the
ROW
ROW for land but case of
assistance person being a member of
more
disadvantaged families of
the
vulnerable group.
3. Compensation for
structures at
replacement cost to the
vulnerable person.
4. Right to salvage
material from
the demolished structure
1. Facilitation/ access to
training
which includes equivalent
income
generating assistance.
2. Shifting assistance
Assistance and
3. Squatters will not be
training, only
entitled for
3B Squatters Family incase of
any compensation for land
vulnerable
but
groups
vulnerable persons among
them
will be compensated for
loss of
structure at replacement
cost.

Type of Unit of
Category Entitlement Details
loss entitlement

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Type of Unit of
Category Entitlement Details
loss entitlement
1. The assistance will be
equivalent
or 1 year towards income
generating or vocational
training
option of EP’s choice.
2. The training includes
Additional Additional
Primary starting a
support to assistance to
4A source of Family suitable production or
Vulnerable training or
income service
groups equivalent
activity.
3. The money not spent for
training
programme, the equivalent
amount
to be paid as per EP’s
choice.
1. Ambulatory vendors
Mobile & They are not
licensed for
Shifting ambulator eligible for
5A Family locations will be
business y assistance or
considered as
vendors compensation
Kiosks.
1. The assistance will be
paid as flat
sum.
2. Where numerous
venders are
displaced provision of a
vendor
market, rent‐free for the
first 6
months, thereafter they
would
be collectively encouraged
“Assistance” for
to
5B Kiosks Family business
purchase their market site.
disruption
3. For the purpose of the
above
detail 2, only when 50
vendors
are displaced, the
provision will
be in force. However, the
PIU will
decide whether such a
“vendor’s
market” needs to be
provided, on

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Type of Unit of
Category Entitlement Details
loss entitlement
a case to case basis, when
the
number of displaced
vendors is
less than 50.

1. Easily replaced
resources such as
cultural properties will be
conserved (by means of
special
protection, relocation,
replacement, etc.) in
consultation
with the community.
2. Loss of access to
firewood etc.
will be compensated by
involving
the communities in a
social
forestry scheme in
cooperation
Community
Conservation, with the department of
infrastructure Common
protection, Forest,
6A cohesion property Community
compensatory wherever possible.
and resources
placement 3. Adequate safety
amenities
measures,
particularly for pedestrians
and
children; landscaping of
community common areas,
improved drainage,
roadside test
areas, etc. are all provided
in the
design of the highways.
4. Employment
opportunities in the
project, if possible.
5. Loss of trees will be
replaced by
compensatory
afforestation.

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Type of Unit of
Category Entitlement Details
loss entitlement
1.Such compensation
assistance
will be considered if the
total
number of resettled people
exceeds 200 or 10% of
host
Enhancement of
community’s population.
community
2. Compensation/
Host resources.
assistance will be
6B communit Community Replacement of
provided in the form of
ies likely to be
provision
depleted
of community, recreational
resources
infrastructure facilities and
help
in organizing income‐
generating
schemes, in consultation
with the
host community

Any other 1. Unforeseen impacts


impact not shall be
yet documented and mitigated
6C identified based
whether loss on the principals agreed
of asset or upon in
livelihood this policy framework

13.6 Government Guidelines

The NH Act rests absolute power on the Central government and the Competent
Authority as appointed by it for acquisition of land and structures. The various provisions
have been discussed in earlier chapters. It is worth mentioning that, for the land acquired
according to this Act, the compensation to the concerned PAP has to be paid within 60
days and it shall be the endeavour of the project authority and partially the NGOs to
ensure that compensation amount reaches the hands of the PAPs before eviction.

The following factors have to be taken into consideration for determination of


compensation under sub section (1) or sub section (5) by the Competent Authority:

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 The current land rate (market value) on the date of publication of notification.
 The reasonable expenses if the person concerned is compelled to change his
residence or business establishment.
 If any damage, is sustained by the person interested, at the time of taking
possession of the land by reason of:
 The land being severed from the other land
 Acquisition seriously affecting his other immovable property, or his earnings.

Note : All structures and agricultural plots that are rendered non‐viable (i.e. losing 75% or more as per the R
& R Policy) due to partial acquisition shall be acquired completely and the compensation paid
accordingly.

13.7 Minimizing Resettlement

The success of a project is dependent on the improvement in the living standard of the people
due to the project. This project being related to Highway improvement is a step forward in the
path of positive development. In order to avoid problems in the implementation of the project
care has been taken to account for minimal dislocation within the limitations of technical
requirements and cost‐effectiveness.

13.7.1 Alternative Suggestions

For simplifying the process of resettlement, by providing alternative road alignment options,
the entire project stretch has been categorized into 2 broad categories:

 Congested areas with heavy settlements

 Rural areas mostly with agricultural plots


Various options like concentric widening, bypass, one side widening and fly‐over were
considered after identification of the areas of concern. And the weightage matrix was
taken into consideration for the Socio‐economic analysis related with the different options
before finalizing the alignment.

Concentric widening was preferred in those areas where there is congestion due to the
following reasons:

Concentric widening within the existing ROW leaves no scope for land acquisition or there is
minimum land acquisition.

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 This option also reduces land acquisition and demolition of structures since as far as
practicable the existing ROW is utilized.

One side expansion is suggested in those areas where less number of structures are affected
and the available ROW is wide enough to facilitate road construction. From the design point
of view one side expansion is preferred due to its cost‐effectiveness and minimum negative
impacts.

13.7.2 Combining Determinants

The finalization of alignment was for the Highway of our concern was done on the basis of
3 considerations:

 Socio‐economic impact

 Environmental impact

 Technical feasibility

The combined approach that was followed taking into consideration the above factors helped
in reducing resettlement. The preferred alignment option is the one that causes minimum
dislocation and is least cost intensive.

13.7.3 Economizing on Cost

Cost effectiveness of the preferred option is one of the major considerations in alignment
determination. It has been found that economic costs are directly proportional to the social
cost that the PAPs have to bear. The methods that should be adhered to for minimizing costs
are as follows:

 Concentric widening within ROW thereby minimizing land acquisition and the
related compensation cost.

 Expansion on one side is the most viable option from the technical angle. It is also
the most cost‐effective design.

 Proposal is being made for networking with the government agencies for
rehabilitation and income restoration through different government schemes.

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13.7.4 Reducing Resistance

Participatory planning is a pre‐requisite for any development project because this helps in
minimizing resistance from the community during planning and implementation of the
project.

For this purpose certain methods/processes are followed. And the processes that are to be
adhered to for minimizing resistance include the following:

 Participatory planning

 Establishment of rapport

 Settlement of problems at the ground level

 Participation of NGOs

13.7.5 Relocation Plan

During the group meetings and the Focus Group Discussions the opinion of the
community members was sought and it was found that those who were either
encroachers or squatters were aware of their legal status and are ready to move from their
present location without any compensation. For the vulnerable PAPs special provisions
along with assistance in relocation shall be made available.

13.7.6 Rehabilitation Measures

In this section we have discussed the various rehabilitation measures that are being suggested
including income restoration processes, networking with different agencies and the available
government schemes.

13.7.7 Income Restoration

In the process of shifting lot many people are affected and few amongst them are likely to
lose their source of income. This category of PAPs includes:

 Agricultural Land owners losing part of their land


 Landless agricultural labourers in need of alternative source of income
 Owners of commercial establishments who undergo reduction in income
 Workers at the commercial establishments losing their jobs thereby their income

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13.7.8 Process of Networking

Through the process of networking with different agencies like the government bodies as
well as the NGOs the tasks of resettlement (relocation and shifting) and rehabilitation
(income restoration through training and other activities) can be made easier.

13.7.9 Grievance Redressal System

For this project 2 broad categories of PAPs with the need for grievance redressal have
been identified. They are:

 The legal title holders whose private land will be acquired. The representation in this
category is very less due to minimal land acquisition

 Encroachers/Squatters who are entitled for assistance for rehabilitation and relocation
and to benefits in form of compensation in spite of any provision in the NH Act.

 For the purpose of grievance redressal the district and project level R & R
committees shall serve as the Grievance Redressal Committee at the 2 levels. The
minimum representatives to be present in these committees should be:

 District Magistrate or his/her representative

 Project Director

 Government representative from the department of rural development

 NGO representative

 Representative of the Panchayat or local body.

Attempts should be made to settle the issues at the base level by community consultation and
the involvement of R & R Expert and NGOs. And if it is not resolved then it should be
brought to the notice of the CRROs who may attempt at its settlement. If the matter is not
resolved then it should be brought to the notice of the Grievance Redressal cum District R &
R Committee. And if the Grievance Redressal cum District R & R Committee is not able to
resolve the case then it should be presented before the Project Grievance Redressal cum R & R
Committee.

There are two types of grievances of the PAPs or PDPs that need to be resolved. They are:

 Resettlement & Rehabilitation

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 Land Acquisition

Care should always be taken to prevent grievances rather than going for redressal since this
is considered to be a better option. Grievances can be prevented if we adhere to certain
principles like‐ establishment of rapport between the community and the implementing unit
and frequent interactions, transparency in dealings, community participation, monitoring etc.

13.8 Plan for Resettlement & Rehabilitation

The broad category of resettlement and rehabilitation includes under its purview the following
two components:

 Land acquisition

 Resettlement & Rehabilitation

13.9 Land Acquisition

The Land acquisition for this project will be done according to the N. H. Act as has been
stated in the R & R Policy. According to this Act the sole authority to take decisions
regarding policy matters related to land acquisition is the Competent Authority appointed by
the government. Further, the actual verification regarding the land to be acquired is done by
the Revenue Officer who is assisted by the CRRO and representatives of the revenue
department. The support of the government officials including the Block Development
Officer is needed in the process of detection and acquisition of land to meet the needs of
both construction as well as relocation. The Revenue Officer can be involved to help in the
acquisition procedure by following a simple yet effective procedure stated below:

The Revenue Officer works for the state government. So the NHAI can request the Chief
Secretary of the state to inform the Collector of the concerned district to send a person on
deputation as the LAO (Land Acquisition Officer) along with a team of Amins and
Surveyors to assist in the process of verification and acquisition.

13.10 Resettlement & Rehabilitation

To look after the resettlement and rehabilitation work at the project level the Project Director
cum PRRO is responsible. S/he coordinates the activities related to the implementation of
the R&R activities. Further, there is the need for appointing a qualified Sociologist with
relevant experience since s/he has to take care of the R&R activities as the managers and the

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PD are basically engineers who cannot understand the intricacies of the R&R activities. The
Sociologist appointed is responsible for planning and timely implementation of the activities
in coordination with the CRRO, RMU, and the NGOs as well as quality monitoring.
Government departments involved in developmental activities would be requested to render
their support for implementation of different schemes for rehabilitation. These schemes may
aim at income restoration, skill training, enhancing and modifying the prevalent schemes
within the members of the community.

Several committees are also proposed for reviewing and monitoring the implementation
process at regular intervals. These committees are expected to facilitate the processes requiring
outside intervention and help.

Table 13- 3: Details Of Committees & Responsibility

Name of Designati
Members Functions
Committee on
To ensure safe implementation of R
&R
Principal Secretary Chairman Policy.
• Review and permit R & R
Revenue Secretary Member interventions
for the benefit of the PAPs regularly.
Project Level Secretary, Member • Monitor and evaluate land
R&R Rural development acquisition as
Committee Director, Women & Member well as compensation payment.
Child Welfare • Facilitating R & R activities by
Project Director cum combining
Member
CRRO them with government schemes.
• Timely review of progress of
CGM/Chief Engineer,
Member activities
NHAI related to implementation.
This committee shall review progress of activities and take decisions on policy matters

District Collector/ Planning and goal‐setting and


Magistrate of the Chairman reviewing
district the achievements.
• Coordinating the work of all the
Competent Authority bodies
Member
Project Level for Land acquisition involved including civil contractors.
RMU Contractor’s • Act as an appellate body for
Member
representative grievance
NGO representative Member redressal.
External R & R • Make provisions for smooth cash
Member flow.
Expert
CRRO Member • Ensure the quality of work done.

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Name of Designati
Members Functions
Committee on
• Maintain coordination between R &
Project Director cum
Convenor R
PRRO
activities and civil work.
This team ensures smooth progress of the entire process as well as acts as an appellate body
for grievance
redressal
Chief Development
Chairman
Officer
LAO Member Striking a balance between the
activities ofthe NGO and the other
External R & R
Member bodies involved.
Contract/ Expert
• Budget management and facilitating
District level External R & R
Member theprocess of Land acquisition.
RMU Expert
• Grievance redressal.
CRRO Member
• Ensure smooth implementation of
Representatives (at the R & R activities.
least 2 persons)
Member
nominated by the
District Magistrate
This is the committee at the lowest level responsible for unencumbered implementation

13.11 Training Needs

The PIU of NHAI is responsible for the implementation of the various components of the
RAP. The Project Director who is the head of the PIU acts as the PRRO and is responsible
for coordinating all the project related activities and simultaneously looks after the planning,
implementation and monitoring of the resettlement and rehabilitation activities. The Project
R & R Committee provides guidance to the PRRO. This committee consists of the following
bodies/personnel:

 National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)

 Revenue Department

 NGOs

 District Rural Development Agency (DRDA)

 PWD which is the link between the MOST (Ministry of Surface Transport) and the
NHAI

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There is need for training of personnel involved in this project because this is a project
which involves various components like technical, environmental, social, pavement, etc and
as this type of project is not common in India. Several training programs have been
suggested to enable better understanding of the project and thereby help in the process of
smooth implementation. They are:

 Youth‐ training for local monitoring

 Orientation and training of NGO representatives

 Skill training for rehabilitation

 Orientation programs for members of R & R Committee, RMU, and the PIU
representatives

 Orientation programs for the public representatives like – MP, MLA and
Panchayat members

 Orientation of representatives of concerned government departments.

13.12 Budget

The budget that is being presented is an indicative budget with break‐up under different
heads. This budget needs to be revised if there is any delay in implementation. There
may be a steep rise in the cost of land as soon as the people are aware of the Highway
expansion. It is further suggested that at the time of implementation the budgetary
estimates may be modified in accordance with the changes in costs.

13.12.1Components of Cost

The various components of cost that are dealt with in this chapter for budget
calculation can be listed likewise:

 Resettlement cost
 Rehabilitation cost
 Implementation cost
 Institutional cost
 Monitoring & evaluation cost

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RESETTLEMENT COST

REHABILITATION COST
IMPLEMENTATION COST
INSTITUTIONAL COST
MONITORING & EVALUATION

Figure 13- 1 Components of Cost

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13.12.2Resettlement Cost

The resettlement cost includes the following under its purview:

 Cost of land acquisition

 Cost of standing crop

 Compensation for the demolished structures

 Shifting assistance

 Cost of religious structures to be demolished

 EWS housing assistance

 Interim assistance for rent

 Purchase of land for relocation (if required)

13.12.3Rehabilitation Cost

Rehabilitation cost includes the expenditure under the following heads:

 Cost of skill training

 Loans for income generating mechanisms that are not covered under the
government schemes

 Income restoration costs

 Temporary grant for lost income

13.12.4Implementation Cost

The implementation cost includes the following expenses, which are proposed to be taken
care of by the NGOs:

 Contracting NGOs

 Issue of identity cards to the PAPs after verification of credentials

13.12.5Institutional Cost

The institutional costs include the expenses incurred under the given heads:

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 Administrative cost of the External R&R Officer contracted

 Cost of training and orientation of the NGOs and other personnel related to
project implementation

 Touring cost of officials of various committees

13.12.6Monitoring & Evaluation Cost

It is planned to conduct monitoring which includes site‐visits and developing format for
monitoring on a regular basis and the evaluation by an external body/agency
periodically. The costs to be included under this broad category are:

 Monitoring cost

 Cost of contracting an external agency for periodic evaluation

13.13 Managing Budget

Financial responsibility will be vested upon different agencies for separate activities. The
rehabilitation activities are executed in ground by the NGO's under the direct
supervision of the CRRO. Hence it is recommended that funds for rehabilitation be
diverted through the concerned CRRO. The PRRO should be made responsible for
handling the implementation budget, which includes establishment, administrative and
management costs applicable for the entire project stretch. The matter of land acquisition
shall be handled by the Competent Authority appointed by the government of India. So
it is proposed that the funds for compensation to be paid for land acquisition and
demolished structures be diverted through the Competent Authority.

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