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Basic Concepts Balanced Menu

1. Definition of Balanced Menu

The general guideline of balanced nutrition should be applied in the presentation of the dishes
are eligible nutrient known as a balanced diet. The menu is derived from the word "menu" means
a written list in detail. Definition menu is a series of several kinds of dishes or dishes served or
served on any person or group at each meal, which can be a meal in the morning, noon, and
The menu is a balanced food consumption to meet the body's need for nutrients made up of
diverse foods in the number and proportion suitable, thus meeting the nutritional needs of a
person for the maintenance and repair of body cells and the process of life and growth and
development (Almatsier, 2005) . Well balanced menu can be interpreted also as a menu
consisting of a wide range of foodstuffs in an appropriate amount and proportion, thus meeting
the nutritional needs someone to maintain, repair body cells, the process of life and growth and
The pattern of a balanced diet was developed in 1950 by the term "Healthy Four Five Perfect"
(Sulistyoningsih, 2011). Pattern 4 healthy 5 perfect menu is well balanced menu pattern when it
is compiled with either contains all the nutrients needed by the body (Almatsier, 2005).

Develop Principles of Balanced Nutrition Menu

1. Amount Enough
A sufficient amount means the amount of food consumed meet the recommended dietary
2. The person designated
People for whom the intended meaning of this menu will be given. Whether for individual,
family, group or institution.
3. Activities undertaken
Activities undertaken means how heavy of activity, whether the activity is carried low, normal,
or high. The higher the activity is done eating nutritional needs required more and more.
4. The objective given nutritional balanced menu
This means that given a balanced nutrition is used to balance the nutrients in the body, or
therapy, or for fixing nutrients in the body. So the goal was clear.
5. It consists of a variety of foods,
This means that a given menu nutrition can complement each other, since no one food contains
all the nutrients.
6. Consideration of nutrition, taste, and the economy
That is the kind of food that is chosen should be based on considerations of nutrition, taste, and
economics respectively. This is done to avoid the voluminous amounts of food are large but low
nutritional content.
7. How processing
That means select food processing methods that can minimize the loss of nutrients. Food
processing should also be adapted to the physiological state of the body, for example: food for
children, pregnant women, and the elderly.
8. Presentation
That is note the composition, the portion of the presentation time or time eating and sharing
meals according to mealtimes. The composition and the portions served every meal time should
be adjusted to the eating habits of people (three times a day, serving smaller dinghy 20-25%).
The composition, shape, and color varied attractively presented will be able to increase appetite.


This message applies to adults ages from all walks of life in a healthy condition and to maintain a
healthy life:
1. Thankful and enjoy the diversity of food
By eating a variety of foods nutritional needs will be met. The more variety of food consumed,
the more easily the body acquire various nutrients that are beneficial to health. In addition to
considering diversity of food and drinks, we also need to consider aspects of food safety, food
consumed should be free from contamination of biological, chemical, and other objects that can
be annoying and detrimental to health.
2. Eat enough vegetables and fruits
Vegetables and fruits are good sources of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber.Vitamins and
minerals contained in fruits and vegetables act as antioxidants or antidote nasty compounds in
the body. Some research shows that consumption of vegetables and fruits are also quite
instrumental in maintaining the normalcy of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood cholesterol
levels. Fiber in fruits and vegetables play a role to facilitate digestion and can maintain a normal
weight. Ministry of Health recommends to eat vegetables and fruits as much as 300-400 grams /
day for infants and children and school-age children, and 400-600 grams / day for adolescents
and adults. Approximately 2/3 of the recommended amount of consumption of vegetables and
fruits are portions of vegetables.
3. Make it a habit to eat the side dishes that contain high protein
The side dishes consisted of food sources of animal protein and vegetable. Source of animal
protein in the food group consisting of meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk and processed products.
While the food group vegetable protein sources include beans and their processed products such
as tempe, tofu, tauco, soy sauce, oncom, soy milk, and so on. Each food group has advantages
and disadvantages, such as animal food has the amino acid content is more complete and has the
nutritional quality protein, vitamins and minerals are better than vegetable food. But animal food
contains high levels of cholesterol and fat. To meet the nutritional needs should consume food
sources of animal protein and vegetable protein food sources in a balanced manner. Suggested
food consumption of animal and vegetable protein source as much as 2-4 servings per day.
4. Get used to consume diversity of staple foods
The staple food is a food that contains carbohydrates that are often consumed or has become part
of the culture of eating in Indonesia for a long time. Examples of carbohydrate foods are rice,
maize, cassava, yams, taro, arrowroot, sorghum, barley, corn, wheat and dairy products. To
realize the staple food consumption patterns vary is to eat more than one type of staple food in a
5. Restrict food consumption of sweet, salty and fatty foods
Indonesian Health Ministry recommends to limit the consumption of more than 50 grams of
sugar (4 tablespoons), as many as 1 tablespoon salt, and oil as much as 67 grams (5 tablespoons)
per day. This consumption restrictions aim to maintain our health. Excessive sugar consumption
be one trigger for diabetes type 2. Then the consumption of sodium is contained in the extra salt
can increase blood pressure. Consumption of fat / excess oil can increase obesity, increase blood
cholesterol levels, heart disease. So we should limit consumption of sugar, salt, and oil / fat
6. Familiarize breakfast
The breakfast is eating and drinking activities undertaken between waking up at 9am to meet the
nutritional needs of the majority (15-30% nutritional needs) .The breakfast equip the body with
the nutrients needed to think, work, and optimal physical activity after waking .The breakfast can
also prevent obesity. A good breakfast consists of food sources of carbohydrates, side dishes,
vegetables, fruit and drinks.
7. Make it a habit to drink water that is sufficient and safe
Water is one of the nutrients of money needed by the body in large amounts for the growth and
development of optimal, regulates body temperature, regulate biochemical processes, dissolve
some nutrients, forming or components of cells and organs, the transport medium of nutrients
and disposal of gastrointestinal, lubricants bearing joints and organs.
Meeting the needs of the body of water is done through consumption of food and beverages.
Most of the water needed by the body is filled with beverage which is about two liters or eight
glasses a day for adolescents and adults with physical activity light on the condition of normal
body temperature. Workers were sweaty, pregnant and nursing mothers, sportsmen, sick people
should add 2 liters of water needs in addition to earlier. The water needs should be met from the
food and drinks are free from germs and other harmful ingredients.
8. Make a habit of reading the labels on food packaging
Label is a description of the contents, types, nutrient composition, expiration date and other
important information listed on the packaging. All information contained on the packaging so
helps consumers to know the ingredients contained in these foods, especially information and the
expiration date nutritional information before buying or consuming these foods.
9. Wash hands with soap and clean water flows
Clean hand washing with soap and running water can prevent our bodies from the entry of germs
and bacteria through the hands. We are required to wash their hands with clean water flow and
use soap minimal before and after eating, before and after handling food, before and after
defecation / small and cleaning a baby / child, before breastfeeding, after holding the animals,
and after gardening.
10. Do enough physical activity and maintain a normal weight
Physical activity is any body movements that can increase energy expenditure and burning.
Physical activity is considered sufficient if a person does physical exercise or exercise for 30
minutes every day or at least 3-5 days per week. Some physical activity can be done such as
walking, gardening, sweeping, washing, mopping, up and down stairs, and others. Doing regular
physical activity can maintain a normal weight or lose weight becomes normal weight.


lawful and good
containing carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin, mineral, water
appropriate nutrient composition of U, BB, JK, Activity,  the proportion of the total energy
needs (ET):
KH: 60-70% ET A Calorie divided 4 gr = X g KH
Protein: 10-15% ET B Calories divided 4 gr = Y g Protein
Fat: 15-20% Calories divided ET C 9 gr = Z g fat

use varied foodstuffs, guidelines SUBSTITUTION OF MATERIALS adjust to the local
availability of food and finance.


- Breakfast: 25% Energy Total
- Snack morning: 10% Energy Total
Sub-total (I): 35% ET
- Lunch: 30% Energy Total
- Snack afternoon: 10% Energy Total
Sub total (II): 40% ET
- Dinner: 25% Energy Total
Sub total (III): 25% ET
TOTAL (I + II + III): (35% + 40% + 25%) = 100%

Benefits Planning Menu

Activity plan menus with good planning can provide the following benefits:
1. Can be prepared a dish containing nutrients needed by the body.
2. Variations and combination dishes can be arranged so as to avoid the boredom caused
repetition of the type of foodstuff and processing methods.
3. The composition of the dishes can be tailored to the financial condition or costs provided.
4. Save time and effort. Menu planning can be adapted to the conditions, so it can be estimated
that it takes time and effort.
5. The menu is well planned can be a nutrition education tool that is good, because the menu is
good to teach a good diet.

Good Menu Terms

a. Pattern balanced menu
 Pattern balanced menu is expected to meet nutritional needs. The composition of the food that
was served to meet the nutritional needs according to age, sex, and also the activities undertaken.
b. Aspect of color balanced menu
 Color menu balanced food must be attractive so as to arouse the appetite, but the use of food
coloring additives should also pay attention to safety and prioritized using natural dyes.
c. Texture and consistency
 The texture and consistency of the food that was served tailored to the physiological ability
and age. The form of baby food, the elderly, and he who experience health problems especially
digestive be different from adults in general.
d. The taste and smell
 A strong smell of food combined with food that is not sharp smell.
e. The size and shape of the piece
 The existence of creation in the piece can arouse the appetite.
f. Temperature
 Consider the food should be served hot or cold by adjusting the ambient temperature, air or
g. Popularity
A meal for family members will be more appetizing meal when served anyway occasionally
certain dishes that are popular in the community, which is preferably a family member.
h. interesting presentation
 If necessary food served with a garnish, but it is presented in a clean state, protected from
pollution that can harm health.
i. Energy and time
 Type dishes that will be served adjusted to the equipment, the capability, the energy and time
that is owned by the mother / family.