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# Cambridge International Examinations

* 0 2 7 0 3 2 1 8 3 1 *

## MARINE SCIENCE 9693/04

Paper 4 A2 Data-Handling and Free-Response October/November 2017
1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Section A
Answer both questions in this section.

Section B
Answer both questions in this section.

## Electronic calculators may be used.

You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

## This document consists of 10 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (ST/SG) 137546/3
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Section A

## Answer both questions in this section.

1 An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of temperature and mass of food on the
growth of salmon.

Young salmon were placed into tanks of seawater at six different temperatures between 0 °C and
25 °C.

At each temperature, six different feeding regimes were used, ranging from no food given, to five
feeds per day.

The fish were given the same mass of food each time they were fed.

The mean growth rate was determined by weighing the fish at the start and again after two weeks.
This was expressed as mean percentage change in body mass compared to their initial mass.

## The results are shown in Fig. 1.1.

1.6

1.4

1.2
Y
1.0

0.8

0.6
mean X
five feeds per day
percentage 0.4
change in four feeds per day
body mass 0.2 three feeds per day
two feeds per day
0.0
one feed per day
–0.2 no feeding

–0.4

–0.6

–0.8
0 5 10 15 20 25
temperature / °C

Fig. 1.1

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## (a) (i) State the two independent variables in the investigation.

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## (ii) Suggest two variables that should be controlled.

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(b) The mean growth rate was expressed as the percentage change of initial body mass.

(i) Calculate the difference between the mean percentage change in mass for the fish
grown at 5 °C with one feed per day and two feeds per day.

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(ii) Suggest the factor that limits the growth of the fish with three feeds per day at each of
points X and Y in Fig. 1.1.

## In each case, explain how you reached your conclusion.

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(c) Suggest explanations for the effects of temperature and mass of food on the growth rates of
the salmon.

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(d) Salmon often inhabit waters with temperatures ranging between 5 °C and 7 °C. Current models
of climate change predict a possible 2 °C to 3 °C rise in temperature of the waters where
salmon are found. It is also predicted that the natural food of the salmon will be dramatically
reduced.

Use Fig. 1.1 to predict and explain the likely effects of a temperature rise of 2 °C to 3 °C on
wild salmon populations.

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2 Marine protection areas (MPAs) are regions of sea or ocean where fishing is prohibited or restricted
in an effort to conserve species. The impact of MPAs on the lobster populations in the sea around
Norway was investigated.

In 2006, an MPA and a control area were established at site A. An MPA and a control area were
also established at site B.

The control areas were the same size as the MPAs. Commercial lobster fishing took place in the
control areas.

## All fishing within the MPAs was restricted.

Lobsters were sampled in all MPAs and control areas using identical traps placed at a depth of
between 10 m and 30 m.

Sampling of lobsters was carried out by inspecting 25 traps in each MPA and 25 traps in each
control area every day for four separate days. This was repeated every year between 2006 and
2010.

## Sampling was conducted between 20 August and 10 September each year.

(a) (i) Calculate the total number of samples taken each year.

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[1]

(ii) Suggest why the control areas were close to each of the MPAs.

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(b) The mean number of lobsters caught per trap per day for both MPAs and control areas are
shown in Fig. 2.1. The MPAs were established in 2006.

3.5 3.5
control area
3.0 3.0
MPA
2.5 2.5 indicates ± 1
mean standard
number of 2.0 2.0 deviation
lobsters
per trap 1.5 1.5
per day
1.0 1.0

0.5 0.5

0.0 0.0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
site A site B

Fig. 2.1

The investigation led to the conclusion that MPAs assist in the recovery of the stocks of
commercially fished marine species.

Discuss the extent to which the results of this investigation support this conclusion.

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Section B

## 3 Marine organisms are adapted for life in their particular habitat.

(a) (i) Explain why large, active animals require specialised gas exchange surfaces and
transport systems.

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## (ii) Describe how tuna maximise their rate of gas exchange.

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(b) Explain why algal species adapted to live in deeper waters often contain accessory pigments.

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4 (a) Planting of mangroves and building artificial reefs can assist in the rehabilitation of marine
species.

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(b) Describe and explain the possible impacts of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide on
marine ecosystems.

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