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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

EE2355- DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES

UNIVERSITY EXPECTED TWO MARKS

UNIT 1

Synchronous Machine, Squirrel Cage Induction Motor?

(i) Dc Machine

Stator: Yoke, Field Pole, Pole Show, Field Winding, Interpol

Rotor: Armature Core, Armature Winding

(ii) Salient pole Synchronous Machine

Stator: Yoke, Armature Core, Armature Winding

Rotor: Field Pole, Pole Show, Field Winding, Damping Winding

(iii) Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

Stator: Yoke, Stator Core, Stator Winding

Rotor: Rotor Core, Rotor Bars, End Rings

Organization Of A Country. The Standard Specifications Serve As Guideline For The

Manufactures To Produce Quality Products At Economical Prices. The Standard Specifications

For Electrical Machines Include Ratings, Types Of Enclosure, Dimensions Of Conductors,

Name Plate Details, Performance Indices, Permissible Temperature Rise, Permissible

Loss, Efficiency, Etc.,

*IS 1180-1989: Specifications For Out Door 3-Ø Distribution Transformer Up to 100 kVA.

*IS 2026-1972: Specifications Of Power Transformers.

*IS 1231-1974: Specifications For Foot Mounted Induction Motor.

*IS 4029-1967: Guide For Testing 3-Phase Induction Motor.

*IS 996-1979: Specifications For 1-Phase Ac And Universal Motor.

The General Design Procedure Is To Relate The Main Dimensions Of The Machine To Its

Rated Power Output. A General Output Equation Can Be Developed For Electrical Machines

Which Relates The Power Output To Volume Of Active Part (D2L), Speed, Magnetic And Electric

Loadings.

The Total Magnetic Loading Is Defined As the Total Flux Around The Armature (Or

Stator Inner) Periphery At The Air-Gap.

Total Magnetic Loading= P

Where,

P=No Of Poles; =Flux per Pole

The Total Electric Loading Is Defined As The Total Number Of Ampere Conductors

Around The Armature (Or Stator) Periphery.

Total Electric Loading = IZZ

Where,

IZ=Current Through One Armature Conductor

Z=Total Number of Armature Conductor

PAGE: 2

The Specific Magnetic Loading Is Defined As The Average Flux Density Over The Air-

Gap Of A Machine.

Specific Magnetic Loading = Total Flux around the Air-Gap/Area Of Flux Path At The Air-Gap

Bav=P/Dl

The Specific Electric Loading Is Defined As the Number Of Armature (Or Stator)

Ampere Conductors Per Meter Of Armature (Or Stator) Periphery At The Air-Gap.

Specific Electric Loading=Total Armature Ampere Conductors/Armature Periphery at The Air-

Gap

Ac= IZZ /D

The Equation Which Relates the Power Output to the Main Dimensions (D&L), Specific

Loadings (Bav & Ac) And Speed (N) Of A machine Is Known as Output Equation.

The O/P Equation Of Dc Machine Is, Pa=C0 D2l N, In Kw

The O/P Equation of Ac Machine Is, Q=C0d2l Ns, In Kva

Where,

Pa=Power Developed In Armature of Dc Machine

Q=kVA Rating Of Ac Machine , C0=Co-Efficient.

9) What Is Peripheral Speed? Write The Expression For Peripheral Speed Of A Rotating

Machine?

The Peripheral Speed Is A Translational Speed That May Exist At The Surface Of The

Rotor, While It Is Rotating. (It Is Translational Speed Equivalent To The Angular Speed At The

Surface Of The Rotor).

Peripheral Speed, Va=Dr N In M/Sec

Where,

Dr=Diameter of Rotor In M , N= Speed Of the Rotor In Rps.

UNIT 2

The magnetic circuit is the part of magnetic flux. the mmf circuit creates flux in

the path against the reluctance of the path. the equation which relates flux ,mmf and reluctance

is given by, Flux=mmf/reluctance

In electric circuits the emf circulates current in a closed path .similarly in a magnetic

circuit the mmf creates flux in a closed path.

In electric circuit the flow of current is opposed by resistance of the circuit. Similarly in a

magnetic circuit creation of flux is opposed by reluctance of the circuit.

The magnetizing curve is a graph showing the relation between the magnetic

field intensity ,H and the flux density ,B of a magnetic material.It is used to estimate the mmf

required for flux path in a magnetic material and it is supplied by the manufactures of

stampings or laminations.

The loss curve is a graph showing the relation between iron loss and magnetic field

intensity, H.

PAGE: 3

It is used to estimate the iron loss of the magnetic material and it is supplied by the

manufactures of stampings or laminations.

The magnetic circuit is split into convenient parts which may be connected in series or

parallel .

Then the reluctance, flux density and mmf for every sections of the magnetic circuits is

estimated. the summation of mmf of all sections in series gives the total mmf for the magnetic

circuits.

SLOTS: the gap contraction factor for slots,kgs is defined as the ratio of reluctance of air

gap in machines with slotted armature to reluctance of air gap in mach ines with smooth

armature .

Kgs=reluctance of air gap in machines with slotted armature/ reluctance of air gap in

machines with smooth armature.

DUCTS: It is defined as kgd,as the ratio of reluctance of air gap in machines with ducts to

reluctance of air gap in machines without ducts.

without ducts

The total gap construction factor kg is defined as the ratio of reluctance of air gap in

machine with slotted armature & ducts to the reluctance of air gap in machines with smoth

armature &with out ducts the total gap contraction factor is equal to the product of gap

constraction factor for slots and ducts

The carter’s coefficient is a parameter that can be used to estimate the contracted or

effective slot pitch in case of armature with open or semi enclosed slots. it is a function of the

ratio of wo/lg,where wois slot opening & lg is air gap length

The carter’s coefficient is also used to estimate the effective length of armature when

ducts are employed.in this case it will be a function of wo/lg where wd is the width of duct

In electrical machine the carter’s coefficient is used to estimate the air gap expension

factor for slots and ducts the increase in reluctance of air gap due to slotting & ducts in

accounted as additional air gap, which in turn in given by air gap expansion factor

9.what is slot leakage flux, tooth tap leakage flux ,zig -zag flux, overhang leakage flux,

harmonic flux, skew leakage flux, peripheral leakage flux?

SLOT LEAKAGE FLUX: The fluxes the crosses the slot from one tooth to the next and

returning through iron.

TOOTH TAP: The flux flowing from top of one tooth to the top of another tooth.

ZIG-ZAG: The flux passing from one tooth to another in a zig-zag fashion across the air

gap.

HAR MONIC: The fluxes produced due to the difference in stator and rotor harmonic

contents.

SKEW: The reduction in mutual flux due to skewing of rotor in induction motor.

PAGE: 4

PERIPHERAL: The fluxes flowing circumferentially round the air gap without linking

with any of the windings.

Unit-3

peripheral speed induced emf per conductor

pole pitch power output

specific magnetic loading

2. List the advantages &dis advantages of large number of poles?

Weight of armature core overall length& diameter of

&yoke machine

Cost of armature & filed length of commentator

conductors distortion of field from

under load condition

3. Define:

winding pitch

The winding pitch is defined as the distance b/w the starts of two consecutive

coils measured in terms of coil sides.

back pitch

The distance b/w top and bottom coil sides of a coil measured around the back

of the armature is called the back pitch. The back pitch is measured in terms of

coil sides.

front pitch

front pitch is the distance b/w two coil sides connected to the same

communtator segment. it is measured in terms of coil sides.

commutator pitch

The commutator pitch is defined as the distance b/w the two commutator

segments to which the two ends (start&finish) of a coil are connected. It is

measured in terms of commutator segment.

4. State the uses of yoke in a DC machine ?

The yoke serve as a path for flux in dc machine and it also serve as an

enclosure for the machine.

Unit-4

frequency range, number of windings and type of connection

Core type UHF transformers

Shell type Wide band transformers

Based on applications: Narrow band transformers

Distribution transformers Pulse transformers

Power transformers Based on number of windings

Special transformers Auto transformers

Instrument transformers Two winding transformers

Electronic transformers Based on type of connection

Based on frequency range Single phase transformers

Power frequency transformers Three phase transformers

The distribution transformers will have low iron loss and higher value of copper

loss.

The capacity of transformers will be up to 500 KVA.

The leakage reactance and regulation will be low.

The transformers will have plain walled tanks or provided with cooling tubes or

radiators.

PAGE: 5

transformers?

The distribution transformers are used at load centres to step down the

transmission line voltage to a standard service voltage required for consumer.

a standard service voltage required for consumer are called distribution transformers.

4. In transformer, why the low voltage winding is placed near the core?

The winding &core are both made of metals and so insulation have to be

placed in b/w them. The thickness of insulation depends on the voltage rating of the

winding. In order to reduce the insulation required the low voltage winding is placed near

the core.

The window space factor is defined as the ratio of copper area in window

to total area of window.

The equation which relates the rated kva output of the transformer to core &window area is

called output equation

7.what do you meant by stacking factor (or) iron space factor?what is usual value?

In transformer the core is made of laminations and the laminations are insulated from

each other by a thin coating of varnish .Hence when the laminations are stacked to form the core

the actual iron area will be less than the core area . The ratio of iron area and total core area is

called stacking factor

core including the insulation area. The usual value of stacking factor is 0.9

When stepped core are used the diameter of the circumscribing circle is

minimum for a given area of a core. This helps in reducing the length of mean turn of the

winding with consequent reduction in both cost of copper & copper loss.

The winding design consists of estimation of number of turns and area of cross-section

of winding conductors.uslly the number of turns in low voltage winding is estimated by

assuming emf per turn and the turns of high voltage winding are estimated from the voltage

ratio

Number of turns in low voltage winding=rated voltage of low voltage winding/Emf per

turn

winding/rated voltage of lv winding

PAGE: 6

The area of cross section of the winding conductors are determined by assuming a suitable

current density

density

Air blast Oil forced air natural

Oil natural air forced Oil forced air forced

Oil natural water Oil forced water

forced forced

Unit-5

The principle of operation of induction motor is similar to that a transformer. The stator

winding is equivalent to primary of a transformer and the rotor winding is equivalent to short

circuited secondary of a transformer. In transformer the secondary is fixed but in induction

motor it is allowed to rotate. Hence the induction motor is also called rotating transformer.

The slip-ring motor is started by using rotor resistance starter. The starter consists of

star connected variable resistances and protection circuits. The resistance is connected to slip-

rings. While starting the full resistance Is included in the rotor circuit to get high starting torque.

Once the rotor starts rotating, the resistance are gradually reduced in steps.at running condition

the slip rings are shorted and so it is equivalent to squirrel cage rotor.

3. What are the special features of the cage rotor of induction machine?

The cage rotor can adopt itself for any number of phases and poles

It is suitable for any type of starting method except using rotor resistance starter

It is cheaper and rugged

Rotor overhang leakage reactance is lesser which results in better power factor,

greater pull out torque and overload capacity.

4. What is the advantage of cage induction motor over slip ring induction motor?

It does not have any wear and tear parts like slip rings, brush gear and short

circuiting devices. Hence the construction will be rugged.

The rotor slots can be fully occupied by the conductor due to absence of insulation.

Hence the rotor bars may have low resistance. Also there is no overhang (or small

overhang) in rotor winding. Due to these two factors the rotor copper loss will be

lesser than slip ring motors and so efficiency will be slightly higher.

Due to smaller overhang leakage reactance, the motor will have better power factor,

a greater pull out torque and over load capacity.

5. Write the expression for output equation and output coefficient of induction motor?

PAGE: 7

6.What are the ranges of efficiency and power factor in induction motor?

The ISI specifications say that the product of efficiency and power factor shall be in the

range of 0.83 to 0.88.

When the coil span is equal to pole pitch (180 e). the winding is called full pitched

winding.

oil span is less than the pole pitch(180 e). The winding is called short pitched or

chorded.

The slot space factor is the ratio of conductor (or copper) area per slot and slot area. It

gives an indication of the space occupied by the conductors and the space available for

insulation. The slot space factor for induction motor varies from 0.25 to 0.4.

9. List out the methods to improve the power factor of induction motor?

The power factor of the induction motor can be improved by reducing the magnetizing

current and leakage reactance.

The magnetizing current can be reduced by reducing the length of air-gap. The leakage

reactance can be reduced by reducing the depth of stator & rotor slots, by providing short

chorded winding and reducing the overhang in stator winding.

The mmf and magnetizing current are primarily decided by the length of air-gap. If air-

gap is small then mmf and magnetizing current will be low, which in turn increase the value

of power factor. Hence by keeping small air-gap, high power factor is achieved.

Harmonic Induction Torque Are Torques Produced By Harmonics Field Due To Stator

Winding And Slots.

Order Of Stator And Rotor Harmonic Fields.

Due To Both The Harmonic Torquesthe Machine May Crawl,But Ther Will Be Difference

In The Crawling Speeds.In Case Of Harmonic Induction Torque Crawling Speed Is Slightly

Lesser Than The Subsynchronous Speed.But In Case Of Harmonic Synchronous Torque The

Crawling Speed Is Same As That Of Subsynchronous Speed And This Is Also Called

Synchronous Cusps

Crawling Is A Phenomena In Which The Induction Motor Runs At A Speed Lesser Than

Subsynchronous Speed.

PAGE: 8

13.What Is Skewing?

Noise,Vibrations,Cogging And Synchronous Cusps Can Be Reduced Or Even Entirely Eliminated

By Skewing.

In Order To Eliminatethe Effect Of Any Harmonic, The Rotor Bars Should Be Skewed

Through An Angle So That The Bars Lie Under Alternate Harmonic Poles Of The Same Polarity

Or In Other Words The Bars Must Be Skewed Through Two Pitches.

Short Circuit Current. Dispersion Coefficient , б =Im/Isci ; Where, Im= Magnetizing Current

; Isci = Ideal Short Circuit Current

The Runaway Speed Is Defined As The Speed Which The Prime Mover Would Have, If It

Is Suddenly Un Liaded, When Working At Its Rated Load.

The Pitch Factor Is Defined As The Ratio Of Vector Sum Of Emf Induced In A Coil To

Arithmetic Sum Of Emf Induced In The Coil

Pitch Factor,Kc= Vector Sum Of Emf Induced In A Coil / Arithmetic Sum Of Emf Induced

In The Coil

The Distribution Factor Is Defined As The Ratio Of Vector Sum To Arithmetic Sum Of Emf

Induced In The Conductors Of One Phase Spread.

Distribution Factor,Kd = Vector Sum Of Emf Induced In The Conductors Ofa Phase Under A

Pole/ Arithmetic Sum Of Emf Induced In The Conductors Of A Phase Under A Pole.

The Short Circuit Ratio Is Defined As The Ratio Of Field Current Required To Produce

Rated Voltage On Open Circuit To Field Current Required To Circulate Rated Current At Short

Circuit.

Turbo Alternators Scr Is Normally Between 0.5 To 0.7. For Salient Pole Alternator Scr Varies

From 1.0 To 1.5.

18. Mention The Factors That Govern The Design Of Field System Of Alternator.

The Following Are The Factors To Be Considered For The Design Of Field System In Alternator.

Amp-Turn Per Pole(Or Mmf Per Pole)

Copper Loss In Field Coil

Dissipating Surface Of Field Coil

Specific Loss Dissipation And Allowable Temperature rise

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