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A short table of trigonometric identities

Dr. Mohammed Hawa, December 2006

Pythagorean Identity:
sin 2 α + cos2 α = 1

Sum-Difference Formulas:
sin(α ± β ) = sin α cos β ± cosα sin β
cos(α ± β ) = cos α cos β m sin α sin β

Even-Odd Identities:
sin( −α ) = − sin α
cos( −α ) = cosα

Phase Shift Identities:


sin(α ± 360o ) = sin α

cos(α ± 360o ) = cos α

sin(α ± 180o ) = − sin α

cos(α ± 180o ) = − cos α

sin(α ± 90o ) = ± cosα

cos(α ± 90o ) = m sin α

Product-to-Sum Formulas:
1 1
cosα cos β = cos(α + β ) + cos(α − β )
2 2
1 1
sin α sin β = cos(α − β ) − cos(α + β )
2 2
1 1
sin α cos β = sin(α + β ) + sin(α − β )
2 2
1 1
cos α sin β = sin(α + β ) − sin(α − β )
2 2

Double Angle Formulas:


sin(2α ) = 2 sin α cos α

cos(2α ) = cos2 α − sin 2 α = 2 cos2 α − 1 = 1 − 2 sin 2 α

© Dr. Mohammed Hawa, University of Jordan, 2006 1


Half Angle Formulas:
1 − cos 2α
sin 2 α =
2
1 + cos 2α
cos2 α =
2

Rectangular-to-Polar and Polar-to-Rectangular:

A cos α + B sin α = C cos(α + θ ) = C cos(α − ϕ )

where:
C= A2 + B 2
−B
θ = tan −1
A
B
ϕ = tan −1
A
A = C cosθ = C cosϕ
B = −C sin θ = C sin ϕ

Complex Numbers:
e jα − e − jα
sin α =
2j

e jα + e − jα
cos α =
2
e ± jα = cosα ± j sin α

© Dr. Mohammed Hawa, University of Jordan, 2006 2