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and

#
# Q 1087 kJ/s
m steam ! ! ! 0.45
hfg 2431 kJ/kg
Therefore, we need to circulate about 72 kg of co
GERS
Lecture 17 Problems steam condensing to remove the2017
March 29, heat released duri

and
#
1. Cold water (cp = 4.18 #kJ/kg◦ C) Q enters1087 kJ/s exchanger at 15◦ C at a rate of 0.5 kg/s,
a heat
m steam ! ! EXAMPLE
! 0.45 kg/s 11–4 Heating Water in a Coun
2431
where it is heated by hot air (chp fg= 1.0 kJ/kg
kJ/kg ◦
C) that enters the heat exchanger at 50◦ C
at a rate of 1.8 kg/s. A student calculates the heat transfer rate in this heat Heatexchanger
Exchanger
Therefore, we need to circulate about 72 kg of
to be 100.0 kW. Is this result realistic? Explain briefly. cooling water
(5 pt.) for each 1 kg of
steam condensing to remove the heat released during the condensation process. exchanger is to h
A counter-flow double-pipe heat
(a) The result is realistic at a rate of 1.2 kg/s. The heating is to be accom
available at 160"C at a mass flow rate of 2 kg/s.
(b) The result is not realistic and has a diameter of 1.5 cm. If the overall he
(c) EXAMPLE 11–4
There is not enough Heating Water in a Counter-Flow
information to make the heat exchanger is 640 W/m2 # "C, determine the
judgment
Heat Exchanger required to achieve the desired heating.
2. A counter-flow double-pipe heat exchanger is to heat water from 20"C to 80"C
SOLUTION Water is heated in a counter-flow do
at a rate of 1.2 kg/s. The heating is to be accomplished by geothermal water
geothermal water. The required length of the heat e
available at 160"C at a mass flow rate of 2 kg/s. The inner tube is thin-walled
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.
and has a diameter of 1.5 cm. If the overall heat transfer coefficient of the
insulated so that heat loss to the surroundings is
heat exchanger is 640 W/m2 # "C, determine the length of the heat exchanger
kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are
required to achieve the desired heating.
ing. 5 Fluid properties are constant.
Properties We take the specific heats of water
SOLUTION Water is heated in a counter-flow4.18 double-pipe heat exchanger by
and 4.31 kJ/kg # "C, respectively.
geothermal water. The requiredHot length of the heat exchanger is to be determined.
geothermal Analysis The schematic of the heat exchanger is
Assumptions 1 Steady operating
water conditions
160°C exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well
of heat transfer in the heat exchanger can be dete
insulated so that heat loss2 kg/s
to the surroundings is
# negligible. 3 Changes in the
Cold #
kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams areQ! [m cp(Tout4$There
negligible. is no!foul-
Tin)]water (1.2 kg/s)(4.18 kJ/kg
water
ing. 5 Fluid properties are constant.
Noting that all of this heat is supplied by the g
Properties
20°C We take the specific heats 80°Cof water and geothermal fluid to be
temperature of the geothermal water is determine
Hot 4.18 and
1.2 kg/s 4.31 kJ/kg # "C, respectively.
D = 1.5 cm
othermal Analysis The schematic of the heat exchanger #is given # in Fig. 11–20. The rate
160°C Q ! [m cp(Tin $ Tout)]geothermal ⎯→ Tout ! Tin $
water of heat transfer in the heat exchanger can be determined from
2 kg/s FIGURE
# # 11–20
Q ! [m cp(Tout $ Tin)]water ! (1.2 kg/s)(4.18 kJ/kg # "C)(80 $ 20)"C ! 301 kW ! 160"
Schematic
3. A stream for Example
of hydrocarbon (cp = 11–4.
2.2 kJ/kgK) is cooled at a rate of 720 kg/h from 150◦ C

Noting
to 40 C in that all ofside
the tube thisof heat is supplied
a double-pipe by the geothermal
counter-flow water, the
heat exchanger. outlet
Water (cp =
80°C 4.18temperature ◦ ! 125"
kJ/kgK) enters of the
thegeothermal water at
heat exchanger is determined to beof 540 kg/h. The outside
10 C at a rate
cm diameter of the inner tube is 2.5 cm, and its length Knowing
is 6.0 m.# the
Determine the
inlet and overall
outlet heat
temperatures of both
# #
transfer coefficient. Q
Q ! [m cp(Tin $ Tout)]geothermal ⎯→ temperature
Tout ! Tin $ # difference for this counter-flow heat
m cp
! Th, in $ Tc, out ! (160 $ 80
%T1 kW
301
11–4. ! 160"C $ %T2 ! $ Tc, in ! (125 $ 20
Th, out# "C)
(2 kg/s)(4.31 kJ/kg
! 125"C
and
Knowing the inlet and outlet temperatures of both fluids, the logarithmic%T1 $ %T2
mean 80 $ 10
%Tlm ! !
temperature difference for this counter-flow heat exchanger becomes ln (%T1/%T2) ln (80/10
%T1 ! Th, in $ Tc, out ! (160 $Then
80)"Cthe 80"C area of the heat exchanger is de
! surface
/ 2(125 $ 20)"C ! 105"C
%T2 ! Th, out $ Tc, in1! #
# Q 3
and Q ! UAs %Tlm ⎯→ As ! !
U %Tlm (640 W/
condenser of a power
e of condensation are EXAMPLE 11–3 The Condensation of Steam in a Condenser

4.well Steam in the condenser of a power plant is to be condensed at a temperature


heat exchanger is
ble. 3 Changes in the of 30!C with cooling water from a nearby lake, which enters the tubes of the
igible. 4 There is no condenser at 14!C and leaves at 22!C. The surface area of the tubes is 45 m ,
2

and the overall heat transfer coefficient is 2100 W/m2 " !C. Determine the
is hfg # 2431 kJ/kg mass flow rate of the cooling water needed and the rate of condensation of the
mperature of 18!C is steam in the condenser.

ig. 11–19. The con- SOLUTION Steam is condensed by cooling water in the condenser of a power
ince the temperature Steam
plant. The mass30°C
flow rate of the cooling water and the rate of condensation are
e cooling water at the to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well
insulated so that heat loss to the Cooling
surroundings is negligible. 3 Changes in the
water
8!C kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 There is no
14°C
fouling. 5 Fluid properties are constant.
16!C
Properties The heat of vaporization of water at 30!C is hfg # 2431 kJ/kg
ds varies from 8!C at and the specific heat of cold water at the average temperature of 18!C is
rature difference be- cp # 4184 J/kg " !C (Table A–9).
22°C
e difference (not the Analysis The schematic of the condenser is given in Fig. 11–19. The con-
denser can be treated as a counter-flow heat exchanger since the temperature
of one of the fluids (the steam) remains constant.
5!C The temperature difference between the steam and the cooling water at the
two ends of the condenser is
30°C

e difference of 12 (8 & $T1 #FIGURE


Th, in % 11–19
Tc, out # (30 % 22)!C # 8!C
denser is determined
5. A simple parallel-flow
Schematic for Example consists
heat exchanger 11–3. of an inner tube carrying cold fluid with
a heat capacity rate of$T # TW/K
9,2000 and inlet temperature Tc,in = 20◦ C, and a shell
h, out % Tc, in # (30 % 14)!C # 16!C
carrying hot oil with a heat capacity rate of 3, 000 W/K and an inlet temperature of
' 106 W # 1087 kW
Th,inThat
= 100 ◦
is, C.
theAssuming the overall
temperature heat between
difference transfer coefficient U is 1000
the two fluids variesW/m
2
from, 8!C
answer
at the
following questions about the heat exchanger.
one end to 16!C at the other. The proper average temperature difference be-
it flows through the
l of it, since the con-
tween the two fluids is the logarithmic mean temperature difference (not the
(a) For this heat exchanger, what are Cmin and Cmax ?
arithmetic), which is determined from
(b) If the total surface area available for heat transfer is 10 m2 , what is the effectiveness
f the condensation of
" of the heat exchanger. $T % $T
oling water # (mhfg)steam 1 2 8 % 16
(c) How much heat is$T lm #
transferred by/$T #
the )exchanger? # 11.5!C
ln ($T 1 2ln (8/16)
(d) What are the outlet temperatures of the two fluids?

# 32.5 kg/s
This is a little less than the arithmetic mean temperature difference of 12 (8 &
14)°C 16) # 12!C. Then the consists
heat transfer rate in the condenser is determined Sch
6. A cross-flow heat exchanger of 80 thin-walled tubes of 3 cm diameter located in
fromof 1 m × 1 m cross section. There are no fins attached to the tubes. Cold water
a duct
(cp = # 4180 J/kgK) enters the tubes2
at 18◦ C 2with an average velocity6 of 3 m/s, while hot
Q # UA
air (cp = 1010s $T lm #
J/kgK)(2100
enters the channelmat)(11.5!C)
W/m " !C)(45 # 1.087
130◦ C and ' 10
105 kPa W#
at an 1087 kW
average velocity
of 12 m/s. If the overall heat transfer coefficient is 130 W/m2 K, determine the outlet
Therefore,ofsteam
temperatures will lose
both fluids andheat at a ofrate
the rate heatof transfer.
1087 kW as it flows through the
condenser, and the cooling water will gain practically all of it, since the con-
denser is well insulated.
The mass flow rate of the cooling water and the rate of the condensation of
" " "
the steam are determined from Q # 2 /[m2 cp (Tout % Tin)]cooling water # (m hfg)steam
to be