DIGITAL Communication Systems Using MATLAB and Simulink book

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

31 Aufrufe

DIGITAL Communication Systems Using MATLAB and Simulink book

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- DC Digital Communication PART2
- digital communications matlab programmes
- DigitalCommMS.pdf
- ENGINEERING PPT_ Digital Communication Systems Using MATLAB® and Simulink®.pdf
- Lecture(Syllabus + Digital comm)
- Cramer Round Rao
- MATLAB & Simulink for Digital Communication
- Digimod Tool
- cfakepathpptchapter01-100427062017-phpapp02
- Telecommunications Engineering I - SNR in Analog Communication Systems and Digital Transmission
- AC Motor Control using ZigBee
- Gourab's M.tech Thesis
- Digital Modulation
- Anolog Digital Communication Question Bank
- PAM Power Spectra
- ds-cdm570-l_570-l-ip
- Digital Modulation
- Optimal Operating Performance of Wireless Protocols for Intelligent sensors Applications
- Digital Modulation
- Chapter 01

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 679

http://astro.temple.edu/~silage/

Digital Communication Systems Using MATLAB and Simulink

Bookstand Publishing 2009

MATLAB and Simulink models of baseband and bandpass modulation and demodulation systems, time,

frequency and code division multiplexing, synchronization and equalization, channel models, and baseband and

bandpass signal sampling in digital communication system design.

Bookstand Publishing, 2008

Embedded design with behavioral synthesis controller-datapath models in Verilog, C-to-Verilog translation, Xilinx

LogiCORE blocks and the PicoBlaze 8-bit soft-core processor utilizing the Xilinx Spartan-3E field programmable

gate array evaluation boards, the Xilinx ISE WebPACK and applications in digital signal processing,

communications and control.

http://astro.temple.edu/~silage/digitalcommSVU.htm

Digital Communication Systems Using SystemVue

Da Vinci Engineering Press, Thomson Delmar Publishing 2006

SystemVue models of baseband and bandpass modulation and demodulation systems, time, frequency and code

division multiplexing, synchronization and equalization, channel models, and baseband and bandpass signal

sampling in digital communication system design.

Syllabus

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chapter 2 - Frequency Domain Analysis

Chapter 3 - Digital Baseband Modulation Techniques

Chapter 4 - Receiver Design

Chapter 5 - Digital Bandpass Modulation and Demodulation Techniques

Chapter 6 - Analog Modulation and Demodulation

Chapter 7 - Multiplexing Techniques

Chapter 8 - Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Download Complete MATLAB and Simulink models to accompany Digital Communication Systems using

MATLAB? and Simulink? can be downloaded in ZIP archive format here(~3 MB, digicommMS1.zip). The

ZIP archive files are password protected as described in Appendix A of the text.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1：Communication Simulation Techniques

Capabilities and Limitations of Simulation

Introduction to MATLAB? and Simulink?

Model Window

Temporal Display

Spectral Display

Correlation Display

Blocksets and Blocks

Data Types

Modulation

Analog Amplitude Modulation

Simulation of Coherent AM

Simulation of Noncoherent AM

Summary

References

Chapter 2：Baseband Modulation and Demodulation

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Simulation of Rectangular PAM

Rectangular PAM Power Spectral Density

Performance of Rectangular PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN

Performance of Filtered Rectangular PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN

Sinc Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Simulation of Sinc PAM

Sinc PAM Power Spectral Density

Performance of Sinc PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN

Raised Cosine Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Simulation of Raised Cosine PAM

Raised Cosine PAM Power Spectral Density

Performance of Raised Cosine PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN

Optimum Baseband Receiver: The Correlation Receiver

Correlation Receiver for Baseband Symmetrical Signals

Probability of Bit Error for Baseband Symmetrical Signals

Performance of Symmetrical PAM for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN

Correlation Receiver for Baseband Asymmetrical Signals

Probability of Bit Error for Baseband Asymmetrical Signals

Performance of Asymmetrical PAM for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN

Multilevel (M-ary) Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Simulation of M-ary Rectangular PAM

M-ary Rectangular PAM Power Spectral Density

Correlation Receiver for M-ary Baseband Signals

Probability of Bit Error for M-ary Baseband Signals

Performance of M-ary PAM for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN

Partial Response Signaling

Duobinary PAM Signaling

Simulation of Duobinary PAM

Simple Receiver for Precoded Duobinary Signals

Simple Receiver for Precoded Modified Duobinary Signals

Duobinary PAM Power Spectral Density

Performance of Duobinary PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN

Delta Modulation

Simulation of Delta Modulation

Eye Diagrams

Summary

References

Chapter 3：Bandpass Modulation and Demodulation

Optimum Bandpass Receiver: The Correlation Receiver

Correlation Receiver for Bandpass Symmetrical Signals

Probability of Bit Error for Bandpass Symmetrical Signals

Correlation Receiver for Bandpass Asymmetrical Signals

Probability of Bit Error for Bandpass Asymmetrical Signals

Binary Amplitude Shift Keying

Simulation of Binary ASK

Binary ASK Power Spectral Density

Performance of Binary ASK for the Optimal Receiver in AWGN

Binary Frequency Shift Keying

Simulation of Binary FSK

Binary FSK Power Spectral Density

Performance of Binary FSK for the Optimal Receiver in AWGN

Binary Phase Shift Keying

Simulation of Binary PSK

Binary PSK Power Spectral Density

Performance of Binary PSK for the Optimal Receiver in AWGN

Multilevel (M-ary) Amplitude Shift Keying

Simulation of M-ary ASK

M-ary ASK Power Spectral Density

Correlation Receiver for M-ary ASK Signals

Probability of Bit Error for M-ary ASK Signals

Performance of M-ary ASK for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN

Multilevel (M-ary) Frequency Shift Keying

Simulation of M-ary FSK

M-ary FSK Power Spectral Density

Correlation Receiver for M-ary FSK Signals

Probability of Bit Error for M-ary FSK Signals

Performance of M-ary FSK for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN

Multilevel (M-ary) Phase Shift Keying

Simulation of M-ary PSK

M-ary PSK Power Spectral Density

Probability of Bit Error for M-ary PSK Signals

Performance of M-ary PSK for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Simulation of QAM

QAM Power Spectral Density

Probability of Bit Error for QAM Signals

Performance of QAM for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN

Differential Phase Shift Keying

Simulation of DPSK

DPSK Power Spectral Density

Probability of Bit Error for DPSK Signals

Performance of DPSK for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN

Noncoherent Demodulation of Binary Frequency Shift Keying

Simulation of Noncoherent Binary FSK Signals

Probability of Bit Error for Noncoherent Binary FSK Signals

Performance of Noncoherent Binary FSK Signals in AWGN

Noncoherent Demodulation of Binary Amplitude Shift Keying

Simulation of Noncoherent Binary ASK Signals

Probability of Bit Error for Noncoherent Binary ASK Signals

Performance of Noncoherent Binary ASK Signals in AWGN

Threshold for Demodulation of Noncoherent Binary ASK Signals

Constellation Plots

Summary

References

Chapter 4：Sampling and Quantization

Sampling Baseband Analog Signal

Companding

Line Codes

Power Spectral Density of Line Codes

Polar NRZ Line Code

Unipolar NRZ Line Code

Alternate Mark Inversion NRZ Line Code

Split-Phase NRZ Line Code

Return-to-Zero Line Codes

Simulation of Line Codes

Pulse Code Modulation

Differential Pulse Code Modulation

Simulation of DPCM

Sampling Bandpass Analog Signals

Summary

References

Appendix A：MATLAB? and Simulink? Model File Download Procedure

Appendix B：Complementary Error (Q) Function Table

Dennis Silage (Author)

http://www.amazon.com/Digital-Communication-Systems-MATLAB-Simulink/dp/1589096215

Dennis Silage (Author)

http://www.amazon.com/Digital-Communication-Systems-Using-SystemVue/dp/1584508507/ref=pd_sim_b_3

Won Y. Yang (Author), Yong S. Cho (Author), Won G. Jeon (Author), Jeong W. Lee (Author), Jong H. Paik

(Author), Jae K. Kim (Author), Mi-Hyun Lee (Author), Kyu I. Lee

Recently Viewed Items

MATLAB/Simulink for Digital Communication by Won Y. Yang

Digital Communication Systems Using SystemVue by Dennis Silage

Mastering Simulink by James Dabney

Modeling and Simulation In SIMULINK for En... by Mohammad Nuruz...

Contemporary Communication Systems Using MATLAB (Paperback)

John G. Proakis (Author) Masoud Salehi (Author) Gerhard Bauch (Author)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications

Laboratory

Dr. Dennis Silage

silage@temple.edu

• Course syllabus

• Course textbooks

• Course grades

• Course objectives

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• Course

textbook

• Available as:

bound hardcopy

pdf file

Kindle download

YouTube video

blog session

twitter stream

text message

Morse code .wav file

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• Course

textbook

– only

kidding!

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• Course textbooks

• Communication

Systems provides

the theoretical

basis

• Digital

Communication

Systems provides

simulations for

insight and

experiential laboratories

in EE4513

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• Course

syllabus

• All course

materials

are also

available on

Blackboard

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

examinations

examinations (three, hour exams, 35% and a two hour

final exam, 40%) are benchmarks of performance

course and laboratory

documents and to

communicate assignments

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

systems in-class augments the text description

Digital Communications Laboratory

• In-class discussions,

simulation studies and

problem solutions

Analog Communications

Laboratory 1962

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Telecommunication Engineering

portions and review your

notes before class

• Weekly closed-book

but open notes SNAP

quizzes to assess Edwin and Marian Armstrong

performance with a portable radio 1923

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Performance and the 15 minute quizzes are open-notes

but closed text book.

text and thinking

about the concepts

and are an aid to

learning.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

expressed in the Chinese proverb:

I see and I remember,

I do and I understand.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

I see and I remember, ← Reading the textbook

I do and I understand. ← Compiling the notes

handwritten to insure

that the process works

for you. No xerox copies

or electronic versions

or textbooks are

permitted for use

during the SNAP quiz.

his notebooks

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

simple calculations and unit

conversions (calculators are

permitted) from formulas in your

notes and conceptual answers

to posed questions to assess

your understanding of the basic

concepts.

of your preparation and organizes

your thoughts as part of the

engineering method (not that

shown here!).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction

• Components of a Communication

System

• Pages 1-5

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

3: to vary the amplitude, frequency, or phase of (a

carrier wave or a light wave) for the transmission

of information (as by radio)

2: an electromagnetic wave or alternating current whose

modulations are used as communications signals (as

in radio, telephonic, or telegraphic transmissions

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

• Analog modulation:

continuous

information such as

speech or video

encoded as an

amplitude

• Digital modulation:

discrete information

such as binary data

encoded as

a frequency shift

or

a phase shift

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Transmitter Receiver

User

Channel

with noise

MS Figure 1.16

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Simulink subsystems

Source

Transmitter Receiver

User

Channel

with noise

Coherent

demodulation

MS Figure 1.16

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Transmitter Receiver

User

Channel

Non-coherent demodulation with noise

MS Figure 1.20

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Simulink subsystem

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Carrier

DSB modulated

spectrum

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

2 x carrier

DSB demodulated frequency

Original spectrum

spectrum

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

MS Figure 3.12

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Tb = 1 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

End of Chapter 1

Introduction

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Communication Simulation

Techniques

• Introduction to MATLAB and

Simulink

• Blocksets

• Simulation displays

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink

Library

Browser:

Commonly

Used Blocks

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink

Library

Browser:

Communications

Blockset

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink

Library

Browser:

Signal

Processing

Blockset

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink

Library

Browser:

Simulink

Extras

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

MS Figure 1.2

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

Generator block and the Simulink model window

MS Figure 1.3

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

simulation

MS Figure 1.4

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

temporal model

MS Figure 1.6

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

in the Simulink Figures window MS Figure 1.7

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

model

MS Figure 1.8

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

Spectrum Scope block MS Figure 1.9

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

sinusoid, fo = 1 kHz

MS Figure 1.10

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

spectral density display MS Figure 1.11

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

Flat PSD

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

autocorrelation display MS Figure 1.13

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

autocorrelation display MS Figure 1.14

Uncorrelated

Correlated

EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

End of Chapter 1

Communication Simulation

Techniques

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Frequency Domain Analysis

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Frequency Domain Analysis

• Why Study Frequency Domain

Analysis?

• Pages 6-13

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

analysis?

rather than time-domain

differential equations

to be used

be applied to transmitter,

communication channel

and receiver

• Channel bandwidth,

noise and power are MS Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3

easier to evaluate

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

analysis?

• A complex signal

consisting of the sum of

three sinusoids is

difficult to discern in the

temporal domain

but easy to identify in the 500, 1500 and

spectral domain 2500 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

display

Butterworth LPF

9 pole, fcutoff = 1 kHz

500

Hz

1500

Hz

2500 EX21.mdl

Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

display

simulation, an analog low pass filter is used here

Butterworth LPF

9 pole, fcutoff = 1 kHz

EX21.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

display

EX21spectral.mdl

500

Hz

1500

Hz

2500

Hz Butterworth LPF

9 pole, fcutoff = 1 kHz MS Fig 4.11 modified

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

34 dB

–36 dB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Butterworth Filters

British physicist who invented

the Butterworth filter, a class

of circuits that are used to

filter electrical signals. He

worked for several years 1885-1958

at the National Physical

Laboratory (UK), where he did

theoretical and experimental

work for the determination of

standards of electrical

inductance and analyzed the

electromagnetic field around submarine cables.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.2

10 MHz sinusoid

with additive

white Gaussian

noise (AWGN)

Communications channel

EX22.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

T = 0.01 sec

EX22.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

fsimulation = 1/Tsimulation = 108 = 100 MHz T = 0.01 sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Frequency Domain Analysis

• The Fourier Series

• Pages 13-38

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Fourier Series

a French mathematician and physicist

who is best known for initiating the

investigation of Fourier Series and its

application to problems of heat flow.

The Fourier transform is also named

in his honor.

1768-1830

∞

s(t) = X0 + ∑ Xncos(2π n fo t + φn )

n=1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

trignometric an bn

polar Xn

complex cn

X0 = a0 Xn = an2 + bn2

| c n | = Xn / 2 Xn = | 2 c n |

Xo = co

MATLAB and Simulink simulation

can provide the magnitude of

the complex Fourier series

coefficients for any periodic

waveform

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Temporal display

of a complex pulse

as the addition of

two periodic pulses

EX23.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

T = 4 sec

EX23.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Tsimulation = 1/fsimulation = 0.976562 msec T = 4 sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

Simulink discrete

pulse generators

EX23.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

fS = 1024 Hz

Tsimulation = 1/fsimulation =

0.976562 msec

First Pulse

EX23.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

fS = 1024 Hz

Tsimulation = 1/fsimulation =

0.976562 msec

Second

Pulse

EX23.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Period To = 4 sec

Fundamental frequency

fo= 0.25 Hz

Sample based simulation:

Period = 4096 samples

must be 2N for FFT

Pulse width = 1024

samples

Sample time = 0.978562

msec

4/4096 = 9.78562 x 10-4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

does not have a uniform amplitude.

EX23.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Right-Click on

the vertical

axis and use

Axes properties

to change the

amplitude

scaling

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

T = 1 sec

T = 4 sec

T = 2 sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

T = 1 sec T = 4 sec

T = 2 sec

EX23.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Spectral display scope

Spectral display

of a complex pulse

as the addition of

two periodic pulses

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

fS = 1024 Hz

T = 4 sec = 4096

samples

fS = fsimulation for

conveninence

Input signal is

non-framed based

so buffer input is

required

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

fS = 1024 Hz

T = 4 sec = 4096

samples

Amplitude scaling

magnitude-squared

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Window:

>>plottools on Default spectral display

plottools

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

and change the frequency

axis to 5 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Frequency Domain Analysis

• Power in the Frequency Domain

• Pages 38-52

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

fs / 2 = 512 Hz

500 Hz

• Scaled | FFT |2

∆f = fs / N = 1024/4096 = 0.25 Hz

5 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Spectrum Scope does not read out the values. An

interactive cursor

is available in the

Figures window.

the Spectrum

Scope plot as

Figure 1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

out the data values sequentially. The interactive cursor is

evoked from the toolbar for a Figure plot.

x = 0 (f = 0 Hz)

y = 2362 = | FFT(f = 0) |2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

number of points in the FFT N = 4096 to get the value. The

magnitude of the DC (0 Hz) value is then:

(2362/4096)0.5 = (0.56767)0.5 = 0.7594 = c0 = X0

The DC value of the complex pulse is calculated as 0.75

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

and then compared to a direct calculation of cn.

0 2362 0 0.7594 MS Eq 1.1

0.25 1038 1 0.5034 ∆f = fs / N

0.5 103.8 2 0.1592 ∆f = 1024/4096

0.75 115.3 3 0.1678 ∆f = 0.25 Hz

1 0 4 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7

Rectangular pulse

train

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7

Amplitude = 3

Period To = 10 msec

Fundamental frequency

fo= 100 Hz

Pulse width = 2 msec

Duty cycle = 2/10 = 0.2

Sample based simulation:

Period = 4096 samples

Pulse width = 819 samples

819/4096 ≈ 0.2

Sample time = 2.441 µsec

10-2/4096 = 2.441 x 10-6

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7

Period To = 10 msec

Since the Spectrum

Scope requires 2N =

4096 samples, the

simulation time =

10 msec divided by

the sample time =

2.441 µsec must be

≥ 4096

10-2/2.441 x 10-6 =

4096.68

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

3 Tpulse = 2 msec

DC value = 0.6 To = 10 msec

| FFT (f = 0) |2 = 1447

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Successive nulls at n/Tpulse = n x 500 Hz

linear scale

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Successive nulls at n/Tpulse = n x 500 Hz

scale where –40 dB ≈ 0

-40 dB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

n. (Abbr. dB)

A unit used to express relative difference in power or

intensity, usually between two acoustic or electric signals,

equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the

two levels.

was originally proposed in 1929 by

W. H. Martin of Bell Labs. The bel

was too large for everyday use, so

the decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 B,

became more commonly used. Alexander Graham Bell

1847-1922

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

properties

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

0 1447 0.5944 0 0.6

100 1290 0.5612 1 0.561

200 844 0.4540 2 0.454 cf S&M

300 376 0.3030 3 0.303 pp 33-35

400 81 0.1406 4 0.140

500 ≈0 0 5 0

cn X0 = a0 Xn = an2 + bn2

Xo = co | c n | = Xn / 2 Xn = | 2 c n |

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.8

with pulse period of 0.5 sec

and pulse widths of

0.0625 sec

0.125 sec

0.250 sec

Sample based simulation:

Period = 216 = 65536

samples

Pulse widths = 8192,

16384, 32768

Sample time = 7.629 µsec EX28.mdl

0.5/65536 = 7.629 x 10-6

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.8

Spectrum Scope has

inherent amplitude and

frequency axes scaling

(but not cursor readout)

EX28.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

S&M p. 36-37

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

X0 = a0 Xn = an2 + bn2

Fourier series components

cn from simulation | c n | = Xn / 2 Xn = | 2 c n |

Periodic signal as a Xo = co

∞

frequency domain s(t) = X0 + ∑ Xncos(2π nfo t + φn )

representation n=1

power in the signal PS as

a time domain or t o +T ∞ 2

1 X

frequency domain PS =

T ∫ s 2

(t) dt = X 2

0 + ∑

n=1 2

n

representation to

Parseval’s Theorem

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

signal PS as a time domain or frequency domain

representation

∞

s(t) = X0 + ∑ Xncos(2π nfo t + φn )

n=1

to +T

1 1 2 ∞ Xn2

PS = ∫ X0 + ∑

2

s (t) dt =

T RL to

RL n=1 2

Parseval’s Theorem

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Parseval’s Theorem

a French mathematician, most famous

for what is now known as Parseval’s

Theorem, which presaged the

equivalence of the Fourier Transform.

A monarchist opposed to the French

Revolution, Parseval fled the country 1755-1836

after being imprisoned in 1792 by Napoleon for

publishing tracts critical of the government.

t o +T ∞ 2

1 X

PS = ∫ s2 (t) dt = X02 + ∑ n

T to n=1 2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Normalized power

spectrum of a

rectangular pulse

and a Butterworth

low pass filtered

(LPF) rectangular

pulse

EX29.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Amplitude = 3

Period To = 10 msec

Fundamental frequency

fo= 100 Hz

Pulse width = 2 msec

Duty cycle = 2/10 = 0.2

Sample based simulation:

Period = 4096 samples EX29.mdl

Pulse width = 819 samples

819/4096 ≈ 0.2

Sample time = 10-2/4096 = 2.441 x 10-6 = 2.441 µsec

Sampling rate = 1/ 2.441 x 10-6 ≈ 409.6 kHz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

simulation (period = 4096 samples, pulse width = 819

samples) a digital low pass filter design is used here (a

time-based simulation requires an analog filter design)

EX29.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

fs = 409600

fcuttoff = 300 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

The normalized (RL = 1 Ω) power spectral density

(PSD) for periodic signals is discrete because of the

fundamental frequency fo = 1/To = 100 Hz here.

continuous. Periodic signals contain no information

and only aperiodic signals are, in fact, communicated.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Simulated by | FFT |2 in

MATLAB and Simulink to

obtain cn from which we

can derive Xn

| FFT |2 ≈ PSD

X0 = a0 Xn = an2 + bn2

Xo = co | c n | = Xn / 2 Xn = | 2 c n |

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

The dB scale for PSD is more prevalent for analysis

Linear

Spectral nulls

dB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Unfiltered

dB

LPF

fcutoff = 300 Hz

dB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Bandwidth

band in Hertz that contains a sufficient number of the

signal’s frequency components to reproduce the signal

with an acceptable amount of distortion.

communication engineers must

always define what if meant by

bandwidth in the context of use.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

normalized power in the signal without the infinite sum of

Fourier series components by integrating in the temporal

domain:

t o +T ∞ 2

1 X

PS = ∫ s2 (t) dt = X02 + ∑ n

T to n=1 2

normalized (RL = 1Ω) power in the

signal is 1.8 V2 (not W) and the percentage of the total

power in the signal in a bandwidth of 300 Hz is

approximately 88% (S&M p. 45).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Frequency Domain Analysis

• The Fourier Transform

• Pages 52-69

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.12

Spectrum of a

simulated single

pulse from a very

low duty cycle

rectangular pulse

train EX212.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

pulse width = 1 msec

•| FFT |2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

The magnitude of the Fourier Transform of a single pulse

is continuous and not discrete since there is no Fourier

series representation. In the MATLAB and Simulink

simulation here the data points are very dense and

virtually display a continuous plot.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

S&M p. 56-60 Aτ = 1(10-3) = 10-3

S(f) = Aτ sinc(π f τ) (co/65536)0.5 = 10-3

co = 0.065536

co = 0.065536

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

S&M p. 56-60

S(f) = Aτ sinc(π f τ)

Zero-crossing at integral multiples of 1/τ = 1/10-3 = 1000 Hz

0.005

Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

pulse width = 10 msec

•| FFT |2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

S&M p. 56-60

S(f) = Aτ sinc(π f τ)

Zero-crossing at integral multiples of 1/τ = 1/10-2 = 100 Hz

0.05

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Properties

of the

Fourier

Transform

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Properties

of the

Fourier

Transform

Modulation

principle

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Frequency Domain Analysis

• Normalized Energy Spectral Density

• Pages 60-65

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Normalized Energy

pulse) then the average normalized power PS is 0:

t o +T

1 finite value

PS = lim ∫

2

s (t) dt = lim = 0 V2

T →∞ T T →∞ T

to

∞

ES = ∫

−∞

s2 (t) dt V 2 - sec

non-zero by definition (S&M p. 60-61).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

discussion of power in a periodic signal:

∞ ∞

ES = ∫ s2 (t) dt = ∫

2 2

| S (f) | df V - sec

−∞ −∞

spectral density (ESD) ψ(f). For a linear, time-invariant (LTI)

system with a transfer function H(f), the output ESD which is

the energy flow through the system is:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

squared of the Fourier transform S(f) of a pulse signal s(t):

ψ(f) = | S(f) |2

of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in a MATLAB and

Simulink simulation as described in Chapter 3.

ψ(f) ≈ | FFT |2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

End of Chapter 2

Frequency Domain Analysis

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Digital Baseband Modulation

Techniques

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Digital Baseband Modulation

Techniques

• Goals in Communication System

Design

• Pages 75-76

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

MS Figure 2.1

Source Transmitter

Channel Receiver

Noise

or images) is modulated in the transmitter .

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

MS Figure 2.1

Source Transmitter

Channel Receiver

Noise

transmission medium (wires, fiber optics, wireless or

acoustic) as a channel with additive noise.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

MS Figure 2.1

Source Transmitter

Channel Receiver

Noise

which attempts to demodulate the signal and recover the

data.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude

Modulation (PAM)

• Pages 18-20

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

source, bit rate rb = 1 kb/sec

MS Figure 2.1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Random Integer

Generator from

the Communications

Blockset, Comm

Sources

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Random Integer

Generator block from

the Communications

Blockset, Comm

Sources

binary

random seed

rb = 1 kb/sec

Tb = 1 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

MS Figure 2.1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

provides a random noise source, mean = 0 V, variance

σ2 = 0.5 V

MS Figure 2.1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

AWGN Channel

block from the

Communications

Blockset, Channels

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

AWGN Channel

block from the

Communications

Blockset,

Channels

random seed

variance σ2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

MS Figure 2.1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

MS Figure 2.1

block with synchronous timing at Tb /2 provided by a

pulse generator. This induces a delay of Tb /2.

/2

received data to the correct format (see MS p. 19).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

converts the

variable amplitude

bipolar received

data from the

Sample-and-

Hold block to

trinary data

[–1, 0, 1]

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

block converts the

trinary data [–1, 0, 1]

to a replica of the

bipolar transmitted

signal [± 5] for

comparison by

mapping 0 to +5

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Tb / 2 delay

Tb

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Tb / 2 delay

Tb / 2 delay

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Tb / 2 delay

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Digital Baseband Modulation

Techniques

• Baseband Modulation Using

Rectangular Pulses and Binary

Pulse Amplitude Modulation

• Pages 76-88

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

00

01

Fig35.mdl 11

MS for S&M Figure 3-5

10

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

outputs a –1 V pulse

with a width of 20 msec

and a nominal pulse

period of 200 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

delays the input by

20 msec using a sample

data buffer automatically

set

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

00

01

Time-based

sampling,

sampling rate

fS = 50 kHz,

sampling period 11

TS = 1/ fS = 20 µsec Fig35.mdl

MS for S&M Figure 3-5 10

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

τ 2τ τ = 20 msec

τ 2τ τ = 20 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

τ 2τ τ = 20 msec

τ 2τ τ = 20 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

00

01

ESD ≈ | FFT |2

11

Fig35spectrum.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

input. Pulse Generator block changed to sampled-based

signal. Integer Delay block used to delay the pulse.

Fig35spectrum.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

changed to sampled-based

signal.

Sample time TS = 20 µsec

Pulse period = 500 000

samples (10 sec)

Pulse width = 1000

samples (20 msec)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

sampled-based signal.

Sample time TS = 20 µsec

Delay = 1000

samples (0.2 sec)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

samples.

samples

Simulation time T = N / fS = 262 144 / 50 000 = 5.24288

sec

Frequency resolution ∆f = fS / N = 50 000/262 144 =

0.1907 Hz

Fig35spectrum.mdl

MS for S&M Figure 3-5

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

τ = 20 msec

1/2τ 1/τ S&M Figure 3-6a

25 Hz 50 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

τ = 20 msec

1/τ S&M Figure 3-6b

50 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

τ = 20 msec

1/τ S&M Figure 3-6c

50 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

τ = 20 msec

1/2τ 1/τ S&M Figure 3-6d

25 Hz 50 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

00, 01, 10 and 11 unscaled by probability p = 0.25

Ψ(f) = 2A2 τ2 sinc2(π f τ)

3/τ

150 Hz

2/τ

100 Hz

1/τ

50 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

of pulses divided by the time to transmit the series of

pulses (S&M p. 83).

normalized power spectral density (PSD) G(f) of a series

of rectangular pulses:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

function of the bandwidth of the data transmission.

Ψ(f) = 2A2 τ2 sinc2(π f τ)

3/τ

96.5%

2/τ

95%

1/τ

90%

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

here and is optimum in the bandwidth sense.

Signal as a Percentage of the Total Power (S&M p. 86,

MS p. 22) with τ = Tb = 1 / rb

1/Tb 90%

1.5/Tb 93%

2/Tb 95%

3/Tb 96.5%

4/Tb 97.5%

5/Tb 98%

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• Rectangular PAM

Power Spectral Density

• Pages 20-22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

rectangular PAM data signals, the power spectral

density (PSD) is used since the bit period Tb is finite

and not infinite as for a single pulse with its ESD.

• The pulse width τ can be less than the bit period Tb but

this is not bandwidth efficient.

• The MATLAB and Simulink

simulation of a binary

rectangular PAM transmitter

(MS Figure 2.1) is modified

for a variable pulse width

τ ≤ Tb to verify these

concepts.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

msec

0.5 msec (50% duty cycle)

Multiplier

MSFig21mod.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

variable pulse width

τ ≤ Tb = 1 msec

Pulse train = 0 to 1 V

Pulse period = 1 msec

MSFig21mod.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

variable pulse width

τ ≤ Tb = 1 msec

(0.5 msec)

Phase delay = 0.5 msec

MSFig21mod.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

rectangular PAM transmit data output with 50% duty cycle.

Data

Tb

Duty Cycle

Tb /2

Product

with Gain

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

the rectangular PAM transmitter with variable duty cycle

τ / Tb

Fig21modspec.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

δ[(2n–1) fo] where fo = 1 / Tb =

1 kHz are due to the periodic

signal imposed by the product

modulator with 50% duty cycle

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

the PSD for the rectangular

PAM signal because the

signal is only random with

100% duty cycle (τ = Tb)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• Performance of Rectangular

PAM in a Simple Receiver in

AWGN

• Pages 66-69

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

duty cycle) in a simple receiver (single point sampling at

Tb / 2) in AWGN is assessed by the bit error rate (BER)

The received binary data is compared bit-by-bit to the

transmitted binary data by the Error Rate Calculation

block

MS Figure 2.7

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Calculation block delays

the transmitted binary

data to correlate it with

the received binary data

displayed numerically

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

allows the BER analysis

to be delayed before

starting if warranted (no

delay is used here)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

with variance σ2 in volts by the AWGN Channel block

the MATLAB

variable randseed

so that each

simulation is

unique

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

analysis. The signal power in the rectangular PAM signal

is A2 / RL and the noise power is σ2 / RL. The SNR then

is:

SNR = 10 log10 [A2 / σ2] dB

MS Figure 2.7

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

W (watts) and the normalized power (RL = 1Ω) is

A2 V2 (volts squared).

power and then divide by RL to convert to W, the

convention is to use the term normalized power W even

though the units are V2. Here A = ± 5 V and the

normalized power = 25 W.

MS Figure 2.7

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

AWGN (MS p. 24)

Table 2.2 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an

Unfiltered Rectangular PAM Digital Communication

System, Normalized Signal Power = 25 W.

∞ 0 0

13.98 1 0

12.21 1.5 0

10.97 2 2 × 10-4

6.98 5 1.24 × 10-2

3.98 10 5.64 × 10-2

3.19 12 7.43 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

can be improved with the addition of a low-pass filter

(LPF) in the receiver. The LPF passes only the bandwidth

required for the modulated signal.

MS Figure 2.9

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

an Analog Filter Design block

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Bessel, Butterworth, Chebyshev types I and II, and

Elliptic. The Chebyshev LPF with fcutoff = 1200 Hz, in-band

ripple = 0.1 dB displays the maximum roll-off attenuation

with a trade-off of the in-band ripple.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

AWGN (SVU p. 73)

LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.1 dB ripple, fcutoff = 1.2 kHz)

Binary Rectangular PAM Digital Communication

System, Normalized Signal Power = 25 W.

∞ 0 0

10.00 2.5 0

0.96 20 0

–3.01 50 1 × 10-4

–6.02 100 6.3 × 10-3

–9.03 200 3.63 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

PAM in an unfiltered and LPF receiver:

Unfiltered Receiver

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER

6.98 5 1.24 × 10-2

3.98 10 5.64 × 10-2

LPF Receiver

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER

–6.02 100 6.3 × 10-3

–9.03 200 3.63 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Tb + 5V

-5 V

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Digital Baseband Modulation

Techniques

• Pulse Shaping to Improve

Spectral Efficiency: Sinc Pulses

• Pages 89-101

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

± 4 Tb. Zero-crossings occur at ± n / rb = ± n Tb

MS Figures 2.15 and 2.16

binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec

binary 0

2/rb 3/rb

1/rb 4/rb

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

is 50% of the first-null bandwidth of a rectangular PAM

pulse (rb Hz).

+5 V

binary 0

2/rb

0

1/rb 8/rb

3/rb

binary 1

4/rb

–5 V rb = 1 kb/sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

crossings at multiples of 1 / rb = Tb there is no interference

between adjacent pulses if sampled at Tb.

MS Figures 2.17 and 2.18

1/rb binary 1

binary 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

MS p. 29-30)

derived from the energy spectral density (ESD) for a

single sinc pulse. The ESD ψ(f) for a sinc pulse with a

peak amplitude A and data rate rb is:

of a series of sinc pulses is:

where 1 / rb = Tb

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• Sinc Pulse Amplitude

Modulation

• Pages 27-33

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

duration) sinc PAM signal uses the impulse response of

a filter (MS p. 27-29).

MS Figure 2.14

data source

impulse train

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

amplitude of 0, 1 V and a period of 1 msec (1/rb). The

output is offset and scaled to provide a ± 1 V data

source.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

block has an amplitude of

1 V, a period of 1 msec or

a frequency of 1 kHz

(rb) and a pulse width of 2%

of the period (20 µsec)

which is the Simulink

simulation time.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Blockset provides the Raised Cosine Transmit Filter

which can generate

a sinc when the

rolloff factor α = 0.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Filter block generates a

sinc with a rolloff factor

α = 0. The group delay

of 4 symbols specifies

the ± 4Tb duration.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Filter block upsampling

factor 50 specifies the

duration of a symbol

Tb = 50 x 20 µsec =

1000 µsec = 1 msec,

where 20 µsec is the

Simulink simulation

time. The filter gain of 5

sets the peak amplitude

to ± 5 V.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

to verify the PSD.

MS Figure 2.19

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

sinc2 shaped PSD

non-ideal sinc(t)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

receiver (single point sampling at Tb ) in AWGN is

assessed by the bit error rate (BER)

• The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of binary sinc

PAM is used to assess performance.

MS Figure 2.20

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

subsystem.

MS Figure 2.20

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

PAM includes a Chebyshev low-pass filter (LPF) with

fcutoff = 600 Hz to improve BER performance. The

bandwidth is rb /2 = 500 Hz, rb = 1 kb/sec here.

MS Figure 2.20

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

problematical because of the complex shape and finite

duration. A Simulink simulation can be used to compute

the root-mean-square (RMS) of the sinc PAM transmit

output.

MS Figure 2.21

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

block from the

Signal Processing

Blockset, Statistics

computes the RMS.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

PAM signal is [RMS]2 = 4.9342 = 24.3 W. The

normalized power of the rectangular PAM signal is 25

W exactly. The sinc PAM power is required for the

computation of SNR in the BER analysis.

MS Figure 2.21

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

(MS p. 31-33)

LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.1 dB ripple, fcutoff = 600 Hz)

Binary Sinc PAM Digital Communication System,

Normalized Signal Power ≈ 24.3 W.

∞ 0 0

0.85 20 0

−3.13 50 4 × 10-3

−6.14 100 3.5 × 10-3

−9.15 200 2.14 × 10-2

−13.13 500 9.31 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

rectangular PAM with an LPF receiver:

Sinc PAM

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER

−6.14 100 3.5 × 10-2

−9.15 200 2.14 × 10-2

Rectangular PAM

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER

–6.02 100 6.3 × 10-3

–9.03 200 3.62 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Digital Baseband Modulation

Techniques

• Pulse Shaping to Improve

Spectral Efficiency: Raised Cosine

Pulses

• Pages 101-111

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

definition. Zero-crossings occur at ± n / rb = ± n Tb

+5 V

binary 0

2/rb

0

1/rb 8/rb

3/rb binary 1

4/rb

–5 V rb = 1 kb/sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

β is the damping factor and 0 ≤ β ≤ rb / 2.

+5 V

binary 0

2/rb

0

1/rb 8/rb

3/rb binary 1

4/rb

–5 V rb = 1 kb/sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

the damping factor β: α = 2 β / rb 0≤α≤1

β = α rb / 2 0 ≤ β ≤ rb / 2

+5 V

2/rb

0

1/rb 8/rb

3/rb binary 1

4/rb

–5 V rb = 1 kb/sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

multiples of 1 / rb = Tb there is no interference between

adjacent pulses if sampled at Tb.

MS Figures 2.25 and 2.26

1/rb binary 1

binary 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

MS p. 36-38)

raised cosine PAM signal is derived from the energy

spectral density (ESD) for a single raised cosine pulse

with a peak amplitude A and data rate rb = 1 / Tb is:

G(f) = A2 / rb | f | ≤ rb / 2 – β

rb / 2 – β ≤ f ≤ rb/2 + β

G(f) = 0 | f | ≤ rb / 2 + β

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• Raised Cosine Pulse Amplitude

Modulation

• Pages 81-87

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

signal uses the impulse response of a filter (MS p. 33-36).

MS Figure 2.22

data source

impulse train

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

amplitude of 0, 1 V and a period of 1 msec (1/rb). The

output is offset and scaled to provide a ± 1 V data

source.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

block has an amplitude of

1 V, a period of 1 msec or

a frequency of 1 kHz

(rb) and a pulse width of 2%

of the period (20 µsec)

which is the Simulink

simulation time.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Blockset provides the Raised Cosine Transmit Filter

which generates a

raised cosine filter

when the rolloff factor

0 < α ≤ 1 (α ≠ 0)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Filter block is generated

with a rolloff factor α = 0.5

The group delay of 4

symbols specifies the

± 4Tb duration.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

can be used to verify the PSD.

MS Figure 2.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

α = 2 β / rb

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

receiver (single point sampling at Tb ) in AWGN is

assessed by the bit error rate (BER)

• The Simulink simulation of binary raised cosine PAM

is used to assess performance.

MS Figure 2.28

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

PAM includes a Chebyshev low-pass filter (LPF) fcutoff =

900 Hz, in-band ripple = 0.1 dB to improve BER

performance. The first null bandwidth is 750 Hz.

MS Figure 2.28

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

PAM signal is [RMS]2 = 4.672 = 21.8 W. The normalized

power of the sinc and rectangular PAM signals are 24.3

and 25 W. The raised cosine PAM power is required

for the computation of SNR in the BER analysis.

MS Figure 2.21rcos

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

AWGN (MS p. 38-40)

LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.01 dB ripple, fcutoff = 900 Hz)

Binary Raised Cosine PAM Digital Communication

System, Normalized Signal Power ≈ 21.8 W.

∞ 0 0

3.38 10 0

0.37 20 4 × 10-4

−3.61 50 5.8 × 10-3

−6.62 100 2.48 × 10-2

−9.62 200 6.75 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

raised cosine PAM with an LPF receiver:

Sinc PAM

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER

−3.13 50 4 × 10-4

−9.15 200 2.14 × 10-2

Raised Cosine PAM

SNR dB AWGN σ V BER

–3.61 50 5.8 × 10-2

–9.62 200 6.75 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

End of Chapter 3

Digital Baseband Modulation

Techniques

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Receiver Design

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Receiver Design

• Probability of Bit Error

• Pages 124-149

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

an expression for the probability of bit error Pb (S&M p.

124-127). A is the amplitude at the sampling point and γ

is the attenuation of the channel (0 ≤ γ ≤ 1)

+ P(bi = 1) P{ no[ (i-1)Tb + Tb/2 ] ≥ γA }

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

(S&M p. 127-132)

∞

Variance σX2 = ∫ (x – µX) fX(x) dx

–∞

E { (X – µX)2 }

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

(S&M p. 127-132)

Joint probability

distribution function FX,Y(a, b) = P{ X = a and Y = b }

Joint probability

density function fX,Y(x, y)) = ∂2 FX,Y(x, y) / ∂x ∂y

P { event Z } P{ X > a | event Z }

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Receiver Design

• Examining Thermal Noise

• Pages 132-136

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge

carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical

conductor at equilibrium.

equilibrium

at Bell Labs in 1928. He described his findings to Harry

Nyquist, also at Bell Labs, who was able to explain the

results.

1889-1976

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

meaning that the power spectral density is equal

throughout the frequency spectrum. Additionally, the

amplitude of the signal has very nearly a Gaussian

probability density function with mean µn = 0.

µn = 0 σn = 1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

function the probability that a noise voltage n(t) at time to

will be less than or equal to a threshold –γA is (S&M Eq.

4.27):

− γA

1 (x - µn )2

P{ n(t o ) ≤ −γA } = FX (− γA) = ∫

−∞ 2π σ n

exp

2σ n

2 dx

will be greater than a threshold γA is (S&M Eq. 4.28):

∞

1 (x - µn )2

P{ n(t o ) > γA } = 1 − FX (γA) = ∫

γA 2π σ n

exp

2σ n

2 dx

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

thermal noise do not change with

time (stationarity). Thermal noise

is an insidious property of

communication systems that limits

the speed of reliable data transmission

and the detection of weak signals.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

characteristics of thermal noise and the performance of

low-pass filtered fcutoff = 11.25 kHz thermal noise.

MS Figure 1.11

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

No (single-sided spectrum)

No No

No 11.25 kHz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

uncorrelated

uncorrelated

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

uncorrelated

correlated

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Processing Blockset is analogous to the pdf. The Vector

Scope block from the Sinks, Signal Processing Blockset,

displays the histogram. Simulink blocks to calculate the

mean µ and variance σ2 are in Statistics.

NoiseHistogram.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

µ = 10

σ2 = 1 Gaussian pdf

σo2 = 0.64 Gaussian

after LPF

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

− γA

1 (x - µo )2

P(bi = 0) ∫

−∞ 2π σ o

exp

2σ o

2 dx +

∞

1 (x - µo )2

P(bi = 1) ∫

γA 2π σ o

exp

2σ o

2 dx

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

and γA), the P(bi = 0) + P(bi = 1) = 1 and the Gaussian

normal pdfs are symmetrical the probability that the ith-bit

is received in error becomes (S&M p. 136):

∞

1 (x - µo )2

∫

γA 2π σ o

exp

2σ o

2 dx

-γA γA

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Receiver Design

• Gaussian Probability

Density Function, Probability of

Bit Error

• Pages 137-149

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian (normal)

probability

density

function (pdf)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian (normal)

probability

distribution

function

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

mathematician famous for de Moivre's

formula, which links complex numbers

and trigonometry, and for his work on

the normal distribution and probability

theory in 1734. He wrote a book on

probability theory entitled The Doctrine

of Chances which was said to be highly

prized by gamblers. 1667-1754

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

German mathematician and scientist

who contributed significantly to many

fields, including number theory,

geometry, electrostatics, astronomy

and optics.

1777-1855

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian pdfs

µ = 0, σ = 1

S&M Figure 4-6a

µ = 1.6, σ = 1

S&M Figure 4-6b

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian pdfs

µ = 0, σ = 2

S&M Figure 4-6c

µ = 1, σ = 2

S&M Figure 4-6d

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

pdf from the threshold a to ∞ which could be tabulated.

However, the probability of bit error is determined by three

independent variables (a, µ and σ) and this would be an

unwieldy table.

Q-function

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

probability of bit error as the area under the Gaussian

pdf as a function of the threshold a only which is known as

the complementary error or Q-function.

Q-function

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The

Q-function

for µ =0

and σ = 1

as a function

of the

threshold a

is listed in

Table 4-1

(S&M

p. 141) and

Appendix B

(MS p. 185-

186)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Reading the

Q-function

table

correctly

•What is

Q(1.82)?

• What is

Q(2.63)?

• What is

Q(3.18)?

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Reading the

Q-function

table

correctly

• Q(1.82) =

0.0344

• Q(2.63) =

0.0043

• Q(3.18) =

0.0007

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• What if µ ≠ 0? It can

be shown that the

Q-function table

remains valid if

the threshold

a

variable in the table

is changed from a

to a – µ. Note that

the areas under the

Gaussian pdfs are the

same.

Figure 4-8b

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• What if µ ≠ 0 and

σ ≠ 1? It can also

be shown that the

Q-function table

remains valid if

a

the threshold

variable in the table

is first changed from

a to a – µ and …

Figure 4-9b

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

variable in the

Q-function table

is changed from

a – µ to (a – µ) / σ.

Note that argument a–µ

on the x-axis is

compressed by σ

and the y-axis is

expanded by σ.

(a –µ) / σ

Figure 4-9c

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

expressed by the Q-function:

noise margin of

sampled value

Pb = Q

average normalized noise power at

the input to the single point sampler

sampling at

Tb/2 binary rectangular PAM data with AWGN

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Receiver Design

• Optimal Receiver: The Matched

Filter or Correlation Receiver

• Pages 149-161

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

But is this the best that there is? What about sampling an

odd number of times (like 3) during each bit time Tb?

Tb

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

number of samples during Tb, there is an optimal way:

the optimal processing is a linear filter H(f) (S&M p. 150)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

processing is a linear filter Ho(f)

ho(t) and is known as a matched filter since the processing

is matched to input signal s(t):

Ho (f) = k S∗ (f) exp( − j 2π f iTb )

ho (t) = F-1 { Ho (f) } = k F-1 { S∗ (f) exp( − j 2π f iTb ) }

ho (t) = k s(iTb − t) impulse response

matched to s(t)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

scaled (by k), time delayed (by iTb) and time reversed

(function of iTb– t):

ho (t) = k s(iTb − t)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

the Q-function is maximized (S&M p. 153-154) and the

probability of bit error Pb is:

| r(iTb ) ∗ h(iTb ) |

Pb = Q maximum

σp

| r(iTb ) * h(iTb ) | 2

Pb = Q maximum

σ 2

p

2 Eb

Pb = Q S&M Eq. 4.58

No

where Eb is the energy per bit of the received signal.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

receiver (S&M p. 155-156).

Correlation Receiver

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

are equivalent, with s1(t) = s(t) for a matched filter and

r(t) = γ s(t) where γ is the communication channel

attenuation, the energy-per-bit Eb is (S&M p. 156,

Eq 4.62):

iTb iTb

Eb = ∫

(i-1)Tb

γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ 2 ∫

(i-1)Tb

s2 (t) dt

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

correlation receiver when r(t) = γ si(t) and n(t) = 0 where γ

is the communication channel attenuation.

iTb

ai (iTb ) = ∫

(i-1)Tb

γ si (t) s1(t) dt S&M Eq. 4.67

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

expressed in dB: 10 log10 (Eb / No ). The resulting plot of

Pb verses Eb / No in dB is a characteristic of binary

symmetric

PAM with

AWGN. S&M Figure 4-14

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

implies that the two

transmitted signals for

binary 1 and binary 0

s(t) and the resulting

Threshold = 0

outputs a(iTb) from the

correlation receiver

are equal in

magnitude but

opposite in sign:

sbi=1(t) = – sbi=0(t)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

error for equally-likely

binary symmetric

PAM is the sum of

the error regions

shown.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

threshold is 0 (equidistant from the means or expected

values ± a(iTb) ). The error regions are equal in area.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

error does not

minimize if the

correlation receiver

threshold is

misadjusted (τ ≠ 0).

With a misadjusted

threshold the apriori

probabilities are now

important since the

area of the error

regions are no longer

equal.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

and-dump which describes the process.

matched filter or

correlation receiver

MS Figure 2.29

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• Optimum Binary Baseband

Receiver: The Correlation

Receiver

• Pages 40-41

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

MS Figure 2.29

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink

Integrate and Dump

block is in the

Comm Filters,

Communications

Blockset

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

block are the integration period and offset in simulation

samples.

fsimulation = 50 kHz

Tsimulation = 1/fsimulation =

0.02 msec

Tb = 1 msec

Integration period =

Tb/Tsimulation = 1/ 0.02 =

50 samples

Offset = 0 samples

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

communication system with BER analysis and optimum

receiver.

MS Figure 2.30

Transmitter Receiver

BER

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

rectangular PAM in a LPF simple receiver (LPF) and the

optimum correlation receiver (CR) with normalized signal

power = 25 W (MS Table 2.3 p. 27 and Table 2.6 p. 43).

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER (LPF) BER (CR)

∞ 0 0 0

3.98 10 0 0

0.96 20 0 0

−3.52 50 1 × 10-4 0

−6.02 100 6.3 × 10-3 1 × 10-4

−9.03 200 3.63 × 10-2 6.4 × 10-3

−13.01 500 1.185 × 10-1 6.02 × 10-2

−16.02 1000 1.345 × 10-1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The energy per bit Eb = 2.5 × 10-2 V2-sec (S&M Eq. 4.62,

p. 156) for rectangular ± 5 V PAM with the channel

attenuation γ = 1:

iTb iTb

Eb = ∫

(i-1)Tb

γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ 2 ∫

(i-1)Tb

s2 (t) dt

the theoretical probability of bit error Pb (S&M Eq. 4.58, p.

154) to validate the basic simulation.

2 Eb

Pb = Q

No

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

spectral density No (Eb / No) rather than the SNR is the

conventional metric used for BER performance.

iTb iTb

Eb = ∫

(i-1)Tb

γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ 2 ∫

(i-1)Tb

s2 (t) dt

S&M Eq. 4.62

2 Eb

Pb = Q S&M Eq. 4.58

No

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Function of Eb / No in a Binary Symmetrical Rectangular

PAM Digital Communication System with Optimum

Receiver

Eb / No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

10 0 4.05 × 10-6

8 0 2.06 × 10-4

6 2.5 × 10-3 2.43 × 10-3

4 1.35 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2

2 3.95 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

0 8.09 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Receiver Design

• Correlation Receiver for Asymmetric

PAM, Optimum Thresholds,

Synchronization

• Pages 162-173

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Asymmetric PAM

signals do not have

equal means or

expected values of

the output of the

correlation receiver:

| a2(iTb) | ≠ | a1(iTb) |

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

threshold τopt is

again equidistant

between the means

or expected values of

the output of the

correlation receiver:

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )

τ opt =

2

S&M Eq. 4.71

equidistant from the means or expected values.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• If the apriori

probabilities are not

equal then the

optimum threshold

τopt is not equidistant

from the means or

expected value of

output of the

correlation receiver.

An asymmetric binary

PAM signal is shown:

a2(iTb) ≠ a1(iTb)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum

threshold τopt where

the apriori

probabilities are

(1 – M) and M

(which sums to 1) is:

τ opt =

2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )] S&M Eq. 4.85

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )

if M = 0.5 then: τ opt =

2 S&M Eq. 4.71

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

an optimum threshold

τopt has a probability

of bit error Pb:

a1(iTb ) − a2 (iTb )

Pb = Q

2 σo

a (iT ) − a (iT ) 2

[ 1 b 2 b ] 2No

S&M Eq. 4.78

Pb = Q σ =

4 σ o2 o

2 and Eq. 4.79

Ed iTb

∫ {γ ( s (t) − s (t)) }

2

Pb = Q where Ed = dt

2 N 1 2

o (i-1)Tb

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

PAM uses the difference signal s1(t) – s2(t) as the

reference:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

an alternate but universal structure which can be used for

both asymmetric or symmetric binary PAM signals:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• If the apriori

probabilities are not

equal then the

optimum threshold

τopt is not equidistant

from the means or

expected value of

output of the

correlation receiver.

An asymmetric binary

PAM signal is shown:

a2(iTb) ≠ a1(iTb)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum

threshold τopt where

the apriori

probabilities are

(1 – M) and M

(which sums to 1) is:

τ opt =

2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )] S&M Eq. 4.85

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )

if M = 0.5 then: τ opt =

2 S&M Eq. 4.71

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The probability

of bit error Pb then

is:

Pb = M Q + (1− M ) Q

σo σo

2

( a1(iTb ) − τ opt ) ( τ opt − a2 (iTb ) )

2

Pb = M Q + (1− M ) Q

2 No 2 No

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

probabilities are

equal (M = 0.5):

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )

τ opt =

2

and Pb becomes:

( a1(iTb ) − τopt ) ( opt 2 b )

2 2

τ − a (iT )

Pb = 0.5 Q + 0.5 Q

2 No 2 No

a2 (iTb ) )

( a1(iTb ) -

2

Ed

Pb = Q = Q S&M p. 168

2 No 2N

o

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Function of Ed / No in an Asymmetrical Binary

Rectangular PAM Digital Communication System with

Optimum Receiver.

Ed / No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

12 2.5 × 10-3 2.53 × 10-3

10 1.28 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2

8 3.59 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

6 8.05 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2

4 1.334 × 10-1 1.318 × 10-1

2 1.856 × 10-1 1.872 × 10-1

0 2.362 × 10-1 2.394 × 10-1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

the BER performance for asymmetric PAM is comparable

to symmetric PAM if a Ed / No is reduced by 6 dB

(10 log (4) = 6) :

Ed / No dB BER Pb

(MS Table 2.8, 8 3.59 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

p. 49) 6 8.05 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2

Eb / No dB BER Pb

(MS Table 2.7, 2 3.95 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

p. 44) 0 8.09 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• The Correlation Receiver for

Baseband Asymmetrical

Signals

• Pages 44-47

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

noise variance σ2 as processed by the correlation

receiver or σo2:

2 σ o2 ln ( M / (1− M ) ) + a2 (iTb )2 − a1(iTb )2

τ opt =

2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )] σo

MS Figure 2.31

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

probabilities P1 = M and P0 = M – 1:

2 σ o2 ln ( M / (1 − M ) ) + a2 (iTb )2 − a1(iTb )2

τ opt =

2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )]

Mean

MS Figure 2.32

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Variance blocks

are in the Statistics,

Signal Processing

Blockset

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Mean block can be set

for running mean or an

average over the

simulation period. The

result can be shown by

a Display block from the

Simulink Blockset.

MS Figure 2.32

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Variance block can be set

for running variance or an

average over the

simulation period. The

result can be shown by

a Display block from the

Simulink Blockset.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

with BER analysis has a threshold adjustment based on

the estimate of τopt from measurements of σo and M.

2 σ o2 ln ( M / (1− M ) ) + a2 (iTb )2 − a1(iTb )2

τ opt =

2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )]

Reference

Threshold

MS Figure 2.33

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

structure for the correlation receiver:

MS Figure 2.34

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

recovery or the exact beginning and end of a bit time Tb:

start of Tb?

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

and phase is one of the advanced topics in EE4542

Telecommunications Engineering. The effect is called jitter.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Receiver Design

• Multi-level PAM (M-ary PAM)

• Pages 200-206

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

bandwidth required for a data transmission rate rb b/sec.

Rather than transmitting a binary signal in a bit time Tb,

send a multi-level (usually a power-of-2) signal during the

same period called the symbol time TS.

which is then decoded to the received bits.

S&M Figure 4-48

M=4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The three

optimum

thresholds if

the apriori

probabilities

are equally

likely

(Pi = 0.25) S&M Figure 4.49

are: a1(iTS ) + a2 (iTS )

τ opt1 =

2

a2 (iTS ) + a3 (iTS )

τ opt2 = S&M Eq. 4.136

2

a3 (iTS ) + a4 (iTS )

τ opt3 =

2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The

probability

of symbol

error Ps,

where M = 2n M=4

is the

number of

levels,

can be 2 (M − 1) Ed,symbol

shown to be: Ps = Q S&M Eq. 4.139

M 2 No

where:

i Ts

2

Ed,symbol = j k dt S&M Eq. 4.140

(i-1) Ts

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• There are

2 (M – 1)

error

regions

due to only M=4

adjacent

regions

being

misinterpreted with M = 2n equally probable symbols. The

probability of occurrence Pj for a misinterpreted symbol is

also equally likely and is:

1

Pj =

2 (M − 1) SVU Eq. 2.41

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

signal is ± 3A and ± A. The energy difference for a

symbol Ed,symbol = 4γ2 A2 TS (S&M Eq. 4.140):

i Ts

2

Ed,symbol = j k dt

(i-1) Ts

5γ2 A2 TS (S&M Eq. 4.141)

11

S&M Figure 4-50 modified

10

01

M=4

00

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

3 Ed,symbol

Ps = Q S&M Eq. 4.139b

2 2 No

3 0.4 Eavg,symbol

Ps = Q S&M Eq. 4.142a

2 No

11

S&M Figure 4-50 modified

10

01

M=4

00

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

and there are two bits per symbol:

3 0.4 Eavg,symbol

S&M Eq. 4.142a

Ps = Q

2 No

Ps = Q

2 No

11

S&M Figure 4-50 modified

10

01

M=4

00

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

the time and 2 bits in error 2 / 6 of the time:

00 01 1

01 00 1

01 10 2

10 01 2

10 11 1

11 10 1

4 2

Pb,4-level = P(1 of 2 bits in error) + P(2 of 2 bits in error)

6 6

4 1 2 2

Pb,4-level = Ps + Ps = Ps S&M Eq. 4.143

62 6 3

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

be improved? Change the assignment of symbols to di-

bits as a Gray code and there is only 1 bit in error for

each of the six error regions and Pb,4-symbol = Ps / 2

Transmitted Di-Bit Received Di-Bit Bits In Error

01 00 1

00 01 1

00 10 1

10 00 1

10 11 1

11 10 1

6

Pb,4-level = P(1 of 2 bits in error)

6

6 1 1

Pb,4-level = Ps = Ps

62 2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

probability of bit error Pb:

Pb = Q = Q

3 2 No No coded

13 0.8 Eb 3 0.8 Eb

Pb = Q = Q Gray coded

2 2 No 4 No

11

S&M Figure 4-50

10

00

01

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

numerous innovations in television and is remembered for

the Gray code. The Gray code

appeared in his 1953 patent and

is a binary system often used in

electronics. Gray also conducted

pioneering research on the

development of television. He

proposed an early form of the

flying spot scanning system for

TV cameras in 1927, and helped

develop a two-way mechanically

scanned TV system in 1930. Frank Gray

1894-1964

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• Multilevel (M-ary) Pulse

Amplitude Modulation

• Pages 49-55

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Gray coded) rectangular PAM system with BER analysis:

MS Figure 2.35

Transmitter Receiver

BER

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Although Simulink

provides a Bit to

Integer block and

an Integer to Bit

block from the

Utility Blocks,

Communication

Blockset, these

blocks use a vector

of bits rather than

from and to a serial

bitstream.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

configured from Downsampler blocks and a Delay block

from the Signal Operations, Signal Processing Blockset

and the Gain and Sum blocks from the Simulink, Math

Operations to produce the 4-level PAM signal (0, 1, 2 or

3) from the input di-bit (00, 01, 10, or 11) with the most

significant bit (MSB) first.

MS Figure 2.36

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

reconfigured to produce an 8-level PAM signal (0, 1, 2,

…7) from the input tri-bit (000, 001, … 111) with the

most significant bit (MSB) first.

MS Figure 2.37

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

configured from Constant blocks, Pulse Generator blocks

and a Multiport Switch block from the Signal Routing,

Simulink Blockset to produce the di-bit (MSB first) from the

4-level PAM signal.

MS Figure 2.40

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

easily reconfigured to produce the tri-bit (MSB first) from

an 8-level PAM signal.

MS Figure 2.41

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

MS Figure 2.36

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

01

MSB LSB

1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• M-ary PAM transmits n bits per symbol (M = 2n) but has the

same rectangular pulse shape as binary PAM. The

normalized power spectral density for M-ary PAM PSDM has

the same sinc shape as that for binary PAM PSDB but uses

the symbol time TS rather than the bit time Tb:

2

PSDM (f) = A avg TS sinc ( π TS f )

PSDB (f) = A 2 Tb sinc ( π Tb f )

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

in a 4-level rectangular straight-binary coded PAM digital

communication system with optimum receiver (MS Table

2.11 p. 58).

Eb / No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

10 2.7 × 10-3 2.4 × 10-3

8 1.28 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2

6 3.42 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

4 7.52 × 10-2 7.78 × 10-2

2 1.291 × 10-1 1.320 × 10-1

0 1.842 × 10-1 1.867 × 10-1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

where Pj is the apriori probability of occurrence of the

amplitude Aj.

M

2

A avg = ∑ A 2j Pj

j=1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Simulink model

Fig239.mdl

MS Figure 2.39

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Gray coded) rectangular PAM system measures the BER

performance.

MS Figure 2.35

Transmitter Receiver

BER

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The rectangular M-ary pulse width is the entire symbol

time TS and is optimum in the bandwidth sense. The

bandwidth is similar to that for binary PAM but with Tb =

TS (cf. S&M Table 3-1 p. 86).

Signal as a Percentage of the Total Power (MS p. 53)

1/TS 90%

1.5/TS 93%

2/TS 95%

3/TS 96.5%

4/TS 97.5%

5/TS 98%

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

500 Hz

1 kHz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 2

Baseband Modulation and

Demodulation

• Performance of M-ary Pulse

Amplitude Modulation

• Gray Encoded Data

• Pages 57-60

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

encoded rectangular PAM system with BER analysis:

MS Figure 2.42

Transmitter Receiver

BER

bit to Gray encoded Gray encoded symbol

symbol converter to bit converter

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

a Lookup Table Block from the Simulink Blockset.

symbol converter

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

(0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray

encoded by a Lookup

Table Block from the

Simulink Blockset.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

a Lookup Table Block by mapping [0, 1, 2, 3] to [0, 1, 3, 2]

Gray coding 00 → 00

01 → 01

10 → 11

11 → 10

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

by a Lookup Table Block from the Simulink Blockset.

to bit converter

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

a Lookup Table Block by mapping [0, 1, 2, 3] to [0, 1, 3, 2]

Gray coding 00 → 00

01 → 01

10 → 11

11 → 10

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

same as a straight-binary rectangular PAM signal. The

coding does not

change the PSD.

The PSD is only

affected by the pulse

shape and data rate.

500 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

encoded rectangular PAM system measures the BER

performance.

MS Figure 2.42

Transmitter Receiver

BER

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

in a 4-level rectangular Gray coded PAM digital

communication system with optimum receiver (MS Table

2.12 p. 60).

Eb / No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

10 1.7 × 10-3 1.8 × 10-3

8 8.6 × 10-3 9.3 × 10-3

6 2.92 × 10-2 2.81 × 10-2

4 5.93 × 10-2 5.84 × 10-2

2 9.56 × 10-2 9.90 × 10-2

0 1.441 × 10-1 1.404 × 10-1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

rectangular PAM for straight-binary coded (SBC) and

Gray coded (GC) data (MS Table 2.11 p. 58 and MS

Table 2.12 p. 60).

Eb / No dB BER (SBC) BER (GC)

∞ 0 0

10 2.7 × 10-3 1.7 × 10-3

8 1.28 × 10-2 8.6 × 10-3

6 3.42 × 10-2 2.92 × 10-2

4 7.52 × 10-2 5.93 × 10-2

2 1.291 × 10-1 9.56 × 10-2

0 1.842 × 10-1 1.441 × 10-1

BER performance without an increase in Eb.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

End of Chapter 4

Receiver Design

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• Binary Amplitude Shift Keying

• Pages 212-219

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

(BASK) is:

The signal sbaseband(t) can be any two shapes over a bit time

Tb but it is usually a rectangular signal of amplitude 0 for a

binary 0 and amplitude A for binary 1. Then BASK is also

known as on-off keying (OOK). MS Figure 3.5

Tb

0 1 1 0 1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

simulated in Simulink.

sBASK(t) = sbaseband(t) sin 2π fC t (S&M Eq. 5.1)

Multiplier

BASK signal

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

by a carrier (S&M Figure 5-3).

Unmodulated sinusoidal carrier

BASK signal

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

polar PAM signal and DC level (S&M Figure 5-4).

Unipolar binary PAM signal 0→1V

DC level 0.5 V

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

SBASK(f) = 1/2 j (Sbaseband(f – fC) + Sbaseband(f + fC) )

The analytical signal for the baseband binary PAM signal is:

Sbaseband(f) = SPAM(f) + A/2 δ(f) (S&M Eq. 5.4)

– SPAM(f + fC) – A/2 δ(f + fC) )

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signal is (S&M Eq. 5.7):

+ A2/16 δ(f – fC) + A2/16 δ(f + fC)

MS Figure 3.7

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signal is:

GBASK(f) = 1/2 GPAM(f + fC) + A2/8 δ(f + fC)

1 kHz rb = 1 kHz

sinc2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

power is double that for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb binary

rectangular PAM (MS Table 2.1 p. 22)

Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2/Tb 90%

3/Tb 93%

4/Tb 95%

6/Tb 96.5%

8/Tb 97.5%

10/Tb 98%

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• Binary Phase Shift Keying

• Pages 219-225

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

(BPSK) is:

sbaseband(t) = + A bi = 1 sbaseband(t) = – A bi = 0

0° MS Figure 3.13

+180° Tb 0° 0° +180°

0 0 1 1 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

0° and –A is a phase shift = +180°

sbaseband(t) = + A bi = 1 sbaseband(t) = – A bi = 0

0° MS Figure 3.13

+180° Tb 0° 0° +180°

0 0 1 1 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

simulated in Simulink.

PM modulator

BPSK

signal

Fig312.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

block is in the

Modulation,

Communication

Blockset but as an

analog passband

modulator not a digital

baseband modulator.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

carrier frequency fC in Hz, initial phase in radians and the

phase deviation constant in radians per volt (rad / V).

fC = 20 kHz

initial phase φo = π

phase deviation kp = π / V

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

initial phase = π and a phase deviation constant = π/V,

the phase output φ of the BPSK signal is:

bi = 0 φ = π + 0(π/V) = π

bi = 1 φ = π + 1(π/V) = 2π = 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

SBPSK(f) = 1/2 j (Sbaseband(f – fc) + Sbaseband(f + fC) )

The analytical signal for the baseband binary PAM signal is:

Sbaseband(f) = SPAM(f)

substitution:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signal is (S&M Eq. 5.13)

MS Figure 3.14

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signal is:

GBPSK(f) = 1/2 GPAM(f + fC)

GPAM(f) = A2 / rb sinc2 (π f / rb)

rb = 1 kHz

sinc2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

power is double that for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb binary

rectangular PAM (MS Table 2.1 p. 22) and the same as

BASK (MS Table 3.1 p. 91)

Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2/Tb 90%

3/Tb 93%

4/Tb 95%

6/Tb 96.5%

8/Tb 97.5%

10/Tb 98%

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• Binary Frequency Shift Keying

• Pages 219-225

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

(BFSK) is:

sBFSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ) if bi = 0

MS Figure 3.9

fc – ∆f

fc – ∆f fc + ∆f fc + ∆f Tb fc – ∆f

0 1 1 0 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

sBFSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t) if bi = 0

MS Figure 3.9

fc – ∆f

fc – ∆f fc + ∆f fc + ∆f Tb fc – ∆f

0 1 1 0 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

simulated in Simulink.

BFSK

signal

FM Modulator

Fig38.mdl

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

block is in the

Modulation,

Communication

Blockset but as an

analog passband

modulator not a digital

baseband modulator.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

carrier frequency fC in Hz, initial phase in radians and the

frequency deviation constant in Hertz per volt (Hz/V).

fC = 20 kHz

initial phase = 0

frequency deviation =

2000

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

to ±1 and with a initial phase = 0 and a frequency

deviation constant = 2000 Hz/V, the frequency shift ∆f of

the BFSK signal is:

bi = 1 di = +1 ∆f = 0 + 1(2000 Hz/V) = +2000 Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

sbaseband2(t) sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ)

1 0 0 1 1

fc + ∆f fc – ∆f fc – ∆f fc + ∆f fc + ∆f

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

sbaseband2(t) sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ)

of the BFSK signal GBFSK(f) is the sum of two GBASK(f)

PSDs with f = fC ± ∆f:

fc – ∆f fc + ∆f

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signal is:

GBFSK(f) = (A/2)2 / 2rb sinc2 (π (fC + ∆f) / rb) + A2/8 δ(fC + ∆f)

+ (A/2)2 / 2rb sinc2 (π (fC – ∆f)/ rb) + A2/8 δ(fC – ∆f)

rb = 1 kHz

∆f = 2 kHz

sinc2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

when ∆f = 1/2Tb = rb/2 Hz.

GBFSK(f) = (A/2)2 / 2rb sinc2 (π (fC + ∆f) / rb) + A2/8 δ(fC+ ∆f)

+ (A/2)2 / 2rb sinc2 (π (fC – ∆f)/ rb) + A2/8 δ(fC – ∆f)

∆f = 500 Hz rb = 1 kHz

sinc2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

the minimum possible because each carrier spectral impulse

is at the null of the PSD of the other decomposed BASK

signal and thus is called minimum frequency shift keying

(MFSK).

sinc2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

power is greater than that of either BASK or BPSK by 2∆f

Hz for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb (MS Table 3.3 p. 95).

Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2∆f + 3/Tb 93%

2∆f + 4/Tb 95%

2∆f + 6/Tb 96.5%

2∆f + 8/Tb 97.5%

2∆f + 10/Tb 98%

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• Coherent Demodulation of

Bandpass Signals

• Pages 225-236

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signals utilizes the same concepts as that for the optimum

baseband receiver:

Optimum Filter ho (t) = k s(iTb − t)

Correlation Receiver

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

are equivalent here also, with s1(t) = s(t) for symmetrical

signals and r(t) = γ s(t) + n(t) where γ is the communication

channel attenuation and n(t) is AWGN. The energy per bit

Eb and the probability of bit error Pb is (S&M p. 226):

iTb iTb

Eb = ∫

(i-1)Tb

γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ 2 ∫

(i-1)Tb

s2 (t) dt

2 Eb

Pb = Q

No

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

demodulation process for bandpass signals because not

only is bit time (Tb) as for baseband signals required but

carrier synchronization is also needed. Carrier

synchronization requires an estimate of the transmitted

frequency (fC) and the arrival phase at the receiver (θ):

s1(t) = sin(2π fC t + θ)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

s1T(t) = – s2T(t) = A sin(2π fc t) S&M Eqs. 5.15-5.19

iTb

2

Eb, BPSK = C dt

(i-1)Tb

iTb

2

γ A 2

γ 2 A 2Tb

Eb, BPSK = ∫ [1− cos (4π fC t)] dt =

2 (i-1)Tb

2

2 Eb γ 2 A 2Tb

Pb, BPSK = Q

= Q

No No

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

that the transmitter produces an integer number of cycles

within one bit period Tb:

S&M Eq. 5.17

2 2 iTb

γ A

Eb, BPSK =

2 ∫ [1− cos (4π f t)] dt

(i-1)Tb

C

0

2 2 2 2 iTb

γ A Tb γ A

Eb, BPSK =

2

−

2 ∫

(i-1)Tb

cos (4π fC t) dt

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

one bit period Tb if 1 / fC = TC << Tb:

S&M Eq. 5.17

iT b

∫

(i-1)Tb

cos (4π fC t) dt << Tb insignificant

2 2 2 2 iTb

γ A Tb γ A

Eb, BPSK =

2

−

2 ∫

(i-1)Tb

cos (4π fC t) dt

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

s1T(t) = – s2T(t) = A sin(2π fc t) S&M Eqs. 5.15-5.19

and s1(t) = sin (2π fc t)

iTb

ai (iTb ) = ∫

(i-1)Tb

γ si (t) s1(t) dt S&M Eq. 4.67

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )

τ opt = = 0 S&M Eq. 4.71

2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

s1T(t) = – s2T(t) = A sin(2π fc t) S&M Eqs. 5.15-5.19

τ opt = 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

that the transmitter produces an integer number of cycles

within one bit period:

S&M Eq. 5.27

2 2 iTb

γ A

Ed, BASK =

2 ∫ [1− cos (4π f t)] dt

(i-1)Tb

C

0

2 2 2 2 iTb

γ A Tb γ A

Ed, BASK =

2

−

2 ∫

(i-1)Tb

cos (4π fC t) dt

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

s1T(t) = A sin(2π fct) s2T(t) = 0 S&M Eqs. 5.22, 5.23

and s1(t) = sin(2π fct) s2(t) = 0

iTb

(i-1)Tb

S&M Eq. 5.24-5.26

iTb

γ A Tb

a1(iTb ) = ∫ γ A s (t) dt = 2

1 a2 (iTb ) = 0

(i-1)Tb

2

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb ) γ A Tb

τ opt = =

2 4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

s1T(t) = A1 sin(2π fc t) s2T(t) = A2 sin(2π fc t)

and s1(t) – s2(t) = sin (2π fc t) where the amplitude is arbitrary.

iTb

(i-1)Tb

iTb

γ A i Tb

ai (iTb ) = ∫ γ A i s (t) dt = 2

1 S&M Eq. 4.71

(i-1)Tb

2

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb ) γ ( A1 + A 2 )Tb

τ opt = =

2 4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

sT(t) = A sin(2π (fc ± ∆f) t) S&M Eq. 5.30

iTb

2

Ed, BFSK =

(i-1)Tb

S&M Eq. 5.31

Ed, FSK 2 2

γ A Tb

Pb, BFSK = Q = Q S&M Eq. 5.32

2 No 2 No

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

that the transmitter produces an integer number of cycles

within one bit period:

S&M Eq. 5.31

2 2 iTb

0

γ A

Ed, BFSK = γ A Tb − ∫ cos (4π (fC + ∆f ) t) dt

2 2

2 (i-1)Tb 0

iT

γ2 A 2 b

− ∫

2 (i-1)Tb

cos (4π (fC − ∆f ) t) dt

iTb 0

− γ2 A 2 ∫

(i-1)Tb

sin (2π (fC + ∆f ) t) sin (2π (fC − ∆f ) t) dt

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

sT(t) = A sin(2π (fc ± ∆f) t) S&M Eq. 5.30

and s1(t) – s2(t) = sin(2π (fc + ∆f) t) – sin(2π (fc – ∆f) t)

iTb

(i-1)Tb

iTb

γ A i Tb

ai (iTb ) = ∫ γ A i s (t) dt = 2

i S&M Eq. 5.33

(i-1)Tb

2

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb ) γ ( A1 − A 2 )Tb

τ opt = = = 0

2 4

if A1 = A 2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

illustrates the functional differences, but BFSK and BASK

uses Ed and not Eb:

2 Eb γ 2 A 2Tb 2 2

Pb, BPSK = Q = Q E γ A Tb

No No b, BPSK = 2

Ed, FSK γ 2 A 2Tb

Pb, BFSK = Q = Q Ed, BFSK = γ 2 A 2Tb

2 No 2 No

Ed, ASK γ 2 A 2Tb γ 2 A 2Tb

Pb, BASK = Q = Q Ed, BASK =

2 No 4 No 2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

5.24) and Eb, ASK = γ2 A2 Tb / 4 (S&M Eq. 5.36) so that:

Pb, BPSK = Q = Q Eb, BPSK =

No No 2

Pb, BFSK = Q = Q Eb, BFSK =

No 2 No 2

Eb, ASK γ 2 A 2Tb

Pb, BASK = Q = Q γ 2 A 2Tb

Eb, BASK =

No 4 No 4

Thus there are no practical advantages for either coherent

BFSK or BASK and BPSK is preferred (S&M p. 236).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

BFSK requires twice as much and BASK four times as much

energy:

2 Eb, PSK γ 2 A 2T

Pb, BPSK = Q = Q b

N N

o o

Argument of

Eb, FSK 2 2

γ A Tb Q should be

Pb, BFSK = Q = Q

No 2 No as large as

possible to

Eb, ASK γ 2 A 2Tb minimize Pb

Pb, BASK = Q = Q

No 4 No

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3

Bandpass Modulation and

Demodulation

• Optimum Bandpass Receiver:

The Correlation Receiver

• Pages 81-85

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

correlation receiver

for bandpass

symmetrical

signals can be

simulated in

Simulink:

MS Figure 3.1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

correlation receiver

for bandpass

asymmetrical

signals can also

be simulated

in Simulink:

MS Figure 3.2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

universal structure

which can be used

for both asymmetric

or symmetric binary

bandpass signals can

be simulated in

Simulink: MS Figure 3.3

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3

Bandpass Modulation and

Demodulation

• Binary Amplitude Shift Keying

• Pages 86-92

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

with BER analysis:

Threshold

MS Figure 3.4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Function of Ed / No in a Binary ASK Digital

Communication System with Optimum Receiver

Ed / No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

12 2.9 × 10-3 2.53 × 10-3

10 1.12 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2

8 3.46 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

6 7.65 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2

4 1.335 × 10-1 1.318 × 10-1

2 1.863 × 10-1 1.872 × 10-1

0 2.387 × 10-1 2.394 × 10-1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3

Bandpass Modulation and

Demodulation

• Binary Phase Shift Keying

• Pages 98-103

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

BER analysis:

MS Figure 3.12

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Function of Eb / No in a Binary PSK Digital

Communication System with Optimum Receiver

Eb / No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

10 0 4.05 × 10-6

8 1 × 10-4 2.06 × 10-4

6 2.5 × 10-4 2.41 × 10-3

4 1.31 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2

2 3.35 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

0 8.19 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3

Bandpass Modulation and

Demodulation

• Binary Frequency Shift Keying

• Pages 92-98

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

BER analysis:

fC–∆f

fC+∆f

MS Figure 3.9

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Function of Ed / No in a Binary FSK (MFSK) Digital

Communication System with Optimum Receiver

Ed/No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

12 2.5 × 10-3 2.5 × 10-3

10 1.29 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2

8 3.50 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

6 8.04 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2

4 1.352 × 10-1 1.314 × 10-1

2 1.833 × 10-1 1.872 × 10-1

0 2.456 × 10-1 2.393 × 10-1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

BPSK and BFSK (MFSK):

Ed / No dB BER Pb

10 1.12 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2 BASK

8 3.46 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

Eb / No dB BER Pb

10 0 4.05 × 10-6 BPSK

8 1 × 10-4 2.06 × 10-4

Ed / No dB BER Pb

10 1.29 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2 BFSK

8 3.50 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

and thus reduced by 10 log (0.5) ≈ –3 dB or:

Eb / No dB BER Pb

7 1.12 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2 BASK

5 3.46 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

Eb / No dB BER Pb

10 0 4.05 × 10-6 BPSK

8 1 × 10-4 2.06 × 10-4

Eb / No dB BER Pb

10 1.29 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2 BFSK

8 3.50 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

BASK performs better than BFSK but BPSK is the best.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• Differential (Noncoherent) Phase

Shift Keying

• Pages 267-271

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

demodulated by using the received signal to derive the

reference signal. The DPSK protocol is:

as used for the previous bit.

Binary 0: Transmit the carrier signal with its phase shifted

by 180° relative to the previous bit.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

the received signal ri(t) and if the carrier frequency fC is an

integral multiple of the bit rate rb:

ri−1(t) = γ A sin (2π fC (t − Tb ) + θ) S&M Eqs.

ri−1(t) = γ A sin (2π fC t + θ) 5.88 and 5.89

The output of the integrator for a binary 0 and binary 1

then is z(iTb) = ± γ2 A2 Tb / 2 (S&M Eqs. 5.91 and 5.93)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

The probability of bit error for DPSK signal is different than

that for coherent demodulation of symmetric or asymmetric

signals and is:

Pb, DPSK = exp − = exp −

2 2 No 2 N o

γ 2 A 2 Tb S&M Eq. 5.102

Eb, DPSK =

2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3

Bandpass Modulation and

Demodulation

• Differential Phase Shift Keying

• Pages 130-135

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

with BER analysis:

one-bit

continuous

BPF delay

MS Figure 3.33

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

differential binary encoder Simulink Subsystem:

XOR

one bit

sample delay MS Figure 3.34

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Bit Operations

provides the

Logical Operator

block:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

provide multiple input AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR,

NXOR, and NOT functions:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

can be configured as scalar

Boolean binary (0, 1) or

M-ary (0, 1…M−1) vector

logic functions. Here scalar

Boolean binary data is used.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Binary Data di, and Transmitted Phase φi (Radians) for a

DPSK Signal.

bi di-1 di φi one-bit startup

1 0

1 1 1 0 XOR logic

0 1 0 π 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 π 1 1 1

0 0 1 0

1 1 1 0

1 1 1 0

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Blockset provides the

Filtering, Analog Filter

Design block:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

bandpass filter (BPF) specified as a 9-pole Butterworth

filter with cutoff frequencies of 19 kHz and 21 kHz centered

around the carrier frequency fC = 20 kHz.

rad/s

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

The coherent receiver uses the integrator as a virtual

BPF:

MS Figure 3.33

DPSK

MS Figure 3.12

PSK

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Table 3.17 Observed BER and Theoretical Pb as a

Function of Eb / No in a Binary DPSK Digital

Communication System with Noncoherent Correlation

Receiver Statistical variation

due to small sample

Eb / No dB BER Pb size

∞ 0 0

12 0 ≈ 6.6 × 10-8

10 2 × 10-4 2.3 × 10-5

8 5.1 × 10-3 1.8 × 10-3

6 2.61 × 10-2 9.3 × 10-3

4 7.91 × 10-2 4.06 × 10-2

2 1.559 × 10-2 1.025 × 10-1

0 2.393 × 10-1 1.839 × 10-1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

coded DPSK and coherent BPSK:

Eb / No dB BER Pb

12 0 6.6 × 10-8 DPSK

10 2 × 10-4 2.3 × 10-5

8 5.1 × 10-3 1.8 × 10-3

Eb / No dB BER Pb

10 0 4.05 × 10-6 BPSK

8 2 × 10-4 2.06 × 10-4

6 2.5 × 10-3 2.41 × 10-3

BPSK performs better than DPSK but requires a coherent

reference signal. DPSK performs nearly as well as BPSK

at high SNR.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• M-ary Bandpass Techniques:

Quaternary Phase Shift Keying

• Pages 274-286

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

source codes dibits bi-1bi as a symbol with one possible

protocol as:

bi-1bi = 10 A sin(2π fC t + 135°)

−

bi-1bi = 00 A sin(2π fC t + 225°)

bi-1bi = 01 A sin(2π fC t + 315°)

for M-ary PAM to improve +

the BER performance by

mitigating adjacent symbol

error. The symbols are best

displayed as a constellation plot S&M Figure 5-36 modified

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

keying (QPSK) displayed

as a constellation plot

−

Note the signs on the

sine reference axes.

cos

Constellation

Gemini S&M Figure 5-36 modified

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3

Bandpass Modulation and

Demodulation

• Multilevel (M-ary) Phase Shift

Keying

• Pages 117-123

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Subsystems to simplify the design.

QPSK I-Q correlation

receiver

bit to symbol symbol to bit

MS Figure 3.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

level Gray encoded symbol by a Simulink Subsystem.

MS Figure 3.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

a Lookup Table Block from the Simulink Blockset.

MS Figure 3.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

(0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray

encoded by a Lookup

Table Block from the

Simulink Blockset.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

a Lookup Table Block by mapping [0, 1, 2, 3] to [0, 1, 3, 2]

Gray coding 00 → 00

01 → 01

10 → 11

11 → 10

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

is inputted to the Phase

Modulator block with a

carrier frequency fC =

20 kHz, initial phase

φo = π/4 and a phase

deviation factor

kp = π/2 / V

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

frequency fC = 20 kHz, initial phase φo = π/4 and a phase

deviation factor kp = π/2 / V produces the phase shifts:

di = 1 φ = π/4 + 1(π/2) = 3π/4

di = 2 φ = π/4 + 2(π/2) = 5π/4

di = 3 φ = π/4 + 3(π/2) = 7π/4

MS Figure 3.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

sinusoidal carrier A sin (2π fC t + φ) in QPSK.

di = 1 φ = π/4 + 1(π/2) = 3π/4 135°

di = 2 φ = π/4 + 2(π/2) = 5π/4 225°

di = 3 φ = π/4 + 3(π/2) = 7π/4 315°

MS Figure 3.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

and Quadrature (Q, sine)

constellation

components. For example,

Plot Quadrature

if φ = π/4 = 45°:

−

cos

+ Q cos (2π fC t) ] = +

sin In-phase

+ cos (2π fC t) ]

S&M Figure 5-36 modified

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

00 → 00 (0), 01 → 01 (1), 10 → 11 (3) and 11 → 10 (2).

10 11 11 01 01 11 rb = 1 kb/sec

00 00

M=4 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2

Delay

TS = 2 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signals which are orthogonal to each other.

±5V QPSK signal, fC = 2 kHz, rS = 500 b/sec

TS = 2 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signal can be exploited by the universal coherent receiver.

The orthogonal I and Q components actually occupy the

same spectrum without interference. The coherent

reference signals are:

Quadrature In-phase

s1(t) = cos (2π fC t + θ) s2(t) = sin (2π fC t + θ)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

observing the output of the quadrature correlator to the I

and Q signal.

iTS

γA

z1(nTS ) = ∫

2 (i-1)TS

dI sin(2π fC t) + dQ cos(2π fC t) cos (2π fC t) dt

0

iTS

γA

z1(nTS ) = ∫

2 (i-1)TS

dI sin(2π fC t) cos (2π fC t) dt +

iTS

S&M Eq. 5.109

γA

∫

2

dQ cos (2π fC t) dt

2 (i-1)TS

z1(nTS)

γ A TS

z1(nTS ) = dQ

2 2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The probability of bit error Pb and the energy per bit Eb for a

QPSK signal is the same as that as for a BPSK signal but

with a I and Q carrier amplitude of A / √2 .

2 Eb, PSK γ 2 A 2Tb

Pb, BPSK = Q = Q

No No

note TS

2 Eb, QPSK γ 2 A 2TS

Pb, QPSK = Q = Q S&M Eq. 5.117

No 2 No

γ 2 A 2Tb z1(nTS)

Eb, BPSK =

2 note TS

γ 2 A 2TS

Eb, QPSK =

4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

QPSK can have twice the data rate rb = 2 rS within the same

bandwidth because of the orthogonal I and Q components.

2 Eb γ 2 A 2Tb

Pb, BPSK = Pb, QPSK = Q

= Q

No No

γ 2 A 2Tb

Eb, BPSK = Eb, QPSK =

2

z1(nTS)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis:

bit to symbol symbol to bit

MS Figure 3.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

4-level Gray coded bit to symbol converter Simulink

Subsystem.

MS Figure 2.43

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Subsystem

MS Figure 3.24

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

an integration time equal to the symbol time TS.

MS Figure 3.24

correlation receiver

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

converted to an M = 2n = 4 level symbols (0, 1, 2, and 3).

MS Figure 3.24

correlation receiver

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

of Pb as a Function of Eb / No in a Gray coded 4-PSK

(QPSK) Digital Communication System with Optimum

Receiver

Ed/No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

12 0 ≈10-8

10 0 ≈10-6

8 2 × 10-4 ≈10-4

6 2.3 × 10-3 2.4 × 10-3

4 1.20 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2

2 3.62 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2

0 7.65 × 10-2 7.85 × 10-2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signal uses rs = rb /2 and is:

GPAM(f) = A2 / rs sinc2 (π f / rs)

Sinc2

MS Figure 3.25

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

double the bandwidth than that for QPSK for the same bit

rate rb = 1/Tb,

No carrier rb = 1 kHz

Sinc2

MS Figure 3.14

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

power is half that for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb BPSK

signal since rs = rb /2 or Ts = 2Tb (MS Table 3.9).

3/Ts 1.5/Tb 93%

4/Ts 2/Tb 95%

6/Ts 3/Tb 96.5%

8/Ts 4/Tb 97.5%

10/Ts 5/Tb 98%

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• M-ary Bandpass Techniques:

8-Phase Shift Keying

• Pages 286-292

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

tribits bi-2bi-1bi as a symbol with one possible protocol as:

bi-2bi-1bi = 001 A sin(2π fC t + 45°)

bi-2bi-1bi = 011 A sin(2π fC t + 90°)

Quadrature

bi-2bi-1bi = 010 A sin(2π fC t + 135°)

bi-2bi-1bi = 110 A sin(2π fC t + 180°)

bi-2bi-1bi = 111 A sin(2π fC t + 225°) cos

bi-2bi-1bi = 101 A sin(2π fC t + 270°)

bi-2bi-1bi = 100 A sin(2π fC t + 315°)

θ

I, Q = 0, ± 1/√2, ± 1

s(t) = A [ I sin (2π fC t) + sin In-phase

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

for 8-PSK uses four

reference signals:

sref n(t) =

sin (2π fC t +

n 45° + 22.5°)

φ

n = 0, 1, 2, 3

φ = 22.5°, 67.5°,

112.5°, 157.5°

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

iTS

z1(nTS ) = γ A ∫

(i-1)TS

sin (2π fC t + θ) sin (2π fC t + φ)dt

0

iT iT

γA S S

z1(nTS ) = ∫

2 (i-1)TS

cos (θ − φ) dt − ∫ cos (4π fC t + θ + φ) dt

(i-1)TS

γ A TS

z1(nTS ) = cos (θ − φ)

2

S&M Eq. 5.125

z

1

(

n

T

S

)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

because of the cos (θ – φ) term. For example, if s6(t) is

received, the ABCD correlator sign output is: – – – +. The

patterns of signs are unique and can be decoded to bi-2bi-1bi

(S&M Tables 5-7 and 5-8)

D: sref 4(t)

C: sref 3(t)

z

1

(

B: sref 2(t) n

T

A: sref 1(t) S

)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

demodulated M-ary PSK is:

A 2T 2 π

PS coherent M -ary PSK ≈ 2Q S

sin M ≥ 4

No M

Eb 2 π

PS coherent M -ary PSK ≈ 2Q 2 log2 M sin M ≥ 4

No M

Ps

S&M Eq. 5.126

Eb / No dB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

demodulated M-ary PSK is:

Ps S&M Figure 5-46

Eb/No dB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

probability of bit error Pb for consistency. If Gray coding is

used, assume that errors will only be due to adjacent

symbols. Thus each symbol error produces only one bit in

error and log2 (M – 1) correct bits or:

1

Pb errors due to adjacent symbols = PS S&M Eq. 5.127

log2 M

However for M-ary PSK with M > 4 the assumption of errors

being due to only adjacent symbols is invalid. For the

worst case there are M – 1 incorrect symbols and in M / 2 of

these a bit will different from the correct bit so that:

1 M

PS ≤ Pb ≤ PS S&M Eq. 5.129

log2 M 2 (M − 1)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• M-ary Bandpass Techniques:

Quaternary Frequency Shift Keying

• Pages 292-298

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

frequency shift keying (QFSK or 4-FSK) is:

s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC + ∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 10

s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 00

s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – 3∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 01

MS Figure 3.19

11 00 01 10 11

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

cycles of a sinusoid within a symbol time TS for M = 4 for

orthogonality of the signals so that a correlation receiver

can be utilized.

s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC + ∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 10

s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 00

s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – 3∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 01

MS Figure 3.19

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

for 4-FSK uses four

reference signals:

sref n(t) =

sin (2π (fC + n ∆f) t)

n = ±1, ±3

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

demodulated M-ary FSK is:

A 2T

PS coherent M-ary FSK ≤ (M − 1) Q s

M ≥ 4

2 No

Ps

PS coherent M-ary FSK =

Eb

(M − 1) Q log2 M M ≥ 4

No

Eb/No dB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

demodulated M-ary FSK is:

Ps S&M Figure 5-51

Eb/NodB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3

Bandpass Modulation and

Demodulation

• Multilevel (M-ary) Frequency

Shift Keying

• Pages 110-116

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis:

MS Figure 3.18

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

is not Gray encoded. For M-ary FSK symbol errors are

equally likely among the M – 1 correlators and there is no

advantage to Gray encoding.

MS Figure 3.18

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis:

MS Figure 3.18

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis: 4-FSK correlation receiver

MS Figure 3.20

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

receiver has four

correlators with an

integration time equal

to the symbol time TS.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

not Gray encoded and is therefore not Gray decoded.

MS Figure 3.18

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

of Pb as a Function of Eb / No in 4-level FSK Digital

Communication System with Optimum Receiver

Ed/No dB BER Pb

∞ 0 0

12 0 ≈10-8

10 0 ≈10-6

8 1 × 10-4 ≈10-4

6 5.1 × 10-3 4.8 × 10-3

4 2.26 × 10-2 2.52 × 10-2

2 5.97 × 10-2 7.54 × 10-2

0 1.209 × 10-1 1.586 × 10-1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

minimum carrier frequency deviation (MFSK) for M-ary

FSK is ∆f = 1/2TS = rS/2. For MFSK the carriers should be

spaced at multiples of 2∆f = 1/TS = rS (S&M Eq. 5.131 is

incorrect). Here ∆f = 2 rS = 1 kHz

∆f = 1 kHz Sinc2

MS Figure 3.21

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

total power (MS Table 3.9).

2( M – 1) ∆f + 4/Ts 95%

2 (M – 1) ∆f + 6/Ts 96.5%

2 (M – 1) ∆f + 8/Ts 97.5%

2 (M – 1) ∆f + 10/Ts 98%

M = 2n and rS = rb/n

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

• M-ary Bandpass Techniques:

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

• Pages 298-301

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

(QAM) has I-Q components:

16-ary

amplitude and phase QAM

components which can be

shown in the constellation Q

plot.

I

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

amplitude is constant and only the phase varies:

16-ary 16-ary

PSK QAM

Q Q

I I

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signal can be exploited by the universal coherent receiver.

The orthogonal I and Q components actually occupy the

same spectrum without interference. The coherent

reference signals are:

Quadrature In-phase

s1(t) = cos (2π fCt) s2(t) = sin (2π fCt)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

coherently demodulated M-ary QAM is:

3 Es

PS coherent M-ary QAM ≤ 4Q S&M Eq. 5.135

(M − 1) No

M=4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

signaling and the transition from one signal to another:

256-ary QAM

16-ary QAM

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3

Bandpass Modulation and

Demodulation

• Quadrature Amplitude

Modulation

• Pages 123-130

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis:

4 bit to I,Q symbol

16-QAM correlation

QAM receiver

MS Figure 3.26

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis: 4 bit to I-Q symbol Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.27

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis: Table 3.12 I and Q output amplitudes

0 –1 1 5 1 3 10 –3 –1

1 –3 1 6 3 1 11 –3 –3

2 –1 –3 7 3 3 12 1 –1

3 –3 3 8 –1 –1 13 3 –1

4 1 1 9 –1 –3 14 1 –3

15 3 –2

I LUT ± 1 to ± 3

Q LUT

MS Figure 3.27

symbol 0 to 15

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis: QAM modulator Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.27

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis: 16-QAM correlation receiver Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.30

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

communication system

with BER analysis:

Table 3.14 I, Q Symbol LUT

16-level output amplitudes

I Q Output I Q Output

1 1 11 3 1 1

1 2 9 3 2 0

1 3 14 3 3 4

1 4 15 3 4 6

2 1 10 4 1 3

2 2 8 4 2 2

2 3 12 4 3 5

2 4 13 4 4 7

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis: 16 level symbol to 4 bit Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.31

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

analysis: 16 level symbol to 4 bit Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.31

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

QAM has a bandwidth of 1/M that of a PSK signal with the

same data rate rb.

rs = 250 s/sec, rb = 1 kb/sec

Sinc2

component at fC =

20 kHz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

rb = 1 kb/sec

250 Hz rb = 1 kb/sec M = 4

rS = 250 s/sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

total power is 1/n that for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb BPSK

signal since rs = rb/n or Ts = nTb where M = 2n (MS Table

3.14).

Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

3/Ts 3/nTb 93%

4/Ts 4/nTb 95%

6/Ts 6/nTb 96.5%

8/Ts 8/nTb 97.5%

10/Ts 10/nTb 98%

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

I-Q components can be displayed on as a signal trajectory

or constellation plot .

real-imaginary (a + b j)

conversion to complex

polar (M exp(jθ)) conversion

Figure 3.42

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Real-Imaginary to

Complex conversion block

is in the Math Operations,

Simulink Blockset

Figure 3.42

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

(scatter plot) and

signal trajectory are

Comm Sinks blocks

from the

Communications

Blockset

Figure 3.42

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Eb/No → ∞ (MS Figures 3.43, 3.45). signal transitions

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Eb/No = 12 dB, Pb ≈ 10-4 (MS Figures 3.44, 3.46 (top))

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Eb/No = 6 dB, Pb = 3.67 x 10-4 (MS Figures 3.44, 3.46 (bot))

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

End of Chapter 5

Digital Bandpass Modulation

and Demodulation

Techniques

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Analog Modulation

and Demodulation

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Analog Modulation

and Demodulation

• Amplitude Modulation

• Pages 306-309

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

amplitude modulation (DSB-LC AM) is:

amplitude. The continuous analog signal s(t) is a baseband

signal with the information content (voice or music) to be

transmitted.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

the information signal s(t) or S(f) for voice has significant

components below 500 Hz and a bandwidth of < 8 kHz:

S(f) = F(s(t))

The single-sided spectrum of the modulated signal is:

F(AC (c + s(t)) cos (2π fC t)) = S(f – fC)

500 Hz Power Spectral Density of s(t) 8 kHz

dB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

modulated signal replicates the baseband spectrum as a

double-sided spectrum about the carrier frequency.

Baseband spectrum

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

frequency has an lower (LSB) and upper (USB) sideband.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

that follows the polar baseband signal s(t).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

carrier amplitude modulation (DSB-SC AM) is:

spectrum of the modulated signal replicates the baseband

spectrum as a double-sided spectrum about the carrier

frequency but without a carrier component.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

carrier amplitude modulation (DSB-SC AM) is:

sDSB-SC AM(t) looks similar to s(t) but has a temporal but not

spectral carrier component.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

have the same sidebands.

DSB-SC AM No carrier

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

are different.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

follows the polar baseband signal s(t) but not an outer

envelope.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Analog Modulation

and Demodulation

• Coherent Demodulation

of AM Signals

• Pages 309-315

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

centered at fC and with a bandwidth of twice the bandwidth

of s(t) because of the LSB and USB. The output of the

multiplier is lowpass filtered with a bandwidth equal to

the bandwidth of s(t).

r(t) = γ sDSB-SC(t) + n(t)

• The DSB-SC AM received signal is r(t) = γ sDSB-SC(t) + n(t).

The bandpass filter passes the modulated signal but filters

the noise:

center frequency of fC = 25 kHz and a -3 dB bandwidth of 8

kHz (25 ± 4 kHz).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

within the bandwidth of the bandpass filter:

no(t)

fC = 25 kHz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

representation:

no(t) = W(t) cos (2π fCt) + Z(t) sin (2π fCt) S&M Eq. 5.62R

no(t) cos (2π fCt) = W(t) cos2 (2π fCt) + S&M Eq. 6.5

Z(t) cos (2π fCt) sin (2π fCt)

fC = 25 kHz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

½ Z(t) sin (4π fCt) S&M Eq. 6.5

signal is:

fC = 25 kHz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

found in the spectral domain with S(f) = F (s(t)):

2

1

Ptrans = A 2 ∫ [S(f − fC ) + S(f + fC )] df S&M Eq. 6.8

2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

and the cross terms are zero so that:

2

1

Ptrans = A 2 ∫ [SDSB-SC (f − fC ) + SDSB-SC (f + fC )] df

2

A2 S&M Eq. 6.9

Ptrans = Ps

2

where Ps is the average normalized power of s(t).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

spectral domain:

2 2

Ps = ∫ S(f) df = ∫ S(f + fC ) df

S&M Eq. 6.10

In a noiseless channel the power in the demodulated

DSB-SC AM signal is:

1 2 2 γ2

Pdemod, noiseless = γ A Ps = Ptrans S&M Eq. 6.11

4 2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

1

Pprocessed noise = No (2 B)

4

The signal-to-noise power ratio then is:

γ2

Ptrans 2

2 γ Ptrans

SNRcoherent DSB-SC = = S&M Eq. 6.12

1 No B

No (2 B)

4

2B

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

and frequency synchronous reference signal. If the

reference signal has a phase error φ then:

SNRcoherent DSB-SC phase error =

S&M Eq. 6.17

γ 2 cos2 ϕ Ptrans

No B

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

and frequency synchronous reference signal. If the

reference signal has a frequency error ∆f then:

+ ½ X(t) cos (2π ∆f t)

+ ½ Y(t) sin (2π ∆f t) S&M Eq. 6.18

amplitude of the demodulated signal varies with ∆f:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Analog Modulation

and Demodulation

• Non-coherent Demodulation

of AM Signals

• Pages 315-326

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

detector implemented as a semiconductor diode and a low-

pass filter:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

provides a DC bias (c) to the processed DSB-LC AM

signal :

c = DC bias

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

filtered to remove the carrier frequency and outputs the

envelope which is the information:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

S&M Eq. 6.20R

A C2

Pinfo term = PS S&M Eq. 6.23

2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

T

1

∫ [A c cos(2πfC t)] dt

2

Pcarrier term = C

T 0

A C2 c 2

Pcarrier term = S&M Eq. 6.24

2

Since s(t) + c must be >= 0 to avoid distortion in the

DSB-LC AM signal: c ≥ | min [s(t)] | or c2 ≥ s2(t) for all t.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Pcarrier term ≥ Pinfo term S&M Eq. 6.28

The power efficiency η of a DSB-LC AM signal is:

Pinfo term Pinfo term

η = = ≤ 0.5

Pcarrier term + Pinfo term Ptrans DSB-LC AM term

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

transmitted power because the power in the carrier term

has no information:

Pcarrier term ≥ Pinfo term η ≤ 0.5

The modulation index m is defined as:

max [ s(t) + c ] − min [ s(t) + c ]

m = S&M Eq. 6.30

max [ s(t) + c ] + min [ s(t) + c ]

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

m must be less than 1. If m > 1 then min [s(t) + c] < 0 and

distortion occurs.

max [ s(t) + c ] − min [ s(t) + c ]

m = S&M Eq. 6.30

max [ s(t) + c ] + min [ s(t) + c ]

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

noiseless DSB-LC AM signal is:

Pdemod, noiseless = 2 γ 2 Pinfo term S&M Eq. 6.39

signal is:

S&M Eq. 6.40

2 γ 2 Pinfo term γ 2 Ptrans DSB-LC

SNRnoncoherent DSB-LC = = η

No (2 B) No B

2B

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

radio which needs no batteries! Power for the high-

impedance ceramic earphone is obtained directly from the

transmitted signal. For simplicity, the RF BPF is omitted

and the audio frequency filter is a simple RC network.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Analog Modulation

and Demodulation

• Frequency Modulation and

Phase Modulation

• Pages 334-343

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

signal is:

sPM(t) = AC cos [2π fC t + α s(t)] S&M Eq. 6.53

the carrier amplitude. The continuous analog signal s(t) is a

baseband signal with the information content (voice or

music) to be transmitted.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

(FM) signal is:

is the carrier amplitude and φ is the initial phase angle at

t = 0. The continuous analog signal s(t) is a baseband

signal with the information content.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

The instantaneous frequency is the time rate of change of

the angle:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

signal is:

t t

Ψ(t) = ∫ f (λ) dλ = ∫ f (λ) dλ + φ S&M Eq. 6.60

-∞ 0

instantaneous phase. To avoid ambiguity and distortion in

FM signals due to phase wrapping:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

phase wrapping:

signal as a function of the analog information signal s(t), FM

and PM are called angle modulation.

t

x(t) = AC cos { 2π fCt + ∫ k s(λ) dλ + φ} S&M Eq. 6.60

-∞

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

t

Ψx(t) = 2π fCt + ∫ k s(λ) dλ + φ S&M Eq. p. 336

-∞

which is not a linear function of s(t) so the signal is not PM.

The instantaneous frequency of the signal is:

so the signal is FM.

max | αs(t) |. The maximum frequency deviation of a FM

signal is ∆f = max | k s(t) |.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

follows: S&M Eqs. 6.64 through 6.71

v(t) = A C sin(2π fC t + β sin 2π fm t)

v(t) = Re { exp(j 2π fC t + j β sin 2π fm t) }

now exp(j 2π fC t + j β sin 2π fm t) =

cos (2π fC t + β sin 2π fm t) + j sin (2π fC t + β sin 2π fm t)

v(t) = Im { A C exp(2π fC t + jβ sin 2π fm t) }

∞

now exp(j β sin 2π fm t) = ∑ c exp(j 2π n f

n = -∞

n m t)

∞

exp(j β sin 2π fm t) = ∑ J (β) exp(j 2π n f

n = -∞

n m t)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

with single tone fm angle modulation (S&M Table 6.1):

β

n

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

and infinite in extent:

∞

v(t) = A C ∑ J (β) sin[2π (n f

n = -∞

n m + fC ) t] S&M Eq. 6.72

β

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

spectrum of a single tone angle modulation can be

simplified by the Carson’s Rule approximation for the

bandwidth B. Since β = ∆f / fm:

B = 2 (β + 1) fm = 2 (∆f + fm) Hz S&M Eq. 6.74

β

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

modulated signal was developed by John R. Carson in

1922 while he worked at AT&T. Prior to this in 1915 he

presaged the concept of bandwidth

efficiency in AM by proposing

the suppression of a sideband

(see S&M p. 326-333):

B = 2 (β + 1) fm = 2 (∆f + fm) Hz

1886-1940

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

for a single tone angle modulated signals is:

A C2 β+1 2

Pin-band, sinusoid = ∑

2 n = -(β+1)

Jn (β) S&M Eq. 6.75

Note that J-n(β) = ± Jn(β) so that J-n2(β) = Jn2(β) and for the

normalized power calculation the sign of J(β) is not used.

Spectrum of

single tone FM

modulation

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

signal has a bandwidth predicted only by Carson’s Rule

since it is not a single tone.

Voice

PSD

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

The Carson’s Rule approximate maximum bandwidth

B = 2 (∆f + fm) = 10 kHz or ± 5 kHz (but seems wrong!)

40

Voice

fC

PSD

Bandwidth

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

terms at fC ± n fm = 25 ± 0.2 n kHz.

fC

200 Hz

PSD

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

kHz. The Carson’s Rule approximate maximum bandwidth

B = 2 (∆f + fm) = 2.4 kHz or ± 1.2 kHz:

fC

200 Hz

PSD

Bandwidth

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

function predicts a bandwidth of 2 n fm = 2(12)(200) =

4.8 kHz (since n = 12 for β = 5 from Table 6.1):

fC

200 Hz

PSD

Bandwidth

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Analog Modulation

and Demodulation

• Noise in FM and PM Systems

• Pages 347-355

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

is the instantaneous phase, is:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

S&M Eq. 6.53

After development the SNR for demodulated PM is:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

S&M Eq. 6.53

After development the SNR for demodulated FM is:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

End of Chapter 6

Analog Modulation

and Demodulation

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Multiplexing Techniques

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Multiplexing Techniques

• Time Division Multiplexing

• Pages 364-368

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

fixed and predefined bit rate sources into a single high

speed bit stream for transmission over a single digital

communication channel:

Time slots

Multiplexer Demultiplexer

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

slots are too small (for example, 1 bit) then the multiplexer

and demultiplexer must switch rapidly. If the time slots are

too large (for example, 64 Kb) then the data must be

buffered and delay would be produced. TDM is used for

baseband (not bandpass) data transmission.

Time slots

Multiplexer Demultiplexer

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

frame where each frame has 24 8-bit slots and 1-bit in each

frame for signaling. The T1 bit rate rb = 1.544 Mb/sec.

125 µsec or 8 k samples/sec. Here all the data sources

have the same data rate.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

scheme must reconcile the disparate rates.

1:2:3 for a total of 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 slots. The slots are

apportioned to the channels as: a b b c c c and the channel

data rate is 48 kb/sec.

which reduces to 2:3:4:6 (the LCD is 5) for 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 =

15 slots and the channel data rate is 45 kb/sec.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

statistical multiplexer with input buffers is used. The design

is performed by observation and tested in simulation.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

field, control field, information bits, error control, and an end

flag. S&M Figure 7-6

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• TDM with four equal data rate sources rb = 250 b/sec and a

transmission rate rTDM = 1 kb/sec

0110

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• TDM with unequal data rate sources rb = 250, 250 and 500

b/sec and a transmission rate rTDM = 1 kb/sec

rTDM = 1 kb/sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Multiplexing Techniques

• Frequency Division Multiplexing

• Pages 368-370

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

bandwidth available to the system into non-overlapping

frequency sub-bands for transmission over a single digital

communication channel.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

data transmissions. FDM is used for bandpass (not

baseband) data transmission

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

WPTS

Pittsburgh

WQAN

Scranton

WXTU

S&M

Figure 7-7a

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

no apparent guard bands.

S&M Figure 7-7b

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

multiplexing (WDM) and utilizes separate wavelengths

(λ) of light.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

transmission. FDM requires the assignment and

coordination of carrier frequencies which can be

problematic. Code division multiple access (CDMA) utilizes

spread spectrum modulation over the same frequency

band. CDMA is considered in EE4542 Telecommunications

Engineering.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

and three carrier frequencies of 15.5, 20 and 24.5 kHz.

BFSK (MFSK)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

End of Chapter 7

Multiplexing Techniques

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital to Analog

Conversion

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Sampling and Quantization

• Pages 390-391

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

complex than digital data transmission have been the basis

of broadcasting and communication for 100 years.

S&M Figure 8-1a

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

is more complex but (perhaps) offers higher performance

with control of accuracy and easier storage, simpler signal

processing for noise reduction, error detection and

correction and encryption.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

and digital-to-analog (DAC) converters. The ADC process

utilizes sampling and quantization of the continuous analog

signal.

ADC

DAC

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

and has a continuous amplitude.

S&M Figure 8-2a,b

Analog signal

Uniform

sampling Continuous

rate amplitude

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

bits or resolution for the full scale input or 2n levels.

Uniform Continuous

sampling amplitude

rate

Quantized

Quantized

amplitude

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

of 2 V (± 1 V). The step size = 2 V / 16 = 0.125 V and the

quantized value

is the midpoint

of the voltage

range.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Sampling Baseband

Analog Signals

• Pages 392-399

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

sampled is represented by:

∞

x s (t) = x(t) ∑ δ(t − kTS ) S&M Eq. 8.1

k = −∞

frequency domain and the frequency domain representation

is:

∞

F

Xs (f) = X(f) ∗ ∑ δ(t − k TS )

k = −∞

∞

Xs (f) = X(f) ∗ fS

∑

k = −∞

δ(f − k fS )

S&M Eq. 8.2

∞

Xs (f) = fS ∑

k = −∞

X(f − k fS )

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

sampling process for a sum of three sinusoids.

∑

∞

δ(t − kTS ) ∑ δ(f − k f

k = −∞

S )

k = −∞

∞

∞

x s (t) = x(t) ∑ δ(t − kTS )

Xs (f) = fS ∑

k = −∞

X(f − k fS )

k = −∞

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• 2 V, 20° initial

phase, 500 Hz

sinusoid

sampled at

5 k samples/sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Aliased samples

can be

reconstructed

for a 4500 Hz

and a 5500 Hz

sinusoid that

appears to be

a 500 Hz

sinusoid

S&M

Figure 8-4a,c,d

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The aliasing of

the signal can

be predicted by

the magnitude

spectrum of the

original 500 Hz

sampled signal.

If the 4500 Hz

and 5500 Hz

signals are then

sampled at

S&M Figure 8-4a,b

5 k samples/sec

aliasing at occurs at | 4500 – 5000 | and (5500 – 5000) Hz

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The sum of

three sinusoids

does not have

any aliased

frequencies

since the

S&M Figure 8-4a,c

sampling

frequency fS

is greater than

twice the

highest

frequency fmax

fS > 2 fmax

S&M Figure 8-5

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The frequency

2 fmax is called

the Nyquist

frequency.

Harry Nyquist,

who contributed S&M Figure 8-4a

to the understanding of thermal noise

while at Bell Labs, is also remembered

in electrotechnology for his analysis of

sampled data signals.

Harry Nyquist

1889-1976

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

samples by a DAC and a low pass filter (LFP).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• For practical signals fS > 2 fmax using a guard band for LPFs

fS = 2 fmax

guard band

fS > 2 fmax

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

noise now appear in-band and should be filtered before the

sampling process.

S&M Figure 8-8

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Sampling Baseband

Analog Signals

• Pages 149-182

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

signal consisting of

three sinusoids is

impulse sampled,

sampled-and-held,

processed by an

8-bit ADC-DAC

and a quantizer

in Simulink.

MS Figure 4.1

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

0.5 V 1.5 kHz and a 0.2 V 2.5 kHz sinusoid.

MS Figure 4.2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

signal has the expected peaks at 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 kHz.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

amplitude sample-and-hold signal with fS = 8 kHz.

MS Figure 4.4

0.125 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The analog signal x(t) here is sampled and held rather than

impulse sampled:

y s-h (t) = ∑ x(nTS ) h(t − nTS ) h(t) = 1 0 ≤ t ≤ TS

n

The power spectral density (PSDs-h) of the sample and hold

operation is:

∞

PSDs-h = fS2 ∑

k = −∞

| X(f − k fS ) | 2 TS2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )

∞

PSDs-h = ∑

k = −∞

| X(f − k fS ) | 2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )

MS Eq. 4.4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

n

sinc2 term:

∞

PSD = fS2 ∑

k = −∞

| X(f − k fS ) | 2 MS Eq. 4.2

∞

PSDs-h = ∑

k = −∞

| X(f − k fS ) | 2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )

MS Eq. 4.4

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

signal with fS = 8 kHz is:

No sinc2 term

∞

PSD = fS2 ∑

k = −∞

| X(f − k fS ) | 2 MS Eq. 4.2

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

sum of three sinusoid signal with fS = 8 kHz is:

sinc2 term

∞

PSDs-h = fS2 ∑

k = −∞

| X(f − k fS ) | 2 TS2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )

∞ MS Eq. 4.4

PSDs-h = ∑

k = −∞

| X(f − k fS ) | 2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Sampling Bandpass

Analog Signals

• Pages 399-400

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Nyquist’s bandpass sampling theory states that the

sampling rate fS > 2(f2 − f1) which is substantially less than

2 f2

S&M Figure 8-9

8 10 kHz

f1 f2

LPF 10 kHz fS = 20 ksamples/sec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Sampling Bandpass

Analog Signals

• Pages 180-181

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

block and the sum of three sinusoids source.

MS Figure 4-32

MS Figure 4-33

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

5 MHz and results in 4 194 304 = 222 sampling points. The

PSD shows the DSB-LC AM signal with the LSB and USB.

fC

LSB USB

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

17.5 = 5 kHz and the Simulink sampling rate is set to

50 kHz and results in only 32 768 = 215 sampling points.

fC

LSB USB

Scaled PSD fmax = 50 kHz MS Figure 4-34

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Quantizing Process:

Uniform Quantization

• Pages 400-404

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

2n (n = 4 here) regions which are assigned an n-bit binary

code.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

assumed to have a uniform probability density function.

The maximum error for uniform quantization is:

2 Vmax Vmax

q = ± 0.5 n = ± 2n

2

The quantizer range is ± Vmax

and the uniform quantizer

voltage step size is:

2 Vmax Vmax

∆= = n-1 MS Eq. 4.6

2n

2 S&M Figure 8-11

The mean square quantizing Eq is the normalized

quantizing noise power:

∆/2 2 2

1 ∆2 Vmax Vmax

Eq = ∫ q dq = = =

2

MS Eq. 4.7

∆ −∆ / 2 12 3 2 n

2

( ) ( )

3 22n

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

12 PS PS

SNRq =

∆2

= 3( )

2 2n

2

Vmax

MS Eq. 4.8

PS is the normalized power of the signal that is quantized.

sinusoids as the input signal has a peak amplitude of 1.1 V

and the quantizing noise has a peak amplitude of 10 mV.

10 mV

MS Figure 4.7

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Quantizing Process:

Nonuniform Quantization

• Pages 400-404

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

analog signal into nonuniform quantization regions. Lower

magnitudes have smaller quantization regions than high

magnitudes.

quantization since the perception of hearing is logarithmical

rather than linear.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

quantization

(top) results in

a large amount

of error for

small sample

amplitude.

Nonuniform quantization

Non-uniform

quantization

(bottom)

reduces the

error for small

sample

amplitudes. S&M Figure 8-13

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

compressor (a non-linear transfer function) is used before

the quantizer. Vin

The µ-Law ln 1+µ

Vmax Vin

compressor Vout = Vmax 0 ≤ ≤1

is used in ln (1+µ) Vmax

telephony

with MS Eq. 4.9

µ = 255. At the receiver

an expander has the

inverse non-linear

transfer function and

results in companding

(COMpressing and

exPANDING).

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Companding

• Pages 157-159

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Simulink with the µ-Law Compressor and µ-Law Expander

blocks. The A-Law Compressor and A-Law Expander

blocks are included for comparison.

MS Figure 4.13

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

sigmoidal (S-shaped).

MS Figure 4.14

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Pulse Code Modulation

• Pages 171-175

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Simulink µ-Law compressor block, an 8-bit ADC subsystem,

an 8-bit DAC subsystem and a µ-Law expander block.

MS Figure 4.21

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

block controlled by a sampling pulse generator, an 8-bit

encoder block, an integer-to-bit converter block which

provides an 8-bit vector to a demultiplexer block and a

multiport switch. An 8-level staircase subsystem

sequences the multiport switch to select 1 of the 8 inputs for

bit serial output.

MS Figure 4.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

multiport switch with a 3-bit counter and a 3-bit DAC for the

output.

3-bit counter

3-bit DAC

MS Figure 4.22

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

uses a 8-bit shift register and an 8-bit DAC.

8-bit shift

register

8-bit DAC

MS Figure 4.24

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

uses a 8-bit shift register and an 8-bit DAC.

8-bit shift

register

8-bit DAC

MS Figure 4.24

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

MS Figure 4.25

MS Figure 4.21

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

MS Figure 4.25

MS Figure 4.21

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

MS Figure 4.25

MS Figure 4.21

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

MS Figure 4.25

MS Figure 4.21

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

startup

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Differential Pulse Code

Modulation

• Pages 407-411

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

pulse code modulation (DPCM) exploits this to lower the

overall data

rate.

DPCM

uses a

predictor

to subtract

a predicted S&M Figure 8-15

value from

the input.

The error

difference

is sent.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

S(n) = 0.75 s(n−1) + 0.2 s(n−2) +0.05 s(n−3)

where S(n)

is the

predicted

value of the

n th sample

and s(n-i) S&M Figure 8-15

is the n-i th

sample.

The error

signal is

s(n) − S(n)

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

a discrete signal s(n), The discrete predicted signal S(n) is

recursively computed. The discrete error signal is

transmitted and has less quantizing bits than the actual

discrete signal.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

values and the error terms:

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Differential Pulse Code

Modulation

• Pages 175-180

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

can be simulated in Simulink.

MS Figure 4.26

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

error signal: e(n) = s(n+1) − 2 s(n) + s(n-1)

error signal

input

MS Figure 4.27

ADC conversion command

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

similar to the 8-bit ADC of the PCM system and illustrates

design reuse.

MS Figure 4.28

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

also similar to the 8-bit DAC of the PCM system and

again illustrates design reuse.

4-bit shift

register

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

reconstructs an estimate of the signal se(n) from the error

signal e(n) received and past estimates:

se(n+1) = e(n+1) + 2 se(n) − se(n−1)

input

reconstructed

signal

MS Figure 4.30

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

MS Figure 4.31

MS Figure 4.31

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

MS Figure 4.31

MS Figure 4.31

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

startup

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

startup

startup

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Delta Modulation

• Pages 411-415

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

1-bit data representing ± ∆:

S(n) = S(n−1) + ∆ bi = 1 if S(n−1) ≤ s(n−1)

S(n) = S(n−1) − ∆ bi = 0 if S(n−1) > s(n−1)

S&M Eq. 8.10

DM transmitter

DM receiver

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

transmitted bit.

bi = 1 S(n) = S(n−1) + ∆ bi = 0 S(n) = S(n−1) − ∆

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

• Delta Modulation

• Pages 72-75

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

DM receiver utilizes a sample and hold token as an

accumulator and the step size ∆ = 20 mV.

fS = 2 kHz

TS = 0.5 msec DM transmitter DM receiver

f = 2 Hz

A=1V MS Figure 2.61

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

∆ / TS < max | d m(t) / dt | SVU Eq. 2.61 modified

Here the sinusoid has A = 1 but f = 10 Hz and:

∆ / TS = 20 mV / 0.5 msec = 40 < max | d m(t) / dt | = 80π

and slope overload occurs.

input signal

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

constant the received signal oscillates by ± ∆ because there

is no 0 possible. Clocking occurs at the DM symbol interval

TS = 0.5 msec.

± ∆ = ± 20 mV

∆ = 20 mV MS Figure 2.64

TS = 0.5 msec

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

that a large value of ∆ (to avoid slope overload) would

increase granular noise. A decrease in Ts (again to avoid

slope overload) would increase the data rate rS.

here.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

m(t) = sin (2π 10t)

max | d m(t) / dt | = 20π

∆ / TS = 40 < max | d m(t) / dt | = 20π so slope overload is

predicted to occur.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

m(t) = sin (2π 10t)

max | d m(t) / dt | = 20π

then ∆ / TS = 80 > max | d m(t) / dt | and slope overload is

mitigated but rS = 4 kb/sec.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

sinusoid at a reasonable sampling rate of 500 Hz (50

sampling points/period) has rb = 8(500) = 4 kb/sec or rb = rS

but PCM is more complicated than DM.

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

End of Chapter 8

Analog-to-Digital and

Digital-to-Analog

Conversion

- DC Digital Communication PART2Hochgeladen vonARAVIND
- digital communications matlab programmesHochgeladen vonarpana0709
- DigitalCommMS.pdfHochgeladen vonMuhammad Azam
- ENGINEERING PPT_ Digital Communication Systems Using MATLAB® and Simulink®.pdfHochgeladen vonSrinivas Karatlapelli
- Lecture(Syllabus + Digital comm)Hochgeladen vonkshitij_gaur13
- Cramer Round RaoHochgeladen vonJj Kumar
- MATLAB & Simulink for Digital CommunicationHochgeladen vonKy Phan
- Digimod ToolHochgeladen vonshiva_kotha28
- cfakepathpptchapter01-100427062017-phpapp02Hochgeladen vonJonathan Tungal
- Telecommunications Engineering I - SNR in Analog Communication Systems and Digital TransmissionHochgeladen vonJorma Kekalainen
- AC Motor Control using ZigBeeHochgeladen vonVishal Vikram Naik
- Gourab's M.tech ThesisHochgeladen vongourabmaiti
- Digital ModulationHochgeladen vonSherluck John Erasmo
- Anolog Digital Communication Question BankHochgeladen vonKannan Deenadayalan
- PAM Power SpectraHochgeladen vonLax Koirala
- ds-cdm570-l_570-l-ipHochgeladen vonarzeszut
- Digital ModulationHochgeladen vonAshish Mishra
- Optimal Operating Performance of Wireless Protocols for Intelligent sensors ApplicationsHochgeladen vonSaad Chakkor
- Digital ModulationHochgeladen vonsinghmaninder
- Chapter 01Hochgeladen vonNikoObedencia
- QAM matlabHochgeladen vonDeko Gallegos Alegria
- Technical Frequency Assignment CriteriaHochgeladen vonAkhilesh Kushwaha
- ece414_chapter3_w12Hochgeladen vonCao Phan Quốc
- 552-A01.pdfHochgeladen vonYasmina Qabbani
- He Chri 2011Hochgeladen vonAvinash Avuthu
- 05_CodificacionHochgeladen vonJosé Victor Zaconeta Flores
- Lab Mux QpskHochgeladen vonpredescu_404246525
- 25223-910.docHochgeladen vonalqousi_muhieddine
- mbc-2.pdfHochgeladen vonSathiyan
- Reviewer-Part-1-DIGICOM.docxHochgeladen vonKarl Angelo Reyes

- Hands-On the Shaper Origin_ a Tool That Changes How We Build _ HackadayHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Handbook of real time Fast Fourier TransformHochgeladen vonexfmln
- SystemVue Troubleshooting Tips - Knowledge Center - Keysight Knowledge CenterHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Software_Defined_Radio_final thesis-fix3.pdfHochgeladen vonAndrei Ripanu
- Spice-Simulation Using LTspice Part 1Hochgeladen vonsuzsolt
- ASIC Design Flow TutorialHochgeladen vonKrishna M Viswanath
- Xilinx Tutorial Spartan3 Home PCHochgeladen vonMohammed El-Adawy
- Eetop.cn_dIY Deep Learning for Vision- a Hands-On Tutorial With CaffeHochgeladen vonexfmln
- TI Analog HandbookHochgeladen vonJenory Denemy
- Construction of FPGA-based Test Bench for QAMHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Beosound 9000 MK-III Type 257x_2580.pdfHochgeladen vonTest
- Designing With Xilinx FPGAsHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Acoustic Analysis of Inhaler Sounds from Community-Dwelling Asthmatic PatientsHochgeladen vonexfmln
- A THESIS ON PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS MODULATION TECHNIQUES USED IN OFDM WITH THE IMPACTHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Development of a Low-Power SRAM CompilerHochgeladen vonexfmln
- 3D TCAD Simulation for CMOS NanoeletronicHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Physics of Semiconductor DevicesHochgeladen vonGiorgos Papageorgiou
- Modelling a 4g Lte System in MatlabHochgeladen vonexfmln
- 5G Development using MatlabHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Solving the Schrödinger Equation Has Everything Been TriedHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Automatic Hardware Generation for Reconfigurable ArchitectureHochgeladen vonexfmln
- SIM Motion UnderstandingMotion WP ENGHochgeladen vonmfbis
- Magnetic LevitationHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Ug1164 Sdaccel Platform DevelopmentHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Magnetism FundamentalsHochgeladen vonexfmln
- 1960-12-audioHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Audio CodingHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Audio Transformer SoundHochgeladen vonexfmln
- Fusion_DSHochgeladen vonexfmln

- Disabling MS Advanced Threat Protection and Advanced Threat AnalyticsHochgeladen vonSaadat Rehman
- 8.6.14.docxHochgeladen vonRishi Sinha
- Curriculum AnalysisHochgeladen vonnurul maghfirah
- Sibling Enrollment VerificationHochgeladen vonJose Cruz
- Eva And AdanHochgeladen vonJanssen Gaite
- 100 Cei Mai Influenti OameniHochgeladen vonlalagl
- Probing QuestionHochgeladen vonOngwang Konyak
- photo essay 3Hochgeladen vonapi-218609126
- Mukund106-108Hochgeladen vonMogle
- Stock Exchange District ReportHochgeladen vonDavid Meyer
- Dark Lord - The Rise of Darth Vader (James Luceno)Hochgeladen vonVulpe Lucian
- Times Review classifieds: July 11, 2013Hochgeladen vonTimesreview
- Linen and Laundry StaffHochgeladen vonFlordelis Blanco Lisao
- Cuadra vs MonfortHochgeladen vonJon Jamora
- Manual PioneerHochgeladen vonEmiliano Bisciotti
- Research Paper 56 IfikrHochgeladen vonAlliya Iya
- English for Engineering Curs IDD an II Ambele SemestreHochgeladen vonAndreeaMaria
- Modern Chemistry - Chapter 23Hochgeladen vonVictoria Lowman
- Nicole Beale - Publications - online publications (sort of a bibliography/references list)Hochgeladen vonNicole Beale
- The Hidden Messages in Water 2005Hochgeladen vonDespina Iconomidou
- Audition Brochure Standards and Fees 1516Hochgeladen vonnimish
- December 30, 2009 Sports ReporterHochgeladen vonAnonymous 7j0ht8P2T1
- 6819874 Turbulent FlowsHochgeladen vonpuneshwarverma
- CT-35 Guidelines Handling Stacking of Rails Oct 2014(1)Hochgeladen vonVanesh Takkellapati
- Department of Labor: 2005 03 17 14 FLSA nonexemptHochgeladen vonDepartment of Labor
- nhd eval sheets-1Hochgeladen vonapi-196719233
- Manila Memorial Park Cemetery v. LinsanganHochgeladen vonTon Rivera
- Industrial Thread Knowledge.pdfHochgeladen vonMd. Marufur Rahman
- VFN Tax and Tax Saving Session 2015Hochgeladen vonSumit Baweja
- Indian Penal Code,1860Hochgeladen vonLatest Laws Team