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Contents

http://astro.temple.edu/~silage/
Digital Communication Systems Using MATLAB and Simulink
Bookstand Publishing 2009
MATLAB and Simulink models of baseband and bandpass modulation and demodulation systems, time,
frequency and code division multiplexing, synchronization and equalization, channel models, and baseband and
bandpass signal sampling in digital communication system design.

Embedded Design Using Programmable Gate Arrays


Bookstand Publishing, 2008
Embedded design with behavioral synthesis controller-datapath models in Verilog, C-to-Verilog translation, Xilinx
LogiCORE blocks and the PicoBlaze 8-bit soft-core processor utilizing the Xilinx Spartan-3E field programmable
gate array evaluation boards, the Xilinx ISE WebPACK and applications in digital signal processing,
communications and control.

http://astro.temple.edu/~silage/digitalcommSVU.htm
Digital Communication Systems Using SystemVue
Da Vinci Engineering Press, Thomson Delmar Publishing 2006
SystemVue models of baseband and bandpass modulation and demodulation systems, time, frequency and code
division multiplexing, synchronization and equalization, channel models, and baseband and bandpass signal
sampling in digital communication system design.

Syllabus
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Chapter 2 - Frequency Domain Analysis
Chapter 3 - Digital Baseband Modulation Techniques
Chapter 4 - Receiver Design
Chapter 5 - Digital Bandpass Modulation and Demodulation Techniques
Chapter 6 - Analog Modulation and Demodulation
Chapter 7 - Multiplexing Techniques
Chapter 8 - Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Download Complete MATLAB and Simulink models to accompany Digital Communication Systems using
MATLAB? and Simulink? can be downloaded in ZIP archive format here(~3 MB, digicommMS1.zip). The
ZIP archive files are password protected as described in Appendix A of the text.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1:Communication Simulation Techniques
Capabilities and Limitations of Simulation
Introduction to MATLAB? and Simulink?
Model Window
Temporal Display
Spectral Display
Correlation Display
Blocksets and Blocks
Data Types
Modulation
Analog Amplitude Modulation
Simulation of Coherent AM
Simulation of Noncoherent AM
Summary
References
Chapter 2:Baseband Modulation and Demodulation
Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Simulation of Rectangular PAM
Rectangular PAM Power Spectral Density
Performance of Rectangular PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN
Performance of Filtered Rectangular PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN
Sinc Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Simulation of Sinc PAM
Sinc PAM Power Spectral Density
Performance of Sinc PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN
Raised Cosine Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Simulation of Raised Cosine PAM
Raised Cosine PAM Power Spectral Density
Performance of Raised Cosine PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN
Optimum Baseband Receiver: The Correlation Receiver
Correlation Receiver for Baseband Symmetrical Signals
Probability of Bit Error for Baseband Symmetrical Signals
Performance of Symmetrical PAM for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN
Correlation Receiver for Baseband Asymmetrical Signals
Probability of Bit Error for Baseband Asymmetrical Signals
Performance of Asymmetrical PAM for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN
Multilevel (M-ary) Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Simulation of M-ary Rectangular PAM
M-ary Rectangular PAM Power Spectral Density
Correlation Receiver for M-ary Baseband Signals
Probability of Bit Error for M-ary Baseband Signals
Performance of M-ary PAM for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN
Partial Response Signaling
Duobinary PAM Signaling
Simulation of Duobinary PAM
Simple Receiver for Precoded Duobinary Signals
Simple Receiver for Precoded Modified Duobinary Signals
Duobinary PAM Power Spectral Density
Performance of Duobinary PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN
Delta Modulation
Simulation of Delta Modulation
Eye Diagrams
Summary
References
Chapter 3:Bandpass Modulation and Demodulation
Optimum Bandpass Receiver: The Correlation Receiver
Correlation Receiver for Bandpass Symmetrical Signals
Probability of Bit Error for Bandpass Symmetrical Signals
Correlation Receiver for Bandpass Asymmetrical Signals
Probability of Bit Error for Bandpass Asymmetrical Signals
Binary Amplitude Shift Keying
Simulation of Binary ASK
Binary ASK Power Spectral Density
Performance of Binary ASK for the Optimal Receiver in AWGN
Binary Frequency Shift Keying
Simulation of Binary FSK
Binary FSK Power Spectral Density
Performance of Binary FSK for the Optimal Receiver in AWGN
Binary Phase Shift Keying
Simulation of Binary PSK
Binary PSK Power Spectral Density
Performance of Binary PSK for the Optimal Receiver in AWGN
Multilevel (M-ary) Amplitude Shift Keying
Simulation of M-ary ASK
M-ary ASK Power Spectral Density
Correlation Receiver for M-ary ASK Signals
Probability of Bit Error for M-ary ASK Signals
Performance of M-ary ASK for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN
Multilevel (M-ary) Frequency Shift Keying
Simulation of M-ary FSK
M-ary FSK Power Spectral Density
Correlation Receiver for M-ary FSK Signals
Probability of Bit Error for M-ary FSK Signals
Performance of M-ary FSK for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN
Multilevel (M-ary) Phase Shift Keying
Simulation of M-ary PSK
M-ary PSK Power Spectral Density
Probability of Bit Error for M-ary PSK Signals
Performance of M-ary PSK for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Simulation of QAM
QAM Power Spectral Density
Probability of Bit Error for QAM Signals
Performance of QAM for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN
Differential Phase Shift Keying
Simulation of DPSK
DPSK Power Spectral Density
Probability of Bit Error for DPSK Signals
Performance of DPSK for the Optimum Receiver in AWGN
Noncoherent Demodulation of Binary Frequency Shift Keying
Simulation of Noncoherent Binary FSK Signals
Probability of Bit Error for Noncoherent Binary FSK Signals
Performance of Noncoherent Binary FSK Signals in AWGN
Noncoherent Demodulation of Binary Amplitude Shift Keying
Simulation of Noncoherent Binary ASK Signals
Probability of Bit Error for Noncoherent Binary ASK Signals
Performance of Noncoherent Binary ASK Signals in AWGN
Threshold for Demodulation of Noncoherent Binary ASK Signals
Constellation Plots
Summary
References
Chapter 4:Sampling and Quantization
Sampling Baseband Analog Signal
Companding
Line Codes
Power Spectral Density of Line Codes
Polar NRZ Line Code
Unipolar NRZ Line Code
Alternate Mark Inversion NRZ Line Code
Split-Phase NRZ Line Code
Return-to-Zero Line Codes
Simulation of Line Codes
Pulse Code Modulation
Differential Pulse Code Modulation
Simulation of DPCM
Sampling Bandpass Analog Signals
Summary
References
Appendix A:MATLAB? and Simulink? Model File Download Procedure
Appendix B:Complementary Error (Q) Function Table

Digital Communication Systems Using MATLAB and Simulink


Dennis Silage (Author)
http://www.amazon.com/Digital-Communication-Systems-MATLAB-Simulink/dp/1589096215

Digital Communication Systems Using SystemVue (Hardcover)


Dennis Silage (Author)
http://www.amazon.com/Digital-Communication-Systems-Using-SystemVue/dp/1584508507/ref=pd_sim_b_3

MATLAB/Simulink for Digital Communication (Paperback)


Won Y. Yang (Author), Yong S. Cho (Author), Won G. Jeon (Author), Jeong W. Lee (Author), Jong H. Paik
(Author), Jae K. Kim (Author), Mi-Hyun Lee (Author), Kyu I. Lee

(Author), Kyung W. Park (Author), Kyung S. Woo (Author)


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EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications
Laboratory
Dr. Dennis Silage
silage@temple.edu

• Course syllabus

• Course textbooks

• Course grades

• Course objectives
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications
• Course
textbook
• Available as:
bound hardcopy
pdf file
Kindle download
YouTube video
blog session
twitter stream
text message
Morse code .wav file
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications
• Course
textbook
– only
kidding!
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications
• Course textbooks
• Communication
Systems provides
the theoretical
basis
• Digital
Communication
Systems provides
simulations for
insight and
experiential laboratories
in EE4513
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications
• Course
syllabus
• All course
materials
are also
available on
Blackboard
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• In-class problems and discussions form the basis for the


examinations

• SNAP quizzes (weekly, 15 minutes, 25%) and


examinations (three, hour exams, 35% and a two hour
final exam, 40%) are benchmarks of performance

• Blackboard is used for the


course and laboratory
documents and to
communicate assignments
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• MATLAB and Simulink modeling of communication


systems in-class augments the text description

• MATLAB and Simulink modeling in EE4513 Analog and


Digital Communications Laboratory

• In-class discussions,
simulation studies and
problem solutions

Temple Technical Institute


Analog Communications
Laboratory 1962
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• This course is the application of electrotechnology

• Professional career path in digital data communications

• Course sequence continues in EE4542


Telecommunication Engineering

• Read the assigned text


portions and review your
notes before class

• Weekly closed-book
but open notes SNAP
quizzes to assess Edwin and Marian Armstrong
performance with a portable radio 1923
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• SNAP stands for Students’ Note-taking Achieves


Performance and the 15 minute quizzes are open-notes
but closed text book.

• Your organized notes are a compilation of reading the


text and thinking
about the concepts
and are an aid to
learning.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• The SNAP concept relates to the learning process


expressed in the Chinese proverb:

I hear and I forget,


I see and I remember,
I do and I understand.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• I hear and I forget, ← Listening to the lecture


I see and I remember, ← Reading the textbook
I do and I understand. ← Compiling the notes

The notes are to be


handwritten to insure
that the process works
for you. No xerox copies
or electronic versions
or textbooks are
permitted for use
during the SNAP quiz.

Leonardo Da Vinci and


his notebooks
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

• The 15 minute SNAP quizzes are


simple calculations and unit
conversions (calculators are
permitted) from formulas in your
notes and conceptual answers
to posed questions to assess
your understanding of the basic
concepts.

• The SNAP quiz is the assessment


of your preparation and organizes
your thoughts as part of the
engineering method (not that
shown here!).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Chapter 1
Introduction
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Chapter 1
Introduction
• Components of a Communication
System
• Pages 1-5
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

• Modulation (partial definition):


3: to vary the amplitude, frequency, or phase of (a
carrier wave or a light wave) for the transmission
of information (as by radio)

• Carrier (partial definition):


2: an electromagnetic wave or alternating current whose
modulations are used as communications signals (as
in radio, telephonic, or telegraphic transmissions
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

• Analog modulation:
continuous
information such as
speech or video
encoded as an
amplitude

• Digital modulation:
discrete information
such as binary data
encoded as
a frequency shift
or
a phase shift
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Source Simulink subsystems


Transmitter Receiver
User

Channel
with noise

MS Figure 1.16

Analog amplitude modulation (AM)


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Simulink subsystems
Source
Transmitter Receiver
User

Channel
with noise
Coherent
demodulation

MS Figure 1.16

Analog amplitude modulation (AM)


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Source Simulink subsystems


Transmitter Receiver
User

Channel
Non-coherent demodulation with noise

MS Figure 1.20

Analog amplitude modulation (AM)


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Sinusoidal input and DSB AM


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Simulink subsystem

Sinusoidal input and DSB AM


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Carrier

DSB modulated
spectrum

DSB AM temporal signal and power spectrum


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

2 x carrier
DSB demodulated frequency
Original spectrum
spectrum

Demodulated DSB AM spectrum


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

Random data source Bit error rate


MS Figure 3.12

Digital binary phase shift keying (BPSK)


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

• Input binary data, rate rb = 1 kb/sec, bit time Tb = 1 msec

Tb = 1 msec

• Output binary data with no noise, note 2 bit delay in output


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

• Input binary data, rate rb = 1 kb/sec, bit time Tb = 1 msec

• Received signal with significant additive noise

Where’s the signal?


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

• Input binary data, rate rb = 1 kb/sec, bit time Tb = 1 msec

• Output binary data with bit errors due to additive noise


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 1

End of Chapter 1
Introduction
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

Chapter 1
Communication Simulation
Techniques
• Introduction to MATLAB and
Simulink
• Blocksets
• Simulation displays
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink
Library
Browser:
Commonly
Used Blocks
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink
Library
Browser:
Communications
Blockset
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink
Library
Browser:
Signal
Processing
Blockset
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink
Library
Browser:
Simulink
Extras
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Simulink Library Browser and the model window

MS Figure 1.2
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Source parameter block for the Random Integer


Generator block and the Simulink model window

MS Figure 1.3
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Configuration parameter window for the Simulink


simulation

MS Figure 1.4
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Sinusoid and half wave rectified sinusoid Simulink


temporal model

MS Figure 1.6
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Sinusoid and half wave rectified sinusoid temporal display


in the Simulink Figures window MS Figure 1.7
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Half wave rectified sinusoid Simulink spectral display


model

MS Figure 1.8
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Scope and axis properties parameter windows of the


Spectrum Scope block MS Figure 1.9
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Scaled power spectral display of a half wave rectified


sinusoid, fo = 1 kHz

MS Figure 1.10
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Gaussian noise source and lowpass filtered power


spectral density display MS Figure 1.11
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Gaussian noise source and LPF PSD MS Figure 1.12

Flat PSD

LPF PSD, fcutoff = 11.25 kHz


EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Gaussian noise source and lowpass filtered


autocorrelation display MS Figure 1.13
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

• Gaussian noise source and lowpass filtered power


autocorrelation display MS Figure 1.14

Uncorrelated

Correlated
EE4513 Analog and Digital Communications Laboratory Chapter 1

End of Chapter 1
Communication Simulation
Techniques
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2
Frequency Domain Analysis
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2
Frequency Domain Analysis
• Why Study Frequency Domain
Analysis?
• Pages 6-13
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Why frequency domain


analysis?

• Allows simple algebra


rather than time-domain
differential equations
to be used

• Transfer functions can 500, 1500 and 2500 Hz


be applied to transmitter,
communication channel
and receiver

• Channel bandwidth,
noise and power are MS Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3
easier to evaluate
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Why frequency domain


analysis?

• A complex signal
consisting of the sum of
three sinusoids is
difficult to discern in the
temporal domain
but easy to identify in the 500, 1500 and
spectral domain 2500 Hz

MS Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.1 Input sum of three sinusoids, temporal


display
Butterworth LPF
9 pole, fcutoff = 1 kHz
500
Hz
1500
Hz
2500 EX21.mdl
Hz

MS Fig 4.8 modified


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.1 Input sum of three sinusoids

• Output after Butterworth LPF


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.1 Input sum of three sinusoids, temporal


display

Since this is a MATLAB and Simulink time-based


simulation, an analog low pass filter is used here

Butterworth LPF
9 pole, fcutoff = 1 kHz

EX21.mdl

MS Fig 4.8 modified


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.1 Input sum of three sinusoids, spectral


display
EX21spectral.mdl
500
Hz
1500
Hz
2500
Hz Butterworth LPF
9 pole, fcutoff = 1 kHz MS Fig 4.11 modified
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Input power spectral density of the sum of three sinusoids

34 dB

• Output power spectral density after Butterworth LPF

Attenuation (decibel dB)


–36 dB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Butterworth Filters

Stephen Butterworth was a


British physicist who invented
the Butterworth filter, a class
of circuits that are used to
filter electrical signals. He
worked for several years 1885-1958
at the National Physical
Laboratory (UK), where he did
theoretical and experimental
work for the determination of
standards of electrical
inductance and analyzed the
electromagnetic field around submarine cables.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.2
10 MHz sinusoid
with additive
white Gaussian
noise (AWGN)

Communications channel

EX22.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.2 Simulink design window

Configure Simulation Simulate

T = 0.01 sec

EX22.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.2 Simulink design window

Configure Simulation Tsimulation = 10-8 = 10 nsec


fsimulation = 1/Tsimulation = 108 = 100 MHz T = 0.01 sec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.2 10 MHz sinusoid with AWGN

• Power spectral density of 10 MHz sinusoid with AWGN

10 MHz Here’s the signal!


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2
Frequency Domain Analysis
• The Fourier Series
• Pages 13-38
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Fourier Series

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier was


a French mathematician and physicist
who is best known for initiating the
investigation of Fourier Series and its
application to problems of heat flow.
The Fourier transform is also named
in his honor.
1768-1830

s(t) = X0 + ∑ Xncos(2π n fo t + φn )
n=1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Fourier series coefficients:


trignometric an bn
polar Xn
complex cn

X0 = a0 Xn = an2 + bn2
| c n | = Xn / 2 Xn = | 2 c n |
Xo = co
MATLAB and Simulink simulation
can provide the magnitude of
the complex Fourier series
coefficients for any periodic
waveform
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

Temporal display
of a complex pulse
as the addition of
two periodic pulses

EX23.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified Simulink design window

Configure Simulation Simulate

T = 4 sec

EX23.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Example 2.3 modified Simulink design window

Configure Simulation fsimulation = 1024 Hz


Tsimulation = 1/fsimulation = 0.976562 msec T = 4 sec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Temporal display scopes


• Example 2.3 modified

Simulink discrete
pulse generators

EX23.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified


fS = 1024 Hz
Tsimulation = 1/fsimulation =
0.976562 msec

First Pulse

EX23.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified


fS = 1024 Hz
Tsimulation = 1/fsimulation =
0.976562 msec

Second
Pulse

EX23.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

Period To = 4 sec
Fundamental frequency
fo= 0.25 Hz
Sample based simulation:
Period = 4096 samples
must be 2N for FFT
Pulse width = 1024
samples
Sample time = 0.978562
msec
4/4096 = 9.78562 x 10-4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

The default display or autoscaling for the temporal scope


does not have a uniform amplitude.

EX23.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

Right-Click on
the vertical
axis and use
Axes properties
to change the
amplitude
scaling
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified First periodic pulse

T = 1 sec
T = 4 sec

• Second periodic pulse

T = 2 sec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified Sum of periodic pulses

T = 1 sec T = 4 sec
T = 2 sec

EX23.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified


Spectral display scope

Spectral display
of a complex pulse
as the addition of
two periodic pulses
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

fS = 1024 Hz

T = 4 sec = 4096
samples

fS = fsimulation for
conveninence

Input signal is
non-framed based
so buffer input is
required
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

fS = 1024 Hz

T = 4 sec = 4096
samples

Amplitude scaling
magnitude-squared
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

Scaled | FFT |2 using Simulink Plot Tools. In Command


Window:
>>plottools on Default spectral display

plottools
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified

Add data point markers (o)


and change the frequency
axis to 5 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2
Frequency Domain Analysis
• Power in the Frequency Domain
• Pages 38-52
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified Unscaled | FFT |2

fs / 2 = 512 Hz
500 Hz

• Scaled | FFT |2

Spectral Resolution MS Eq 1.1


∆f = fs / N = 1024/4096 = 0.25 Hz
5 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified Scaled | FFT |2

The Fourier series components are discrete. However, the


Spectrum Scope does not read out the values. An
interactive cursor
is available in the
Figures window.

Copy and Paste


the Spectrum
Scope plot as
Figure 1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified Scaled | FFT |2

The interactive cursor can lock-on to the markers and read


out the data values sequentially. The interactive cursor is
evoked from the toolbar for a Figure plot.

x = 0 (f = 0 Hz)
y = 2362 = | FFT(f = 0) |2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified Scaled | FFT |2

The magnitude squared data values are divided by the


number of points in the FFT N = 4096 to get the value. The
magnitude of the DC (0 Hz) value is then:
(2362/4096)0.5 = (0.56767)0.5 = 0.7594 = c0 = X0
The DC value of the complex pulse is calculated as 0.75
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.3 modified Scaled | FFT |2

The first five spectral components can be read, computed


and then compared to a direct calculation of cn.

f Hz Data n Component Spectral Resolution


0 2362 0 0.7594 MS Eq 1.1
0.25 1038 1 0.5034 ∆f = fs / N
0.5 103.8 2 0.1592 ∆f = 1024/4096
0.75 115.3 3 0.1678 ∆f = 0.25 Hz
1 0 4 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7

Rectangular pulse
train
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7

Amplitude = 3
Period To = 10 msec
Fundamental frequency
fo= 100 Hz
Pulse width = 2 msec
Duty cycle = 2/10 = 0.2
Sample based simulation:
Period = 4096 samples
Pulse width = 819 samples
819/4096 ≈ 0.2
Sample time = 2.441 µsec
10-2/4096 = 2.441 x 10-6
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7

Period To = 10 msec
Since the Spectrum
Scope requires 2N =
4096 samples, the
simulation time =
10 msec divided by
the sample time =
2.441 µsec must be
≥ 4096

10-2/2.441 x 10-6 =
4096.68
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7 One cycle of periodic pulse

3 Tpulse = 2 msec
DC value = 0.6 To = 10 msec

• Magnitude squared of the Fast Fourier Transform | FFT |2

| FFT (f = 0) |2 = 1447

(1447/4096)0.5 = (0.353271)0.5 = 0.5944


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7 | FFT |2

First spectral null at 1/Tpulse = 1/2 msec = 500 Hz


Successive nulls at n/Tpulse = n x 500 Hz

Hard to discern when the nulls are when plotted on a


linear scale

500 Hz 1 kHz 1.5 kHz


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7 | FFT |2

First spectral null at 1/Tpulse = 1/2 msec = 500 Hz


Successive nulls at n/Tpulse = n x 500 Hz

Easier to see when the nulls are plotted on a decibel (dB)


scale where –40 dB ≈ 0

500 Hz 1 kHz 1.5 kHz

-40 dB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• de·ci·bel (dĕs'ə-bəl, -bĕl')


n. (Abbr. dB)
A unit used to express relative difference in power or
intensity, usually between two acoustic or electric signals,
equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the
two levels.

The bel (B) as a unit of measurement


was originally proposed in 1929 by
W. H. Martin of Bell Labs. The bel
was too large for everyday use, so
the decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 B,
became more commonly used. Alexander Graham Bell
1847-1922
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7 | FFT |2

Spectrum Scope axis


properties
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.7 | FFT |2 (Data/4096)0.5

f Hz Data Component n Calculated cn


0 1447 0.5944 0 0.6
100 1290 0.5612 1 0.561
200 844 0.4540 2 0.454 cf S&M
300 376 0.3030 3 0.303 pp 33-35
400 81 0.1406 4 0.140
500 ≈0 0 5 0

cn X0 = a0 Xn = an2 + bn2
Xo = co | c n | = Xn / 2 Xn = | 2 c n |
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.8

Rectangular pulse trains


with pulse period of 0.5 sec
and pulse widths of
0.0625 sec
0.125 sec
0.250 sec
Sample based simulation:
Period = 216 = 65536
samples
Pulse widths = 8192,
16384, 32768
Sample time = 7.629 µsec EX28.mdl
0.5/65536 = 7.629 x 10-6
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.8
Spectrum Scope has
inherent amplitude and
frequency axes scaling
(but not cursor readout)

EX28.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

First null 16 Hz = 1/τ τ = 0.0625 sec

S&M p. 36-37

First null 8 Hz = 1/τ τ = 0.125 sec

First null 4 Hz = 1/τ τ = 0.250 sec


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Average Normalized (RL = 1Ω) Power


X0 = a0 Xn = an2 + bn2
Fourier series components
cn from simulation | c n | = Xn / 2 Xn = | 2 c n |
Periodic signal as a Xo = co

frequency domain s(t) = X0 + ∑ Xncos(2π nfo t + φn )
representation n=1

Average (RL = 1Ω)


power in the signal PS as
a time domain or t o +T ∞ 2
1 X
frequency domain PS =
T ∫ s 2
(t) dt = X 2
0 + ∑
n=1 2
n

representation to

Parseval’s Theorem
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Average (RL ≠ 1Ω) Power

The average non-normalized (RL ≠ 1Ω) power in the


signal PS as a time domain or frequency domain
representation

s(t) = X0 + ∑ Xncos(2π nfo t + φn )
n=1
to +T
1 1  2 ∞ Xn2 
PS = ∫  X0 + ∑ 
2
s (t) dt =
T RL to
RL  n=1 2 

Parseval’s Theorem
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Parseval’s Theorem

Marc-Antoine Parseval des Chênes was


a French mathematician, most famous
for what is now known as Parseval’s
Theorem, which presaged the
equivalence of the Fourier Transform.
A monarchist opposed to the French
Revolution, Parseval fled the country 1755-1836
after being imprisoned in 1792 by Napoleon for
publishing tracts critical of the government.
t o +T ∞ 2
1 X
PS = ∫ s2 (t) dt = X02 + ∑ n
T to n=1 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Examples 2.9 and 2.10

Normalized power
spectrum of a
rectangular pulse
and a Butterworth
low pass filtered
(LPF) rectangular
pulse

EX29.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Examples 2.9 and 2.10

Amplitude = 3
Period To = 10 msec
Fundamental frequency
fo= 100 Hz
Pulse width = 2 msec
Duty cycle = 2/10 = 0.2
Sample based simulation:
Period = 4096 samples EX29.mdl
Pulse width = 819 samples
819/4096 ≈ 0.2
Sample time = 10-2/4096 = 2.441 x 10-6 = 2.441 µsec
Sampling rate = 1/ 2.441 x 10-6 ≈ 409.6 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Examples 2.9 and 2.10

Since this is a MATLAB and Simulink sample based


simulation (period = 4096 samples, pulse width = 819
samples) a digital low pass filter design is used here (a
time-based simulation requires an analog filter design)

EX29.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.9 and 2.10 Digital Low Pass Filter Design

fs = 409600

fcuttoff = 300 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Power Spectral Density


The normalized (RL = 1 Ω) power spectral density
(PSD) for periodic signals is discrete because of the
fundamental frequency fo = 1/To = 100 Hz here.

However, for aperiodic signals the PSD is conceptually


continuous. Periodic signals contain no information
and only aperiodic signals are, in fact, communicated.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Power Spectral Density

Simulated by | FFT |2 in
MATLAB and Simulink to
obtain cn from which we
can derive Xn
| FFT |2 ≈ PSD

X0 = a0 Xn = an2 + bn2
Xo = co | c n | = Xn / 2 Xn = | 2 c n |
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Power Spectral Density Simulated by | FFT |2


The dB scale for PSD is more prevalent for analysis

Linear
Spectral nulls

dB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Power Spectral Density Low Pass Filtered

Unfiltered

dB

LPF
fcutoff = 300 Hz
dB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Bandwidth

The bandwidth of a signal is the width of the frequency


band in Hertz that contains a sufficient number of the
signal’s frequency components to reproduce the signal
with an acceptable amount of distortion.

Bandwidth is a nebulous term and


communication engineers must
always define what if meant by
bandwidth in the context of use.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Total Power in the Signal

Parseval’s Theorem allows us to determine the total


normalized power in the signal without the infinite sum of
Fourier series components by integrating in the temporal
domain:
t o +T ∞ 2
1 X
PS = ∫ s2 (t) dt = X02 + ∑ n
T to n=1 2

From Example 2.10 the total


normalized (RL = 1Ω) power in the
signal is 1.8 V2 (not W) and the percentage of the total
power in the signal in a bandwidth of 300 Hz is
approximately 88% (S&M p. 45).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2
Frequency Domain Analysis
• The Fourier Transform
• Pages 52-69
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.12

Spectrum of a
simulated single
pulse from a very
low duty cycle
rectangular pulse
train EX212.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.12 Simulated single pulse

duty cycle = 10-3/1 = 0.001 = 0.1%


pulse width = 1 msec

pulse period = 1 sec

•| FFT |2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.12 Simulated single pulse


The magnitude of the Fourier Transform of a single pulse
is continuous and not discrete since there is no Fourier
series representation. In the MATLAB and Simulink
simulation here the data points are very dense and
virtually display a continuous plot.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.12 Simulated single pulse | FFT |2


S&M p. 56-60 Aτ = 1(10-3) = 10-3
S(f) = Aτ sinc(π f τ) (co/65536)0.5 = 10-3
co = 0.065536

co = 0.065536
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.12 Simulated single pulse | FFT |2


S&M p. 56-60
S(f) = Aτ sinc(π f τ)
Zero-crossing at integral multiples of 1/τ = 1/10-3 = 1000 Hz

0.005

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000


Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.12 Simulated single pulse

duty cycle = 10-2/1 = 0.01 = 1%


pulse width = 10 msec

pulse period = 1 sec

•| FFT |2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Example 2.12 Simulated single pulse | FFT |2


S&M p. 56-60
S(f) = Aτ sinc(π f τ)
Zero-crossing at integral multiples of 1/τ = 1/10-2 = 100 Hz

0.05

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Hz


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Properties
of the
Fourier
Transform
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Properties
of the
Fourier
Transform

Modulation
principle
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

Chapter 2
Frequency Domain Analysis
• Normalized Energy Spectral Density
• Pages 60-65
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Normalized Energy

If s(t) is a non-periodic, finite energy signal (a single


pulse) then the average normalized power PS is 0:
t o +T
1 finite value
PS = lim ∫
2
s (t) dt = lim = 0 V2
T →∞ T T →∞ T
to

ES = ∫
−∞
s2 (t) dt V 2 - sec

However, the normalized energy ES for the same s(t) is


non-zero by definition (S&M p. 60-61).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Parseval’s Energy Theorem

Parseval’s energy theorem follows directly then from the


discussion of power in a periodic signal:
∞ ∞
ES = ∫ s2 (t) dt = ∫
2 2
| S (f) | df V - sec
−∞ −∞

• Energy Spectral Density

Analogous to the power spectral density is the energy


spectral density (ESD) ψ(f). For a linear, time-invariant (LTI)
system with a transfer function H(f), the output ESD which is
the energy flow through the system is:

ψOUT(f) = ψIN(f) | H(f) |2


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

• Energy Spectral Density

The energy spectral density (ESD) ψ(f) is the magnitude


squared of the Fourier transform S(f) of a pulse signal s(t):

ψ(f) = | S(f) |2

The ESD can be approximated by the magnitude squared


of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in a MATLAB and
Simulink simulation as described in Chapter 3.

ψ(f) ≈ | FFT |2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 2

End of Chapter 2
Frequency Domain Analysis
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3
Digital Baseband Modulation
Techniques
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3
Digital Baseband Modulation
Techniques
• Goals in Communication System
Design
• Pages 75-76
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Communication System Design


MS Figure 2.1
Source Transmitter
Channel Receiver

Noise

An information source (voice, music, video, text, signals


or images) is modulated in the transmitter .
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Communication System Design


MS Figure 2.1
Source Transmitter
Channel Receiver

Noise

The output of the transmitter is inputted to the physical


transmission medium (wires, fiber optics, wireless or
acoustic) as a channel with additive noise.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Communication System Design


MS Figure 2.1
Source Transmitter
Channel Receiver

Noise

The output of the channel is inputted to the receiver


which attempts to demodulate the signal and recover the
data.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude
Modulation (PAM)
• Pages 18-20
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Random Integer Generator simulates a binary information


source, bit rate rb = 1 kb/sec

MS Figure 2.1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Random Integer
Generator from
the Communications
Blockset, Comm
Sources
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Random Integer
Generator block from
the Communications
Blockset, Comm
Sources
binary
random seed
rb = 1 kb/sec
Tb = 1 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Binary data [0,1] Binary Polar PAM transmitter ± 5 V

MS Figure 2.1

Transmit data = ([0,1] – 0.5)10 V = ± 5 V


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Channel


provides a random noise source, mean = 0 V, variance
σ2 = 0.5 V

MS Figure 2.1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

AWGN Channel
block from the
Communications
Blockset, Channels
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

AWGN Channel
block from the
Communications
Blockset,
Channels

random seed
variance σ2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Scope displays Transmit and Receive temporal data

MS Figure 2.1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Output of Binary Polar PAM Transmitter

• Input of Binary PAM Receiver with AWGN


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

MS Figure 2.1

Simple PAM receiver consists of a Sample and Hold


block with synchronous timing at Tb /2 provided by a
pulse generator. This induces a delay of Tb /2.
/2

The Sign and Lookup Table blocks convert the


received data to the correct format (see MS p. 19).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

The Sign block


converts the
variable amplitude
bipolar received
data from the
Sample-and-
Hold block to
trinary data
[–1, 0, 1]
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

The Lookup Table


block converts the
trinary data [–1, 0, 1]
to a replica of the
bipolar transmitted
signal [± 5] for
comparison by
mapping 0 to +5
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Input of Binary PAM Receiver with AWGN

• Output of Sample and Hold block


Tb / 2 delay
Tb
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Output of Sample and Hold block


Tb / 2 delay

• Output of Sign and Lookup Table blocks


Tb / 2 delay
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Transmitted PAM signal

• Received PAM signal with no errors


Tb / 2 delay
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3
Digital Baseband Modulation
Techniques
• Baseband Modulation Using
Rectangular Pulses and Binary
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
• Pages 76-88
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PAM generation of data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

00

01

Fig35.mdl 11
MS for S&M Figure 3-5
10
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PAM generation of data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

Pulse Generator block


outputs a –1 V pulse
with a width of 20 msec
and a nominal pulse
period of 200 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PAM generation of data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

Transport Delay block


delays the input by
20 msec using a sample
data buffer automatically
set
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PAM generation of data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

00

01

Time-based
sampling,
sampling rate
fS = 50 kHz,
sampling period 11
TS = 1/ fS = 20 µsec Fig35.mdl
MS for S&M Figure 3-5 10
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Data 00 PAM Output

τ 2τ τ = 20 msec

• Data 01 PAM Output

τ 2τ τ = 20 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Data 10 PAM Output

τ 2τ τ = 20 msec

• Data 11 PAM Output

τ 2τ τ = 20 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

00

01

ESD ≈ | FFT |2
11
Fig35spectrum.mdl

MS for S&M Figure 3-5 10


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

Spectrum Scope requires a discrete or sampled signal


input. Pulse Generator block changed to sampled-based
signal. Integer Delay block used to delay the pulse.

Fig35spectrum.mdl

MS for S&M Figure 3-5


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

Pulse Generator block


changed to sampled-based
signal.
Sample time TS = 20 µsec
Pulse period = 500 000
samples (10 sec)
Pulse width = 1000
samples (20 msec)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

Integer Delay block for


sampled-based signal.
Sample time TS = 20 µsec
Delay = 1000
samples (0.2 sec)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11

Spectrum Scope simulation for N = 218 = 262 144


samples.
samples
Simulation time T = N / fS = 262 144 / 50 000 = 5.24288
sec
Frequency resolution ∆f = fS / N = 50 000/262 144 =
0.1907 Hz

Fig35spectrum.mdl
MS for S&M Figure 3-5
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Data 00 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2

τ = 20 msec
1/2τ 1/τ S&M Figure 3-6a

25 Hz 50 Hz

• Data 00 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 dB


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Data 01 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2

τ = 20 msec
1/τ S&M Figure 3-6b
50 Hz

• Data 01 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 dB


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Data 10 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2

τ = 20 msec
1/τ S&M Figure 3-6c
50 Hz

• Data 10 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 dB


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Data 11 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2

τ = 20 msec
1/2τ 1/τ S&M Figure 3-6d

25 Hz 50 Hz

• Data 11 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 dB


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Sum of the equally likely simulated ESD ≈ | FFT |2 for data


00, 01, 10 and 11 unscaled by probability p = 0.25

S&M Figure 3.7


Ψ(f) = 2A2 τ2 sinc2(π f τ)
3/τ

150 Hz
2/τ

100 Hz
1/τ
50 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Power of a Series of Pulses

The power of a series of pulses is the energy in a series


of pulses divided by the time to transmit the series of
pulses (S&M p. 83).

Power = Energy / Transmit Time

This concept can be extended to find the average


normalized power spectral density (PSD) G(f) of a series
of rectangular pulses:

G(f) = n A2 τ2 sinc2(π f τ) / n τ = A2 τ sinc2(π f τ)


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The total power in a series of rectangular pulses is a


function of the bandwidth of the data transmission.

S&M Figure 3-10


Ψ(f) = 2A2 τ2 sinc2(π f τ)
3/τ
96.5%
2/τ
95%
1/τ
90%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The rectangular pulse width τ is the entire bit time Tb


here and is optimum in the bandwidth sense.

Table 3-1 Bandwidth of a Binary Rectangular PAM


Signal as a Percentage of the Total Power (S&M p. 86,
MS p. 22) with τ = Tb = 1 / rb

Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power


1/Tb 90%
1.5/Tb 93%
2/Tb 95%
3/Tb 96.5%
4/Tb 97.5%
5/Tb 98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• Rectangular PAM
Power Spectral Density
• Pages 20-22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• For an ensemble (collection) of pseudo-random


rectangular PAM data signals, the power spectral
density (PSD) is used since the bit period Tb is finite
and not infinite as for a single pulse with its ESD.
• The pulse width τ can be less than the bit period Tb but
this is not bandwidth efficient.
• The MATLAB and Simulink
simulation of a binary
rectangular PAM transmitter
(MS Figure 2.1) is modified
for a variable pulse width
τ ≤ Tb to verify these
concepts.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular PAM with variable pulse width τ ≤ Tb = 1


msec

Pulse train, 0 to 1 V, pulse period 1 msec, pulse width


0.5 msec (50% duty cycle)
Multiplier

Transmitter of MS Figure 2.1 modified


MSFig21mod.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular PAM with


variable pulse width
τ ≤ Tb = 1 msec

Pulse train = 0 to 1 V
Pulse period = 1 msec

MSFig21mod.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular PAM with


variable pulse width
τ ≤ Tb = 1 msec

Pulse width = 50%


(0.5 msec)
Phase delay = 0.5 msec

MSFig21mod.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Top: Binary data source. Middle: pulse train. Bottom:


rectangular PAM transmit data output with 50% duty cycle.

Data

Tb

Duty Cycle

Tb /2

Product
with Gain
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PSD of rectangular PAM

Spectrum scope block calculates the PSD of the output of


the rectangular PAM transmitter with variable duty cycle
τ / Tb

Fig21modspec.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Scaled PSD of rectangular PAM τ / Tb = 0.5, Tb = 1 msec

The impulse spectral terms


δ[(2n–1) fo] where fo = 1 / Tb =
1 kHz are due to the periodic
signal imposed by the product
modulator with 50% duty cycle

first-null bandwidth = 2 kHz = 1/τ = 2/T


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Scaled PSD of rectangular PAM τ / Tb = 1, Tb = 1 msec

No impulse spectral terms in


the PSD for the rectangular
PAM signal because the
signal is only random with
100% duty cycle (τ = Tb)

first-null bandwidth = 1 kHz = 1/τ = 1/Tb


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• Performance of Rectangular
PAM in a Simple Receiver in
AWGN
• Pages 66-69
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The performance of rectangular PAM (τ = Tb, 100%


duty cycle) in a simple receiver (single point sampling at
Tb / 2) in AWGN is assessed by the bit error rate (BER)
The received binary data is compared bit-by-bit to the
transmitted binary data by the Error Rate Calculation
block

MS Figure 2.7
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular PAM with AWGN and BER analysis

The Error Rate


Calculation block delays
the transmitted binary
data to correlate it with
the received binary data

The BER output is


displayed numerically
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular PAM with AWGN and BER analysis

The computation delay


allows the BER analysis
to be delayed before
starting if warranted (no
delay is used here)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Spectrally white Gaussian noise is added in the channel


with variance σ2 in volts by the AWGN Channel block

The initial seed is


the MATLAB
variable randseed
so that each
simulation is
unique
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the metric for the BER


analysis. The signal power in the rectangular PAM signal
is A2 / RL and the noise power is σ2 / RL. The SNR then
is:

SNR = (A2 / RL )/(σ2 / RL) = A2 / σ2


SNR = 10 log10 [A2 / σ2] dB

MS Figure 2.7
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The signal power in the rectangular PAM signal is A2 / RL


W (watts) and the normalized power (RL = 1Ω) is
A2 V2 (volts squared).

• Although it is correct to use the units V2 for normalized


power and then divide by RL to convert to W, the
convention is to use the term normalized power W even
though the units are V2. Here A = ± 5 V and the
normalized power = 25 W.

MS Figure 2.7
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular PAM performance in a simple receiver with


AWGN (MS p. 24)
Table 2.2 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an
Unfiltered Rectangular PAM Digital Communication
System, Normalized Signal Power = 25 W.

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER


∞ 0 0
13.98 1 0
12.21 1.5 0
10.97 2 2 × 10-4
6.98 5 1.24 × 10-2
3.98 10 5.64 × 10-2
3.19 12 7.43 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The BER performance of a rectangular PAM with AWGN


can be improved with the addition of a low-pass filter
(LPF) in the receiver. The LPF passes only the bandwidth
required for the modulated signal.

MS Figure 2.9
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The low-pass filter in the rectangular PAM receiver is


an Analog Filter Design block
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The available simulated analog low-pass filter types are


Bessel, Butterworth, Chebyshev types I and II, and
Elliptic. The Chebyshev LPF with fcutoff = 1200 Hz, in-band
ripple = 0.1 dB displays the maximum roll-off attenuation
with a trade-off of the in-band ripple.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular PAM performance in a LPF receiver with


AWGN (SVU p. 73)

Table 2.3 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an


LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.1 dB ripple, fcutoff = 1.2 kHz)
Binary Rectangular PAM Digital Communication
System, Normalized Signal Power = 25 W.

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER


∞ 0 0
10.00 2.5 0
0.96 20 0
–3.01 50 1 × 10-4
–6.02 100 6.3 × 10-3
–9.03 200 3.63 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Comparison of BER performance in binary rectangular


PAM in an unfiltered and LPF receiver:
Unfiltered Receiver
SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER
6.98 5 1.24 × 10-2
3.98 10 5.64 × 10-2
LPF Receiver
SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER
–6.02 100 6.3 × 10-3
–9.03 200 3.63 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Rectangular PAM ± 5 V, 1 kb/sec with AWGN, σ2 = 10 V2

Simple receive data sampling occurs at the mid-point Tb /2

Tb + 5V

-5 V

sampling points at (2n+1)Tb /2


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3
Digital Baseband Modulation
Techniques
• Pulse Shaping to Improve
Spectral Efficiency: Sinc Pulses
• Pages 89-101
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• A practical sinc-shaped pulse has a finite duration T =


± 4 Tb. Zero-crossings occur at ± n / rb = ± n Tb
MS Figures 2.15 and 2.16

binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec

binary 0

2/rb 3/rb

1/rb 4/rb
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Bandwidth of a sinc-shaped PAM pulse is rb / 2 Hz which


is 50% of the first-null bandwidth of a rectangular PAM
pulse (rb Hz).

+5 V

binary 0
2/rb
0
1/rb 8/rb
3/rb
binary 1
4/rb
–5 V rb = 1 kb/sec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Since the practical sinc-shaped pulses have zero-


crossings at multiples of 1 / rb = Tb there is no interference
between adjacent pulses if sampled at Tb.
MS Figures 2.17 and 2.18

startup sampling points at nTb


1/rb binary 1

binary 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Sinc PAM Power Spectral Density (S&M p. 90,


MS p. 29-30)

The power spectral density (PSD) for a sinc PAM signal is


derived from the energy spectral density (ESD) for a
single sinc pulse. The ESD ψ(f) for a sinc pulse with a
peak amplitude A and data rate rb is:

ψ(f) = (A / rb)2 = A2 Tb2 – rb/2 ≤ f ≤ rb/2

As for rectangular pulses earlier, the normalized PSD G(f)


of a series of sinc pulses is:

G(f) = n A2 Tb2 / n Tb = A2 Tb – rb/2 ≤ f ≤ rb/2

where 1 / rb = Tb
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• Sinc Pulse Amplitude
Modulation
• Pages 27-33
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• MATLAB and Simulink generation of a practical (finite


duration) sinc PAM signal uses the impulse response of
a filter (MS p. 27-29).
MS Figure 2.14

sinc impulse filter

data source
impulse train
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The Random Integer Generator block data has an


amplitude of 0, 1 V and a period of 1 msec (1/rb). The
output is offset and scaled to provide a ± 1 V data
source.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The Pulse Generator


block has an amplitude of
1 V, a period of 1 msec or
a frequency of 1 kHz
(rb) and a pulse width of 2%
of the period (20 µsec)
which is the Simulink
simulation time.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Simulink Comm Filters in the Communications


Blockset provides the Raised Cosine Transmit Filter
which can generate
a sinc when the
rolloff factor α = 0.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Raised Cosine Transmit


Filter block generates a
sinc with a rolloff factor
α = 0. The group delay
of 4 symbols specifies
the ± 4Tb duration.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Raised Cosine Transmit


Filter block upsampling
factor 50 specifies the
duration of a symbol
Tb = 50 x 20 µsec =
1000 µsec = 1 msec,
where 20 µsec is the
Simulink simulation
time. The filter gain of 5
sets the peak amplitude
to ± 5 V.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• MATLAB and Simulink sinc PAM transmitter can be used


to verify the PSD.
MS Figure 2.19
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PSD of sinc PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec

first null bandwidth rb /2 = 500 Hz


sinc2 shaped PSD
non-ideal sinc(t)

• PSD of rectangular PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec

first null bandwidth rb = 1000 Hz


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PSD of sinc PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec

relatively flat PSD

• PSD of rectangular PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec

sinc2 shaped PSD


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The performance of practical sinc PAM in a simple


receiver (single point sampling at Tb ) in AWGN is
assessed by the bit error rate (BER)
• The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of binary sinc
PAM is used to assess performance.
MS Figure 2.20
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The sinc PAM transmitter is included as a Simulink


subsystem.

MS Figure 2.20
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of binary sinc


PAM includes a Chebyshev low-pass filter (LPF) with
fcutoff = 600 Hz to improve BER performance. The
bandwidth is rb /2 = 500 Hz, rb = 1 kb/sec here.

MS Figure 2.20
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The signal power of the practical sinc PAM is


problematical because of the complex shape and finite
duration. A Simulink simulation can be used to compute
the root-mean-square (RMS) of the sinc PAM transmit
output.
MS Figure 2.21
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The Simulink RMS


block from the
Signal Processing
Blockset, Statistics
computes the RMS.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The measured normalized power of the practical sinc


PAM signal is [RMS]2 = 4.9342 = 24.3 W. The
normalized power of the rectangular PAM signal is 25
W exactly. The sinc PAM power is required for the
computation of SNR in the BER analysis.
MS Figure 2.21
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Sinc PAM performance in a simple receiver with AWGN


(MS p. 31-33)

Table 2.4 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an


LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.1 dB ripple, fcutoff = 600 Hz)
Binary Sinc PAM Digital Communication System,
Normalized Signal Power ≈ 24.3 W.

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER


∞ 0 0
0.85 20 0
−3.13 50 4 × 10-3
−6.14 100 3.5 × 10-3
−9.15 200 2.14 × 10-2
−13.13 500 9.31 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Comparison of BER performance in binary sinc and


rectangular PAM with an LPF receiver:
Sinc PAM
SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER
−6.14 100 3.5 × 10-2
−9.15 200 2.14 × 10-2
Rectangular PAM
SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER
–6.02 100 6.3 × 10-3
–9.03 200 3.62 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 3
Digital Baseband Modulation
Techniques
• Pulse Shaping to Improve
Spectral Efficiency: Raised Cosine
Pulses
• Pages 101-111
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The raised cosine PAM pulse has a finite duration by


definition. Zero-crossings occur at ± n / rb = ± n Tb

+5 V

binary 0
2/rb
0
1/rb 8/rb
3/rb binary 1
4/rb
–5 V rb = 1 kb/sec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Bandwidth of a raised cosine pulse is rb / 2 + β Hz where


β is the damping factor and 0 ≤ β ≤ rb / 2.

+5 V

binary 0
2/rb
0
1/rb 8/rb
3/rb binary 1
4/rb
–5 V rb = 1 kb/sec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The rolloff factor α of a raised cosine pulse is related to


the damping factor β: α = 2 β / rb 0≤α≤1
β = α rb / 2 0 ≤ β ≤ rb / 2
+5 V

binary 0
2/rb
0
1/rb 8/rb
3/rb binary 1
4/rb
–5 V rb = 1 kb/sec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Since the raised cosine pulses have zero-crossings at


multiples of 1 / rb = Tb there is no interference between
adjacent pulses if sampled at Tb.
MS Figures 2.25 and 2.26

startup sampling points at nTb


1/rb binary 1

binary 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Raised Cosine PAM Power Spectral Density (S&M p. 102,


MS p. 36-38)

The normalized power spectral density (PSD) G(f) for a


raised cosine PAM signal is derived from the energy
spectral density (ESD) for a single raised cosine pulse
with a peak amplitude A and data rate rb = 1 / Tb is:

G(f) = A2 / rb | f | ≤ rb / 2 – β

G(f) = 4 A2 Tb [1 + cos { π / 2 β ( | f | – rb/2 + β ) } ] 2

rb / 2 – β ≤ f ≤ rb/2 + β

G(f) = 0 | f | ≤ rb / 2 + β
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• Raised Cosine Pulse Amplitude
Modulation
• Pages 81-87
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• MATLAB and Simulink generation of raised cosine PAM


signal uses the impulse response of a filter (MS p. 33-36).

MS Figure 2.22

raised cosine impulse filter

data source
impulse train
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The Random Integer Generator block data has an


amplitude of 0, 1 V and a period of 1 msec (1/rb). The
output is offset and scaled to provide a ± 1 V data
source.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The Pulse Generator


block has an amplitude of
1 V, a period of 1 msec or
a frequency of 1 kHz
(rb) and a pulse width of 2%
of the period (20 µsec)
which is the Simulink
simulation time.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Simulink Comm Filters in the Communications


Blockset provides the Raised Cosine Transmit Filter
which generates a
raised cosine filter
when the rolloff factor
0 < α ≤ 1 (α ≠ 0)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Raised Cosine Transmit


Filter block is generated
with a rolloff factor α = 0.5
The group delay of 4
symbols specifies the
± 4Tb duration.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• MATLAB and Simulink raised cosine PAM transmitter


can be used to verify the PSD.
MS Figure 2.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PSD of sinc PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec, α = 0

first null bandwidth rb /2 = 500 Hz

• PSD of raised cosine PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec, α = 0.5, β = 250

first null bandwidth rb /2 + β = 750 Hz


α = 2 β / rb
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• PSD of raised cosine PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec, α = 0.5, β = 250

first null bandwidth rb /2 + β = 750 Hz

• PSD of rectangular PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec

first null bandwidth rb = 1000 Hz


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The performance of raised cosine PAM in a simple


receiver (single point sampling at Tb ) in AWGN is
assessed by the bit error rate (BER)
• The Simulink simulation of binary raised cosine PAM
is used to assess performance.

MS Figure 2.28
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of raised cosine


PAM includes a Chebyshev low-pass filter (LPF) fcutoff =
900 Hz, in-band ripple = 0.1 dB to improve BER
performance. The first null bandwidth is 750 Hz.

MS Figure 2.28
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• The computed normalized power of the raised cosine


PAM signal is [RMS]2 = 4.672 = 21.8 W. The normalized
power of the sinc and rectangular PAM signals are 24.3
and 25 W. The raised cosine PAM power is required
for the computation of SNR in the BER analysis.
MS Figure 2.21rcos
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Raised cosine PAM performance in a simple receiver with


AWGN (MS p. 38-40)

Table 2.5 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an


LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.01 dB ripple, fcutoff = 900 Hz)
Binary Raised Cosine PAM Digital Communication
System, Normalized Signal Power ≈ 21.8 W.

SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER


∞ 0 0
3.38 10 0
0.37 20 4 × 10-4
−3.61 50 5.8 × 10-3
−6.62 100 2.48 × 10-2
−9.62 200 6.75 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

• Comparison of BER performance in binary sinc and


raised cosine PAM with an LPF receiver:
Sinc PAM
SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER
−3.13 50 4 × 10-4
−9.15 200 2.14 × 10-2
Raised Cosine PAM
SNR dB AWGN σ V BER
–3.61 50 5.8 × 10-2
–9.62 200 6.75 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

End of Chapter 3
Digital Baseband Modulation
Techniques
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Receiver Design
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Receiver Design
• Probability of Bit Error
• Pages 124-149
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Probability of Bit Error

The low pass filtered and sampled PAM signal results in


an expression for the probability of bit error Pb (S&M p.
124-127). A is the amplitude at the sampling point and γ
is the attenuation of the channel (0 ≤ γ ≤ 1)

P{ ith bit in error } = P(bi = 0) P{ no[ (i-1)Tb + Tb/2 ] < –γA }


+ P(bi = 1) P{ no[ (i-1)Tb + Tb/2 ] ≥ γA }
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Review of Probability and Stochastic Processes


(S&M p. 127-132)

Probability distribution function FX(a) = P{ X = a }

Probability density function fX(x) = d FX(x) / dx

Mean (or expected value) µX = ∫ x fX(x) dx



Variance σX2 = ∫ (x – µX) fX(x) dx
–∞
E { (X – µX)2 }
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Review of Probability and Stochastic Processes


(S&M p. 127-132)

Joint probability
distribution function FX,Y(a, b) = P{ X = a and Y = b }

Joint probability
density function fX,Y(x, y)) = ∂2 FX,Y(x, y) / ∂x ∂y

Conditional probabilities P { X > a and event Z } =


P { event Z } P{ X > a | event Z }
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Receiver Design
• Examining Thermal Noise
• Pages 132-136
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Johnson–Nyquist noise or thermal noise is the electronic


noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge
carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical
conductor at equilibrium.
equilibrium

This thermal noise was first measured by John B. Johnson


at Bell Labs in 1928. He described his findings to Harry
Nyquist, also at Bell Labs, who was able to explain the
results.

Harry Nyquist 1984-1995


1889-1976
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Thermal (or Gaussian) noise is approximately white,


meaning that the power spectral density is equal
throughout the frequency spectrum. Additionally, the
amplitude of the signal has very nearly a Gaussian
probability density function with mean µn = 0.

S&M Figure 4-3


µn = 0 σn = 1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Since thermal noise has a Gaussian probability density


function the probability that a noise voltage n(t) at time to
will be less than or equal to a threshold –γA is (S&M Eq.
4.27):
− γA
1  (x - µn )2 
P{ n(t o ) ≤ −γA } = FX (− γA) = ∫
−∞ 2π σ n
exp 
 2σ n 
2  dx

and the probability that a noise voltage n(t) at time to


will be greater than a threshold γA is (S&M Eq. 4.28):

1  (x - µn )2 
P{ n(t o ) > γA } = 1 − FX (γA) = ∫
γA 2π σ n
exp 
 2σ n 
2  dx
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The probabilistic properties of


thermal noise do not change with
time (stationarity). Thermal noise
is an insidious property of
communication systems that limits
the speed of reliable data transmission
and the detection of weak signals.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• A MATLAB and Simulink simulation verifies the spectral


characteristics of thermal noise and the performance of
low-pass filtered fcutoff = 11.25 kHz thermal noise.

MS Figure 1.11
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Thermal noise PSD = No, | f | → ∞ MS Figure 1.12

No (single-sided spectrum)
No No

• Thermal noise LPF PSD = No, | f | < 11.25 kHz

No 11.25 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Thermal noise PSD = No, | f | → ∞ MS Figure 1.12

uncorrelated

• Thermal noise autocorrelation MS Figure 1.14

uncorrelated
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Thermal noise LPF PSD = No, | f | < 11.25 kHz

uncorrelated

• LPF thermal noise autocorrelation MS Figure 1.14

correlated
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Simulink Histogram block from the Statistics, Signal


Processing Blockset is analogous to the pdf. The Vector
Scope block from the Sinks, Signal Processing Blockset,
displays the histogram. Simulink blocks to calculate the
mean µ and variance σ2 are in Statistics.

NoiseHistogram.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Thermal noise histogram display

µ = 10
σ2 = 1 Gaussian pdf

• LPF fcutoff = 1 kHz thermal noise histogram display

µ = 10.42 pdf remains


σo2 = 0.64 Gaussian
after LPF
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• LPF thermal noise has an average normalized power:

σo2 = No fcutoff (S&M p. 135)

The probability that the ith-bit is received in error is:

P(bi = 0) P{ n(t o ) < − γA } + P(bi = 1) P{ n(t o ) ≥ γA } =


− γA
1  (x - µo )2 
P(bi = 0) ∫
−∞ 2π σ o
exp 
 2σ o 
2  dx +

1  (x - µo )2 
P(bi = 1) ∫
γA 2π σ o
exp 
 2σ o 
2  dx
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• If and only if the binary thresholds are symmetrical (–γA


and γA), the P(bi = 0) + P(bi = 1) = 1 and the Gaussian
normal pdfs are symmetrical the probability that the ith-bit
is received in error becomes (S&M p. 136):

P(bi = 0) P{ n(t o ) < − γA } + P(bi = 1) P{ n(t o ) ≥ γA } =



1  (x - µo )2 

γA 2π σ o
exp 
 2σ o 
2  dx

-γA γA
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Receiver Design
• Gaussian Probability
Density Function, Probability of
Bit Error
• Pages 137-149
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian (normal)
probability
density
function (pdf)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian (normal)
probability
distribution
function
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian (Normal) Probability Distribution

Abraham de Moivre was a French


mathematician famous for de Moivre's
formula, which links complex numbers
and trigonometry, and for his work on
the normal distribution and probability
theory in 1734. He wrote a book on
probability theory entitled The Doctrine
of Chances which was said to be highly
prized by gamblers. 1667-1754

Gauss rigorously justified and extended the work in 1809.


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian (Normal) Probability Distribution

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was a


German mathematician and scientist
who contributed significantly to many
fields, including number theory,
geometry, electrostatics, astronomy
and optics.

1777-1855
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian pdfs

µ = 0, σ = 1
S&M Figure 4-6a

µ = 1.6, σ = 1
S&M Figure 4-6b
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Gaussian pdfs

µ = 0, σ = 2
S&M Figure 4-6c

µ = 1, σ = 2
S&M Figure 4-6d
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The probability of bit error is the area under the Gaussian


pdf from the threshold a to ∞ which could be tabulated.
However, the probability of bit error is determined by three
independent variables (a, µ and σ) and this would be an
unwieldy table.

Q-function

S&M Figure 4-7


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Rather, construct a single table with µ =0 and σ = 1 for the


probability of bit error as the area under the Gaussian
pdf as a function of the threshold a only which is known as
the complementary error or Q-function.

Q-function

S&M Figure 4-7


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The
Q-function
for µ =0
and σ = 1
as a function
of the
threshold a
is listed in
Table 4-1
(S&M
p. 141) and
Appendix B
(MS p. 185-
186)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Reading the
Q-function
table
correctly

•What is
Q(1.82)?
• What is
Q(2.63)?
• What is
Q(3.18)?
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Reading the
Q-function
table
correctly

• Q(1.82) =
0.0344
• Q(2.63) =
0.0043
• Q(3.18) =
0.0007
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• What if µ ≠ 0? It can
be shown that the
Q-function table
remains valid if
the threshold
a
variable in the table
is changed from a
to a – µ. Note that
the areas under the
Gaussian pdfs are the
same.

S&M Figure 4-8a a–µ


Figure 4-8b
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• What if µ ≠ 0 and
σ ≠ 1? It can also
be shown that the
Q-function table
remains valid if
a
the threshold
variable in the table
is first changed from
a to a – µ and …

S&M Figure 4-9a a–µ


Figure 4-9b
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• … then the threshold


variable in the
Q-function table
is changed from
a – µ to (a – µ) / σ.
Note that argument a–µ
on the x-axis is
compressed by σ
and the y-axis is
expanded by σ.

S&M Figure 4-9b


(a –µ) / σ
Figure 4-9c
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• For simple baseband PAM the probability of bit error Pb is


expressed by the Q-function:
 noise margin of 
 
sampled value
Pb = Q  

average normalized noise power at
 
 the input to the single point sampler 
sampling at  
Tb/2 binary rectangular PAM data with AWGN
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Receiver Design
• Optimal Receiver: The Matched
Filter or Correlation Receiver
• Pages 149-161
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The simple baseband PAM receiver structure is:

But is this the best that there is? What about sampling an
odd number of times (like 3) during each bit time Tb?
Tb
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Although sampling can be increased to a very large, odd


number of samples during Tb, there is an optimal way:

Since LPF in PAM improved performance, assume that


the optimal processing is a linear filter H(f) (S&M p. 150)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• After development (S&M p. 150-153) the optimal


processing is a linear filter Ho(f)

The optimal linear filter Ho(f) has an impulse response


ho(t) and is known as a matched filter since the processing
is matched to input signal s(t):
Ho (f) = k S∗ (f) exp( − j 2π f iTb )
ho (t) = F-1 { Ho (f) } = k F-1 { S∗ (f) exp( − j 2π f iTb ) }
ho (t) = k s(iTb − t) impulse response
matched to s(t)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The impulse response of the optimum filter ho(t) is a


scaled (by k), time delayed (by iTb) and time reversed
(function of iTb– t):
ho (t) = k s(iTb − t)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• When optimum processing is used the argument inside


the Q-function is maximized (S&M p. 153-154) and the
probability of bit error Pb is:
 | r(iTb ) ∗ h(iTb ) | 
Pb = Q  maximum 
 σp
 
 | r(iTb ) * h(iTb ) | 2 
Pb = Q  maximum 
 σ 2

 p 
 2 Eb 
Pb = Q   S&M Eq. 4.58
 No
 
where Eb is the energy per bit of the received signal.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum filter Ho(f) is equivalent to the correlation


receiver (S&M p. 155-156).

Optimum Filter ho (t) = k s(iTb − t)

Correlation Receiver
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Since the optimum filter Ho(f) and the correlation receiver


are equivalent, with s1(t) = s(t) for a matched filter and
r(t) = γ s(t) where γ is the communication channel
attenuation, the energy-per-bit Eb is (S&M p. 156,
Eq 4.62):
iTb iTb

Eb = ∫
(i-1)Tb
γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ 2 ∫
(i-1)Tb
s2 (t) dt
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The expected or mean value ai(iTb) is the output of the


correlation receiver when r(t) = γ si(t) and n(t) = 0 where γ
is the communication channel attenuation.
iTb

ai (iTb ) = ∫
(i-1)Tb
γ si (t) s1(t) dt S&M Eq. 4.67
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Pb = Q( √(2 Eb / No) ) and the ratio Eb / No can be


expressed in dB: 10 log10 (Eb / No ). The resulting plot of
Pb verses Eb / No in dB is a characteristic of binary
symmetric
PAM with
AWGN. S&M Figure 4-14
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Symmetric binary PAM


implies that the two
transmitted signals for
binary 1 and binary 0
s(t) and the resulting
Threshold = 0
outputs a(iTb) from the
correlation receiver
are equal in
magnitude but
opposite in sign:

sbi=1(t) = – sbi=0(t)

S&M Figure 4-15


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The probability of bit


error for equally-likely
binary symmetric
PAM is the sum of
the error regions
shown.

P(bi=0) = P(bi=1) = 0.5

S&M Figure 4-16


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The binary PAM signals are symmetrical and the


threshold is 0 (equidistant from the means or expected
values ± a(iTb) ). The error regions are equal in area.

S&M Figure 4-16


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The probability of bit


error does not
minimize if the
correlation receiver
threshold is
misadjusted (τ ≠ 0).
With a misadjusted
threshold the apriori
probabilities are now
important since the
area of the error
regions are no longer
equal.

S&M Figure 4-17


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The correlation receiver is also known as the integrate-


and-dump which describes the process.

matched filter or
correlation receiver
MS Figure 2.29
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 3

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• Optimum Binary Baseband
Receiver: The Correlation
Receiver
• Pages 40-41
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The correlation receiver can be simulated in Simulink:

MS Figure 2.29
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink
Integrate and Dump
block is in the
Comm Filters,
Communications
Blockset
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The parameters of the Simulink Integrate and Dump


block are the integration period and offset in simulation
samples.

fsimulation = 50 kHz
Tsimulation = 1/fsimulation =
0.02 msec

Tb = 1 msec

Integration period =
Tb/Tsimulation = 1/ 0.02 =
50 samples

Offset = 0 samples
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The complete binary symmetrical rectangular PAM digital


communication system with BER analysis and optimum
receiver.

MS Figure 2.30

Transmitter Receiver

BER
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Observed BER as a function of SNR for binary


rectangular PAM in a LPF simple receiver (LPF) and the
optimum correlation receiver (CR) with normalized signal
power = 25 W (MS Table 2.3 p. 27 and Table 2.6 p. 43).
SNR dB AWGN σ2 V2 BER (LPF) BER (CR)
∞ 0 0 0
3.98 10 0 0
0.96 20 0 0
−3.52 50 1 × 10-4 0
−6.02 100 6.3 × 10-3 1 × 10-4
−9.03 200 3.63 × 10-2 6.4 × 10-3
−13.01 500 1.185 × 10-1 6.02 × 10-2
−16.02 1000 1.345 × 10-1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The energy per bit Eb = 2.5 × 10-2 V2-sec (S&M Eq. 4.62,
p. 156) for rectangular ± 5 V PAM with the channel
attenuation γ = 1:
iTb iTb

Eb = ∫
(i-1)Tb
γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ 2 ∫
(i-1)Tb
s2 (t) dt

The observed bit error rate (BER) can be compared to


the theoretical probability of bit error Pb (S&M Eq. 4.58, p.
154) to validate the basic simulation.

 2 Eb 
Pb = Q  
 No
 
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The ratio of the energy per bit Eb to the noise power


spectral density No (Eb / No) rather than the SNR is the
conventional metric used for BER performance.
iTb iTb

Eb = ∫
(i-1)Tb
γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ 2 ∫
(i-1)Tb
s2 (t) dt
S&M Eq. 4.62
 2 Eb 
Pb = Q   S&M Eq. 4.58
 No
 
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The BER and Pb comparison (MS Table 2.7, p. 44):

Table 2.7 Observed BER and Theoretical Pb as a


Function of Eb / No in a Binary Symmetrical Rectangular
PAM Digital Communication System with Optimum
Receiver

Eb / No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
10 0 4.05 × 10-6
8 0 2.06 × 10-4
6 2.5 × 10-3 2.43 × 10-3
4 1.35 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2
2 3.95 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
0 8.09 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Receiver Design
• Correlation Receiver for Asymmetric
PAM, Optimum Thresholds,
Synchronization
• Pages 162-173
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Asymmetric PAM
signals do not have
equal means or
expected values of
the output of the
correlation receiver:

| a2(iTb) | ≠ | a1(iTb) |

S&M Figure 4-19


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum S&M Figure 4-19


threshold τopt is
again equidistant
between the means
or expected values of
the output of the
correlation receiver:
a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )
τ opt =
2
S&M Eq. 4.71

Here | a2(iTb) | + τopt = a1(iTb) – τopt and the threshold is


equidistant from the means or expected values.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• If the apriori
probabilities are not
equal then the
optimum threshold
τopt is not equidistant
from the means or
expected value of
output of the
correlation receiver.
An asymmetric binary
PAM signal is shown:

a2(iTb) ≠ a1(iTb)

S&M Figure 4-23


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum
threshold τopt where
the apriori
probabilities are
(1 – M) and M
(which sums to 1) is:

2 σ o2 ln ( M / (1− M ) ) + a2 (iTb )2 − a1(iTb )2


τ opt =
2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )] S&M Eq. 4.85

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )
if M = 0.5 then: τ opt =
2 S&M Eq. 4.71
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Asymmetric PAM with S&M Figure 4-19


an optimum threshold
τopt has a probability
of bit error Pb:

 a1(iTb ) − a2 (iTb ) 
Pb = Q  
 2 σo 
 a (iT ) − a (iT ) 2 
 [ 1 b 2 b ]  2No
S&M Eq. 4.78
Pb = Q σ =
 4 σ o2  o
2 and Eq. 4.79
 
 Ed  iTb

∫ {γ ( s (t) − s (t)) }
2
Pb = Q  where Ed = dt
 2 N  1 2
 o  (i-1)Tb
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum correlation receiver for asymmetric binary


PAM uses the difference signal s1(t) – s2(t) as the
reference:

S&M Figure 4-20


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum correlation receiver can be reconfigured as


an alternate but universal structure which can be used for
both asymmetric or symmetric binary PAM signals:

S&M Figure 4-21


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• If the apriori
probabilities are not
equal then the
optimum threshold
τopt is not equidistant
from the means or
expected value of
output of the
correlation receiver.
An asymmetric binary
PAM signal is shown:

a2(iTb) ≠ a1(iTb)

S&M Figure 4-23


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum
threshold τopt where
the apriori
probabilities are
(1 – M) and M
(which sums to 1) is:

2 σ o2 ln ( M / (1− M ) ) + a2 (iTb )2 − a1(iTb )2


τ opt =
2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )] S&M Eq. 4.85

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )
if M = 0.5 then: τ opt =
2 S&M Eq. 4.71
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The probability
of bit error Pb then
is:

S&M Eq. 4.86

 a1(iTb ) − τ opt   τ opt − a2 (iTb ) 


Pb = M Q   + (1− M ) Q  
 σo   σo 
 2   
( a1(iTb ) − τ opt )  ( τ opt − a2 (iTb ) )
2

Pb = M Q  + (1− M ) Q  
2 No  2 No 
   
   
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• If the apriori S&M Figure 4-19


probabilities are
equal (M = 0.5):
a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )
τ opt =
2
and Pb becomes:

   
( a1(iTb ) − τopt ) ( opt 2 b ) 
2 2
τ − a (iT )
Pb = 0.5 Q   + 0.5 Q 
  
 2 No   2 No 
   
 a2 (iTb ) ) 
( a1(iTb ) -
2
 Ed 
Pb = Q  = Q  S&M p. 168
 2 No   2N
   o 
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The BER and Pb comparison (MS Table 2.8, p. 49):

Table 2.8 Observed BER and Theoretical Pb as a


Function of Ed / No in an Asymmetrical Binary
Rectangular PAM Digital Communication System with
Optimum Receiver.

Ed / No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
12 2.5 × 10-3 2.53 × 10-3
10 1.28 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2
8 3.59 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
6 8.05 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2
4 1.334 × 10-1 1.318 × 10-1
2 1.856 × 10-1 1.872 × 10-1
0 2.362 × 10-1 2.394 × 10-1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Since for binary rectangular PAM Ed = 4 Eb (S&M p. 168)


the BER performance for asymmetric PAM is comparable
to symmetric PAM if a Ed / No is reduced by 6 dB
(10 log (4) = 6) :
Ed / No dB BER Pb

Asymmetric PAM 10 1.28 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2


(MS Table 2.8, 8 3.59 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
p. 49) 6 8.05 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2

Eb / No dB BER Pb

Symmetric PAM 4 1.35 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2


(MS Table 2.7, 2 3.95 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
p. 44) 0 8.09 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• The Correlation Receiver for
Baseband Asymmetrical
Signals
• Pages 44-47
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum threshold τopt requires the additive Gaussian


noise variance σ2 as processed by the correlation
receiver or σo2:
2 σ o2 ln ( M / (1− M ) ) + a2 (iTb )2 − a1(iTb )2
τ opt =
2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )] σo

MS Figure 2.31
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The optimum threshold τopt also requires the apriori


probabilities P1 = M and P0 = M – 1:

2 σ o2 ln ( M / (1 − M ) ) + a2 (iTb )2 − a1(iTb )2
τ opt =
2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )]

Here P1 = 0.4998 = M and P0 = 1 – M = 0.5004

Mean
MS Figure 2.32
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Mean and


Variance blocks
are in the Statistics,
Signal Processing
Blockset
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The parameter of the


Mean block can be set
for running mean or an
average over the
simulation period. The
result can be shown by
a Display block from the
Simulink Blockset.

MS Figure 2.32
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The parameter of the


Variance block can be set
for running variance or an
average over the
simulation period. The
result can be shown by
a Display block from the
Simulink Blockset.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink simulation for binary asymmetrical PAM


with BER analysis has a threshold adjustment based on
the estimate of τopt from measurements of σo and M.
2 σ o2 ln ( M / (1− M ) ) + a2 (iTb )2 − a1(iTb )2
τ opt =
2 [a2 (iTb ) − a1(iTb )]

Reference

Threshold

MS Figure 2.33
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink simulation for the alternative and universal


structure for the correlation receiver:

MS Figure 2.34

S&M Figure 4-21


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Synchronization (not considered here) provides timing


recovery or the exact beginning and end of a bit time Tb:

S&M Figure 4-21

start of Tb?
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Synchronization of both symbol time and carrier frequency


and phase is one of the advanced topics in EE4542
Telecommunications Engineering. The effect is called jitter.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Receiver Design
• Multi-level PAM (M-ary PAM)
• Pages 200-206
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Multi-level (M-ary) PAM is another means to minimize the


bandwidth required for a data transmission rate rb b/sec.
Rather than transmitting a binary signal in a bit time Tb,
send a multi-level (usually a power-of-2) signal during the
same period called the symbol time TS.

A multi-state comparator determines the received symbol


which is then decoded to the received bits.
S&M Figure 4-48
M=4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The three
optimum
thresholds if
the apriori
probabilities
are equally
likely
(Pi = 0.25) S&M Figure 4.49
are: a1(iTS ) + a2 (iTS )
τ opt1 =
2
a2 (iTS ) + a3 (iTS )
τ opt2 = S&M Eq. 4.136
2
a3 (iTS ) + a4 (iTS )
τ opt3 =
2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The
probability
of symbol
error Ps,
where M = 2n M=4
is the
number of
levels,
can be 2 (M − 1)  Ed,symbol 
shown to be: Ps = Q  S&M Eq. 4.139
M  2 No 
where: 
i Ts

∫ {γ s (t) - s (t) }


2
Ed,symbol = j k dt S&M Eq. 4.140
(i-1) Ts
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• There are
2 (M – 1)
error
regions
due to only M=4
adjacent
regions
being
misinterpreted with M = 2n equally probable symbols. The
probability of occurrence Pj for a misinterpreted symbol is
also equally likely and is:
1
Pj =
2 (M − 1) SVU Eq. 2.41
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The amplitudes of the M-ary (M = 4) rectangular PAM


signal is ± 3A and ± A. The energy difference for a
symbol Ed,symbol = 4γ2 A2 TS (S&M Eq. 4.140):
i Ts

∫ {γ s (t) - s (t) }


2
Ed,symbol = j k dt
(i-1) Ts

The average received energy per symbol Eavg,symbol =


5γ2 A2 TS (S&M Eq. 4.141)
11
S&M Figure 4-50 modified
10

01
M=4
00
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Then Ed,symbol = 0.4 Eavg,symbol and substitute (M = 4):

3  Ed,symbol 
Ps = Q  S&M Eq. 4.139b
2  2 No 

3  0.4 Eavg,symbol 
Ps = Q   S&M Eq. 4.142a
2  No 

11
S&M Figure 4-50 modified
10

01
M=4
00
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The average energy per bit Eb = 0.5 Eavg,symbol since M =4


and there are two bits per symbol:

3  0.4 Eavg,symbol 
S&M Eq. 4.142a
Ps = Q  
2  No 

3  0.8 Eb  S&M Eq. 4.142b


Ps = Q  
2  No 
11
S&M Figure 4-50 modified
10

01
M=4
00
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The symbols transmitted can have 1 bit in error 4 / 6 of


the time and 2 bits in error 2 / 6 of the time:

Transmitted Di-Bit Received Di-Bit Bits In Error


00 01 1
01 00 1
01 10 2
10 01 2
10 11 1
11 10 1
4 2
Pb,4-level = P(1 of 2 bits in error) + P(2 of 2 bits in error)
6 6
4 1 2 2
Pb,4-level = Ps + Ps = Ps S&M Eq. 4.143
62 6 3
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The probability of bit error Pb,4-symbol = 2 Ps / 3 but can that


be improved? Change the assignment of symbols to di-
bits as a Gray code and there is only 1 bit in error for
each of the six error regions and Pb,4-symbol = Ps / 2
Transmitted Di-Bit Received Di-Bit Bits In Error
01 00 1
00 01 1
00 10 1
10 00 1
10 11 1
11 10 1
6
Pb,4-level = P(1 of 2 bits in error)
6
6 1 1
Pb,4-level = Ps = Ps
62 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The simple change to a Gray coded symbol improves the


probability of bit error Pb:

23  0.8 Eb   0.8 Eb  Straight binary


Pb = Q  = Q  
3 2  No   No  coded
13  0.8 Eb  3  0.8 Eb 
Pb = Q  = Q   Gray coded
2 2  No  4  No 

11
S&M Figure 4-50
10

00

01
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Frank Gray was a researcher at Bell Labs who made


numerous innovations in television and is remembered for
the Gray code. The Gray code
appeared in his 1953 patent and
is a binary system often used in
electronics. Gray also conducted
pioneering research on the
development of television. He
proposed an early form of the
flying spot scanning system for
TV cameras in 1927, and helped
develop a two-way mechanically
scanned TV system in 1930. Frank Gray
1894-1964
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• Multilevel (M-ary) Pulse
Amplitude Modulation
• Pages 49-55
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink simulation of a 4-level straight binary (not


Gray coded) rectangular PAM system with BER analysis:
MS Figure 2.35
Transmitter Receiver

BER

bit to symbol converter symbol to bit converter


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Although Simulink
provides a Bit to
Integer block and
an Integer to Bit
block from the
Utility Blocks,
Communication
Blockset, these
blocks use a vector
of bits rather than
from and to a serial
bitstream.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• A bit to symbol converter Simulink subsystem can be


configured from Downsampler blocks and a Delay block
from the Signal Operations, Signal Processing Blockset
and the Gain and Sum blocks from the Simulink, Math
Operations to produce the 4-level PAM signal (0, 1, 2 or
3) from the input di-bit (00, 01, 10, or 11) with the most
significant bit (MSB) first.

MS Figure 2.36
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink bit to symbol converter can be easily


reconfigured to produce an 8-level PAM signal (0, 1, 2,
…7) from the input tri-bit (000, 001, … 111) with the
most significant bit (MSB) first.

MS Figure 2.37
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• A symbol to bit converter Simulink subsystem can be


configured from Constant blocks, Pulse Generator blocks
and a Multiport Switch block from the Signal Routing,
Simulink Blockset to produce the di-bit (MSB first) from the
4-level PAM signal.

MS Figure 2.40
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• A symbol to bit converter Simulink subsystem can be


easily reconfigured to produce the tri-bit (MSB first) from
an 8-level PAM signal.

MS Figure 2.41
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Binary data to 4-level PAM converter

MS Figure 2.36
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Transmit binary data, rb = 1 kb/sec

01

MSB LSB

• Transmit 4-level PAM signal, rS = 500 symbols/sec

1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• M-ary PAM transmits n bits per symbol (M = 2n) but has the
same rectangular pulse shape as binary PAM. The
normalized power spectral density for M-ary PAM PSDM has
the same sinc shape as that for binary PAM PSDB but uses
the symbol time TS rather than the bit time Tb:
2
PSDM (f) = A avg TS sinc ( π TS f )
PSDB (f) = A 2 Tb sinc ( π Tb f )
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Observed BER and theoretical Pb as a function of Eb / No


in a 4-level rectangular straight-binary coded PAM digital
communication system with optimum receiver (MS Table
2.11 p. 58).
Eb / No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
10 2.7 × 10-3 2.4 × 10-3
8 1.28 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2
6 3.42 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
4 7.52 × 10-2 7.78 × 10-2
2 1.291 × 10-1 1.320 × 10-1
0 1.842 × 10-1 1.867 × 10-1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The M-ary PAM PSD uses the average amplitude Aavg,


where Pj is the apriori probability of occurrence of the
amplitude Aj.
M
2
A avg = ∑ A 2j Pj
j=1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The M-ary (M = 4) PAM PSD can be determined by a


Simulink model

Fig239.mdl

MS Figure 2.39
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink simulation of a 4-level straight binary (not


Gray coded) rectangular PAM system measures the BER
performance.
MS Figure 2.35
Transmitter Receiver

BER
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4
• The rectangular M-ary pulse width is the entire symbol
time TS and is optimum in the bandwidth sense. The
bandwidth is similar to that for binary PAM but with Tb =
TS (cf. S&M Table 3-1 p. 86).

Table 2-9 Bandwidth of a Binary Rectangular M-ary PAM


Signal as a Percentage of the Total Power (MS p. 53)

Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power


1/TS 90%
1.5/TS 93%
2/TS 95%
3/TS 96.5%
4/TS 97.5%
5/TS 98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• PSDM M = 4, rb = 1 kb/sec, first null bandwidth = 500 Hz

500 Hz

• PSDB rb = 1 kb/sec, first null bandwidth = 1 kHz

1 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

Chapter 2
Baseband Modulation and
Demodulation
• Performance of M-ary Pulse
Amplitude Modulation
• Gray Encoded Data
• Pages 57-60
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink simulation of a 4-level straight binary Gray


encoded rectangular PAM system with BER analysis:
MS Figure 2.42
Transmitter Receiver

BER
bit to Gray encoded Gray encoded symbol
symbol converter to bit converter
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray encoded by


a Lookup Table Block from the Simulink Blockset.

MS Figure 2.43 M = 4 symbol

bit to Gray encoded


symbol converter
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The M = 4 level symbol


(0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray
encoded by a Lookup
Table Block from the
Simulink Blockset.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2, and 3) is Gray encoded by


a Lookup Table Block by mapping [0, 1, 2, 3] to [0, 1, 3, 2]

Gray coding 00 → 00
01 → 01
10 → 11
11 → 10
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The M = 4 level Gray encoded symbol is decoded as di-bits


by a Lookup Table Block from the Simulink Blockset.

M = 4 symbol MS Figure 2.44

Gray encoded symbol


to bit converter
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2, and 3) is Gray decoded by


a Lookup Table Block by mapping [0, 1, 2, 3] to [0, 1, 3, 2]

Gray coding 00 → 00
01 → 01
10 → 11
11 → 10
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The PSD of a Gray coded rectangular PAM signal is the


same as a straight-binary rectangular PAM signal. The
coding does not
change the PSD.
The PSD is only
affected by the pulse
shape and data rate.

• PSDM M = 4, rb = 1 kb/sec, first null bandwidth = 500 Hz

500 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The Simulink simulation of a 4-level straight binary Gray


encoded rectangular PAM system measures the BER
performance.
MS Figure 2.42
Transmitter Receiver

BER
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Observed BER and theoretical Pb as a function of Eb / No


in a 4-level rectangular Gray coded PAM digital
communication system with optimum receiver (MS Table
2.12 p. 60).
Eb / No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
10 1.7 × 10-3 1.8 × 10-3
8 8.6 × 10-3 9.3 × 10-3
6 2.92 × 10-2 2.81 × 10-2
4 5.93 × 10-2 5.84 × 10-2
2 9.56 × 10-2 9.90 × 10-2
0 1.441 × 10-1 1.404 × 10-1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• Observed BER as a function of Eb / No for binary


rectangular PAM for straight-binary coded (SBC) and
Gray coded (GC) data (MS Table 2.11 p. 58 and MS
Table 2.12 p. 60).
Eb / No dB BER (SBC) BER (GC)
∞ 0 0
10 2.7 × 10-3 1.7 × 10-3
8 1.28 × 10-2 8.6 × 10-3
6 3.42 × 10-2 2.92 × 10-2
4 7.52 × 10-2 5.93 × 10-2
2 1.291 × 10-1 9.56 × 10-2
0 1.842 × 10-1 1.441 × 10-1

Although a slight improvement, Gray coding improves


BER performance without an increase in Eb.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

End of Chapter 4
Receiver Design
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• Binary Amplitude Shift Keying
• Pages 212-219
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The analytical signal for binary amplitude shift keying


(BASK) is:

sBASK(t) = sbaseband(t) sin (2π fC t) (S&M Eq. 5.1)

The signal sbaseband(t) can be any two shapes over a bit time
Tb but it is usually a rectangular signal of amplitude 0 for a
binary 0 and amplitude A for binary 1. Then BASK is also
known as on-off keying (OOK). MS Figure 3.5

Tb

0 1 1 0 1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The binary amplitude shift keying (BASK) signal can be


simulated in Simulink.
sBASK(t) = sbaseband(t) sin 2π fC t (S&M Eq. 5.1)

Sinusoidal carrier fC = 20 kHz, Ac = 5 V

Multiplier
BASK signal

baseband binary PAM signal 0,1 V, rb = 1 kb/sec


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• A BASK signal is a baseband binary PAM signal multiplied


by a carrier (S&M Figure 5-3).
Unmodulated sinusoidal carrier

Baseband binary PAM signal

BASK signal
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The unipolar binary PAM signal can be decomposed into a


polar PAM signal and DC level (S&M Figure 5-4).
Unipolar binary PAM signal 0→1V

Polar binary PAM signal ± 0.5 V

DC level 0.5 V
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The spectrum of the BASK signal is (S&M Eq. 5.2):

SBASK(f) = F( sASK(t) ) = F( sbaseband(t) sin (2π fC t) )


SBASK(f) = 1/2 j (Sbaseband(f – fC) + Sbaseband(f + fC) )

The analytical signal for the baseband binary PAM signal is:

sbaseband(t) = sPAM(t) + A/2 (S&M Eq. 5.3)


Sbaseband(f) = SPAM(f) + A/2 δ(f) (S&M Eq. 5.4)

Therefore by substitution (S&M Eq. 5.5):

SBASK(f) = 1/ 2j ( SPAM(f – fC) + A/2 δ(f – fC)


– SPAM(f + fC) – A/2 δ(f + fC) )
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The bi-sided power spectral density PSD of the BASK


signal is (S&M Eq. 5.7):

GBASK(f) = 1/4 GPAM(f – fC) + 1/4 GPAM(f + fC)


+ A2/16 δ(f – fC) + A2/16 δ(f + fC)

For a rectangular polar PAM signal (± A):

GPAM(f) = (A/2)2 / rb sinc2 (π f / rb) (S&M Eq. 5.8)

MS Figure 3.7
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The single-sided power spectral density PSD of the BASK


signal is:

GPAM(f) = (A/2)2 / rb sinc2 (π f / rb)


GBASK(f) = 1/2 GPAM(f + fC) + A2/8 δ(f + fC)

Carrier 20 kHz MS Figure 3.7

1 kHz rb = 1 kHz
sinc2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The bandwidth of a BASK signal as a percentage of total


power is double that for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb binary
rectangular PAM (MS Table 2.1 p. 22)

(MS Table 3.1 p. 91).


Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2/Tb 90%
3/Tb 93%
4/Tb 95%
6/Tb 96.5%
8/Tb 97.5%
10/Tb 98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• Binary Phase Shift Keying
• Pages 219-225
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The analytical signal for binary phase shift keying


(BPSK) is:

sBPSK(t) = sbaseband sin (2π fC t + θ) (S&M Eq. 5.11)


sbaseband(t) = + A bi = 1 sbaseband(t) = – A bi = 0
0° MS Figure 3.13
+180° Tb 0° 0° +180°

0 0 1 1 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BPSK signal initial phase θ = 0°, +A is a phase shift =


0° and –A is a phase shift = +180°

sBPSK(t) = sbaseband sin (2π fC t) (S&M Eq. 5.11)


sbaseband(t) = + A bi = 1 sbaseband(t) = – A bi = 0
0° MS Figure 3.13
+180° Tb 0° 0° +180°

0 0 1 1 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal can be


simulated in Simulink.
PM modulator

BPSK
signal

Fig312.mdl

baseband binary PAM signal 0,1 V, rb = 1 kb/sec


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Phase Modulator


block is in the
Modulation,
Communication
Blockset but as an
analog passband
modulator not a digital
baseband modulator.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Phase Modulator block has the parameters of a


carrier frequency fC in Hz, initial phase in radians and the
phase deviation constant in radians per volt (rad / V).

fC = 20 kHz
initial phase φo = π
phase deviation kp = π / V
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Random Integer Generator outputs 0,1 V and with a


initial phase = π and a phase deviation constant = π/V,
the phase output φ of the BPSK signal is:

bi = 0 φ = π + 0(π/V) = π
bi = 1 φ = π + 1(π/V) = 2π = 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The spectrum of the BPSK signal is (S&M Eq. 5.13):

SBPSK(f) = F( sPSK(t) ) = F(sbaseband(t) sin 2π fC t)


SBPSK(f) = 1/2 j (Sbaseband(f – fc) + Sbaseband(f + fC) )

The analytical signal for the baseband binary PAM signal is:

sbaseband(t) = sPAM(t) (S&M Eq. 5.12)


Sbaseband(f) = SPAM(f)

Note that there is no DC level in sPAM(t) and therefore by


substitution:

SBPSK(f) = 1/ 2j ( SPAM(f – fC) – SPAM(f + fC) )


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The bi-sided power spectral density PSD of the BPSK


signal is (S&M Eq. 5.13)

GBPSK(f) = 1/4 GPAM(f – fC) + 1/4 GPAM(f + fC)

For a rectangular polar PAM signal (± A):

GPAM(f) = A2 / rb sinc2 (π f / rb) (S&M Eq. 5.8 modified)

MS Figure 3.14
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The single-sided power spectral density PSD of the BPSK


signal is:
GBPSK(f) = 1/2 GPAM(f + fC)
GPAM(f) = A2 / rb sinc2 (π f / rb)

No carrier MS Figure 3.14

rb = 1 kHz
sinc2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The bandwidth of a BPSK signal as a percentage of total


power is double that for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb binary
rectangular PAM (MS Table 2.1 p. 22) and the same as
BASK (MS Table 3.1 p. 91)

(MS Table 3.5 p. 100)


Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2/Tb 90%
3/Tb 93%
4/Tb 95%
6/Tb 96.5%
8/Tb 97.5%
10/Tb 98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• Binary Frequency Shift Keying
• Pages 219-225
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The analytical signal for binary frequency shift keying


(BFSK) is:

sBFSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC + ∆f) t + θ) if bi = 1


sBFSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ) if bi = 0
MS Figure 3.9
fc – ∆f
fc – ∆f fc + ∆f fc + ∆f Tb fc – ∆f

0 1 1 0 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BFSK signal initial phase θ = 0°

sBFSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC + ∆f) t) if bi = 1


sBFSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t) if bi = 0

MS Figure 3.9
fc – ∆f
fc – ∆f fc + ∆f fc + ∆f Tb fc – ∆f

0 1 1 0 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) signal can be


simulated in Simulink.

BFSK
signal

FM Modulator

Fig38.mdl

baseband binary PAM signal 0,1 V, rb = 1 kb/sec


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Frequency Modulator


block is in the
Modulation,
Communication
Blockset but as an
analog passband
modulator not a digital
baseband modulator.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Frequency Modulator block has the parameters of a


carrier frequency fC in Hz, initial phase in radians and the
frequency deviation constant in Hertz per volt (Hz/V).

fC = 20 kHz
initial phase = 0
frequency deviation =
2000
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Random Integer Generator outputs 0,1 V but is offset


to ±1 and with a initial phase = 0 and a frequency
deviation constant = 2000 Hz/V, the frequency shift ∆f of
the BFSK signal is:

bi = 0 di = –1 ∆f = 0 – 1(2000 Hz/V) = –2000 Hz


bi = 1 di = +1 ∆f = 0 + 1(2000 Hz/V) = +2000 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BFSK signal can be decomposed as (S&M Eq. 5.14):

sBFSK(t) = sbaseband1(t) sin (2π (fC + ∆f) t + θ) +


sbaseband2(t) sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ)

1 0 0 1 1

fc + ∆f fc – ∆f fc – ∆f fc + ∆f fc + ∆f
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BFSK signal is the sum of two BASK signals:

sBFSK(t) = sbaseband1(t) sin (2π (fC + ∆f) t + θ) +


sbaseband2(t) sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ)

From the linearity property, the resulting single-sided PSD


of the BFSK signal GBFSK(f) is the sum of two GBASK(f)
PSDs with f = fC ± ∆f:

GBFSK(f) = (A/2)2 / 2 rb sinc2 (π f / rb) + A2/8 δ(f)


fc – ∆f fc + ∆f
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The single-sided power spectral density PSD of the BFSK


signal is:

GBFSK(f) = (A/2)2 / 2rb sinc2 (π (fC + ∆f) / rb) + A2/8 δ(fC + ∆f)
+ (A/2)2 / 2rb sinc2 (π (fC – ∆f)/ rb) + A2/8 δ(fC – ∆f)

carriers MS Figure 3.10

rb = 1 kHz
∆f = 2 kHz
sinc2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Minimum frequency shift keying (MFSK) for BFSK occurs


when ∆f = 1/2Tb = rb/2 Hz.

GBFSK(f) = (A/2)2 / 2rb sinc2 (π (fC + ∆f) / rb) + A2/8 δ(fC+ ∆f)
+ (A/2)2 / 2rb sinc2 (π (fC – ∆f)/ rb) + A2/8 δ(fC – ∆f)

carriers MS Figure 3.11

∆f = 500 Hz rb = 1 kHz
sinc2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• This BFSK carrier frequency separation 2∆f = 1/Tb = rb Hz is


the minimum possible because each carrier spectral impulse
is at the null of the PSD of the other decomposed BASK
signal and thus is called minimum frequency shift keying
(MFSK).

carriers MS Figure 3.11

2∆f = 1000 Hz rb = 1 kHz


sinc2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The bandwidth of a BFSK signal as a percentage of total


power is greater than that of either BASK or BPSK by 2∆f
Hz for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb (MS Table 3.3 p. 95).

For MFSK 2∆f = rb = 1/Tb Hz.


Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2∆f + 2/Tb 90%


2∆f + 3/Tb 93%
2∆f + 4/Tb 95%
2∆f + 6/Tb 96.5%
2∆f + 8/Tb 97.5%
2∆f + 10/Tb 98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• Coherent Demodulation of
Bandpass Signals
• Pages 225-236
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The development of the optimum receiver for bandpass


signals utilizes the same concepts as that for the optimum
baseband receiver:
Optimum Filter ho (t) = k s(iTb − t)

Correlation Receiver
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The optimum filter Ho(f) and the correlation receiver


are equivalent here also, with s1(t) = s(t) for symmetrical
signals and r(t) = γ s(t) + n(t) where γ is the communication
channel attenuation and n(t) is AWGN. The energy per bit
Eb and the probability of bit error Pb is (S&M p. 226):
iTb iTb

Eb = ∫
(i-1)Tb
γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ 2 ∫
(i-1)Tb
s2 (t) dt

 2 Eb 
Pb = Q  
 No
 
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The matched filter or correlation receiver is a coherent


demodulation process for bandpass signals because not
only is bit time (Tb) as for baseband signals required but
carrier synchronization is also needed. Carrier
synchronization requires an estimate of the transmitted
frequency (fC) and the arrival phase at the receiver (θ):

s1(t) = sin(2π fC t + θ)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BPSK signals are symmetrical with:


s1T(t) = – s2T(t) = A sin(2π fc t) S&M Eqs. 5.15-5.19
iTb

∫ [ ± A γ sin (2π f t)]


2
Eb, BPSK = C dt
(i-1)Tb
iTb
2
γ A 2
γ 2 A 2Tb
Eb, BPSK = ∫ [1− cos (4π fC t)] dt =
2 (i-1)Tb
2
 2 Eb   γ 2 A 2Tb 
Pb, BPSK = Q
  = Q  
No  No 
   
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• For this analysis of Eb, PSK for BPSK signals it is assumed


that the transmitter produces an integer number of cycles
within one bit period Tb:
S&M Eq. 5.17
2 2 iTb
γ A
Eb, BPSK =
2 ∫ [1− cos (4π f t)] dt
(i-1)Tb
C
0
2 2 2 2 iTb
γ A Tb γ A
Eb, BPSK =
2

2 ∫
(i-1)Tb
cos (4π fC t) dt
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• However, even for a non-integer number of cycles within


one bit period Tb if 1 / fC = TC << Tb:
S&M Eq. 5.17
iT b


(i-1)Tb
cos (4π fC t) dt << Tb insignificant

2 2 2 2 iTb
γ A Tb γ A
Eb, BPSK =
2

2 ∫
(i-1)Tb
cos (4π fC t) dt
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BPSK signals are symmetrical with:


s1T(t) = – s2T(t) = A sin(2π fc t) S&M Eqs. 5.15-5.19
and s1(t) = sin (2π fc t)
iTb

ai (iTb ) = ∫
(i-1)Tb
γ si (t) s1(t) dt S&M Eq. 4.67

a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb )
τ opt = = 0 S&M Eq. 4.71
2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BPSK signals are symmetrical with:


s1T(t) = – s2T(t) = A sin(2π fc t) S&M Eqs. 5.15-5.19

τ opt = 0

S&M Figure 4-16


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• For this analysis of Ed, ASK for BASK signals it is assumed


that the transmitter produces an integer number of cycles
within one bit period:
S&M Eq. 5.27
2 2 iTb
γ A
Ed, BASK =
2 ∫ [1− cos (4π f t)] dt
(i-1)Tb
C
0
2 2 2 2 iTb
γ A Tb γ A
Ed, BASK =
2

2 ∫
(i-1)Tb
cos (4π fC t) dt
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BASK OOK signals are not symmetrical with:


s1T(t) = A sin(2π fct) s2T(t) = 0 S&M Eqs. 5.22, 5.23
and s1(t) = sin(2π fct) s2(t) = 0
iTb

ai (iTb ) = ∫ γ si (t) [ s1(t) − s2 (t)] dt


(i-1)Tb
S&M Eq. 5.24-5.26
iTb
γ A Tb
a1(iTb ) = ∫ γ A s (t) dt = 2
1 a2 (iTb ) = 0
(i-1)Tb
2
a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb ) γ A Tb
τ opt = =
2 4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BASK signals in general may not be symmetrical with:


s1T(t) = A1 sin(2π fc t) s2T(t) = A2 sin(2π fc t)
and s1(t) – s2(t) = sin (2π fc t) where the amplitude is arbitrary.
iTb

ai (iTb ) = ∫ γ si (t) [ s1(t) − s2 (t)] dt S&M Eq. 4.67


(i-1)Tb
iTb
γ A i Tb
ai (iTb ) = ∫ γ A i s (t) dt = 2
1 S&M Eq. 4.71
(i-1)Tb
2
a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb ) γ ( A1 + A 2 )Tb
τ opt = =
2 4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BFSK signals are not symmetrical with:


sT(t) = A sin(2π (fc ± ∆f) t) S&M Eq. 5.30
iTb

∫ [ A γ (sin (2π fC + ∆f ) t − sin (2π fC − ∆f ) t ))] dt


2
Ed, BFSK =
(i-1)Tb

Ed, BFSK = γ 2 A 2 Tb if fC + ∆f = n1 / Tb and fC − ∆f = n2 / Tb


S&M Eq. 5.31
 Ed, FSK   2 2
γ A Tb 
Pb, BFSK = Q  = Q  S&M Eq. 5.32
 2 No   2 No 
   
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• For this analysis of Ed, FSK for BFSK signals it is assumed


that the transmitter produces an integer number of cycles
within one bit period:
S&M Eq. 5.31
2 2 iTb
0
γ A
Ed, BFSK = γ A Tb − ∫ cos (4π (fC + ∆f ) t) dt
2 2

2 (i-1)Tb 0
iT
γ2 A 2 b
− ∫
2 (i-1)Tb
cos (4π (fC − ∆f ) t) dt

iTb 0
− γ2 A 2 ∫
(i-1)Tb
sin (2π (fC + ∆f ) t) sin (2π (fC − ∆f ) t) dt
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BFSK signals are not symmetrical with:


sT(t) = A sin(2π (fc ± ∆f) t) S&M Eq. 5.30
and s1(t) – s2(t) = sin(2π (fc + ∆f) t) – sin(2π (fc – ∆f) t)
iTb

ai (iTb ) = ∫ γ si (t) [ s1(t) − s2 (t)] dt S&M Eq. 5.31


(i-1)Tb
iTb
γ A i Tb
ai (iTb ) = ∫ γ A i s (t) dt = 2
i S&M Eq. 5.33
(i-1)Tb
2
a2 (iTb ) + a1(iTb ) γ ( A1 − A 2 )Tb
τ opt = = = 0
2 4
if A1 = A 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• A comparison of coherent BPSK, BFSK and BASK


illustrates the functional differences, but BFSK and BASK
uses Ed and not Eb:

 2 Eb   γ 2 A 2Tb  2 2
Pb, BPSK = Q  = Q   E γ A Tb
 No  No  b, BPSK = 2
   
 Ed, FSK   γ 2 A 2Tb 
Pb, BFSK = Q  = Q  Ed, BFSK = γ 2 A 2Tb
 2 No   2 No 
   
 Ed, ASK   γ 2 A 2Tb  γ 2 A 2Tb
Pb, BASK = Q  = Q  Ed, BASK =
 2 No   4 No  2
   
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The normalized Eb, FSK = Eb, PSK = γ2 A2 Tb / 2 (S&M Eq.


5.24) and Eb, ASK = γ2 A2 Tb / 4 (S&M Eq. 5.36) so that:

 2 Eb, PSK   γ 2 A 2Tb  γ 2 A 2Tb


Pb, BPSK = Q  = Q  Eb, BPSK =
 No   No  2
   

 Eb, FSK   γ 2 A 2Tb  γ 2 A 2Tb


Pb, BFSK = Q  = Q  Eb, BFSK =
 No   2 No  2
   
 Eb, ASK   γ 2 A 2Tb 
Pb, BASK = Q  = Q  γ 2 A 2Tb
    Eb, BASK =
 No   4 No  4
Thus there are no practical advantages for either coherent
BFSK or BASK and BPSK is preferred (S&M p. 236).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• For the same Pb BPSK uses the least amount of energy,


BFSK requires twice as much and BASK four times as much
energy:
 2 Eb, PSK   γ 2 A 2T 
Pb, BPSK = Q   = Q b

 N   N 
 o   o 
Argument of
 Eb, FSK   2 2
γ A Tb  Q should be
Pb, BFSK = Q  = Q 
 No   2 No  as large as
   
possible to
 Eb, ASK   γ 2 A 2Tb  minimize Pb
Pb, BASK = Q  = Q 
 No   4 No 
   
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
• Optimum Bandpass Receiver:
The Correlation Receiver
• Pages 81-85
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The matched filter or


correlation receiver
for bandpass
symmetrical
signals can be
simulated in
Simulink:

MS Figure 3.1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The matched filter or


correlation receiver
for bandpass
asymmetrical
signals can also
be simulated
in Simulink:

MS Figure 3.2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The alternate but


universal structure
which can be used
for both asymmetric
or symmetric binary
bandpass signals can
be simulated in
Simulink: MS Figure 3.3
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
• Binary Amplitude Shift Keying
• Pages 86-92
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Binary ASK (OOK) coherent digital communication system


with BER analysis:

Threshold

MS Figure 3.4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The BER and Pb comparison (MS Table 3.2, p. 91):

Table 3.2 Observed BER and Theoretical Pb as a


Function of Ed / No in a Binary ASK Digital
Communication System with Optimum Receiver

Ed / No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
12 2.9 × 10-3 2.53 × 10-3
10 1.12 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2
8 3.46 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
6 7.65 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2
4 1.335 × 10-1 1.318 × 10-1
2 1.863 × 10-1 1.872 × 10-1
0 2.387 × 10-1 2.394 × 10-1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
• Binary Phase Shift Keying
• Pages 98-103
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Binary PSK coherent digital communication system with


BER analysis:

MS Figure 3.12
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4

• The BER and Pb comparison (SVU Table 3.5, p. 167):

Table 3.5 Observed BER and Theoretical Pb as a


Function of Eb / No in a Binary PSK Digital
Communication System with Optimum Receiver

Eb / No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
10 0 4.05 × 10-6
8 1 × 10-4 2.06 × 10-4
6 2.5 × 10-4 2.41 × 10-3
4 1.31 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2
2 3.35 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
0 8.19 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
• Binary Frequency Shift Keying
• Pages 92-98
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Binary FSK coherent digital communication system with


BER analysis:

fC–∆f

fC+∆f

MS Figure 3.9
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BER and Pb comparison (MS Table 3.4, p. 98):

Table 3.4 Observed BER and Theoretical Pb as a


Function of Ed / No in a Binary FSK (MFSK) Digital
Communication System with Optimum Receiver

Ed/No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
12 2.5 × 10-3 2.5 × 10-3
10 1.29 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2
8 3.50 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
6 8.04 × 10-2 7.93 × 10-2
4 1.352 × 10-1 1.314 × 10-1
2 1.833 × 10-1 1.872 × 10-1
0 2.456 × 10-1 2.393 × 10-1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BER and Pb performance comparison for BASK,


BPSK and BFSK (MFSK):

Ed / No dB BER Pb
10 1.12 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2 BASK
8 3.46 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
Eb / No dB BER Pb
10 0 4.05 × 10-6 BPSK
8 1 × 10-4 2.06 × 10-4

Ed / No dB BER Pb
10 1.29 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2 BFSK
8 3.50 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BER and Pb comparison using Eb with Eb, ASK = γ2 A2 Tb2 / 4


and thus reduced by 10 log (0.5) ≈ –3 dB or:

Eb / No dB BER Pb
7 1.12 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2 BASK
5 3.46 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
Eb / No dB BER Pb
10 0 4.05 × 10-6 BPSK
8 1 × 10-4 2.06 × 10-4

Eb / No dB BER Pb
10 1.29 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2 BFSK
8 3.50 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
BASK performs better than BFSK but BPSK is the best.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• Differential (Noncoherent) Phase
Shift Keying
• Pages 267-271
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Differential (noncoherent) phase shift keying (DPSK) is


demodulated by using the received signal to derive the
reference signal. The DPSK protocol is:

Binary 1: Transmit the carrier signal with the same phase


as used for the previous bit.
Binary 0: Transmit the carrier signal with its phase shifted
by 180° relative to the previous bit.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The one-bit delayed reference signal ri-1(t) is derived from


the received signal ri(t) and if the carrier frequency fC is an
integral multiple of the bit rate rb:
ri−1(t) = γ A sin (2π fC (t − Tb ) + θ) S&M Eqs.
ri−1(t) = γ A sin (2π fC t + θ) 5.88 and 5.89
The output of the integrator for a binary 0 and binary 1
then is z(iTb) = ± γ2 A2 Tb / 2 (S&M Eqs. 5.91 and 5.93)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• DPSK signals have an equivalent bit interval TDPSK = 2 Tb.


The probability of bit error for DPSK signal is different than
that for coherent demodulation of symmetric or asymmetric
signals and is:

1  E DPSK  1  Eb, DPSK 


Pb, DPSK = exp  −  = exp  − 
2  2 No  2  N o 
γ 2 A 2 Tb S&M Eq. 5.102
Eb, DPSK =
2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
• Differential Phase Shift Keying
• Pages 130-135
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Binary DPSK noncoherent digital communication system


with BER analysis:
one-bit
continuous
BPF delay

MS Figure 3.33
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Binary DPSK noncoherent digital communication system


differential binary encoder Simulink Subsystem:

XOR

one bit
sample delay MS Figure 3.34
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Simulink Logic and


Bit Operations
provides the
Logical Operator
block:
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Simulink Logical Operator blocks can be selected to


provide multiple input AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR,
NXOR, and NOT functions:
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Logic and Bit Operations


can be configured as scalar
Boolean binary (0, 1) or
M-ary (0, 1…M−1) vector
logic functions. Here scalar
Boolean binary data is used.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The XOR logic generates the DPSK source coding:

Table 3.16 Input Binary Data bi, Differentially Encoded


Binary Data di, and Transmitted Phase φi (Radians) for a
DPSK Signal.
bi di-1 di φi one-bit startup
1 0
1 1 1 0 XOR logic
0 1 0 π 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 π 1 1 1
0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0
1 1 1 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Signal Processing


Blockset provides the
Filtering, Analog Filter
Design block:
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Signal Processing Blockset provides the analog


bandpass filter (BPF) specified as a 9-pole Butterworth
filter with cutoff frequencies of 19 kHz and 21 kHz centered
around the carrier frequency fC = 20 kHz.

rad/s
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Butterworth BPF is used for the noncoherent receiver.


The coherent receiver uses the integrator as a virtual
BPF:
MS Figure 3.33
DPSK

MS Figure 3.12
PSK
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BER and Pb comparison (MS Table 3.17, p. 134):


Table 3.17 Observed BER and Theoretical Pb as a
Function of Eb / No in a Binary DPSK Digital
Communication System with Noncoherent Correlation
Receiver Statistical variation
due to small sample
Eb / No dB BER Pb size
∞ 0 0
12 0 ≈ 6.6 × 10-8
10 2 × 10-4 2.3 × 10-5
8 5.1 × 10-3 1.8 × 10-3
6 2.61 × 10-2 9.3 × 10-3
4 7.91 × 10-2 4.06 × 10-2
2 1.559 × 10-2 1.025 × 10-1
0 2.393 × 10-1 1.839 × 10-1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• BER and Pb comparison between noncoherent, source


coded DPSK and coherent BPSK:

Eb / No dB BER Pb
12 0 6.6 × 10-8 DPSK
10 2 × 10-4 2.3 × 10-5
8 5.1 × 10-3 1.8 × 10-3
Eb / No dB BER Pb
10 0 4.05 × 10-6 BPSK
8 2 × 10-4 2.06 × 10-4
6 2.5 × 10-3 2.41 × 10-3
BPSK performs better than DPSK but requires a coherent
reference signal. DPSK performs nearly as well as BPSK
at high SNR.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• M-ary Bandpass Techniques:
Quaternary Phase Shift Keying
• Pages 274-286
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Quaternary phase shift keying (M-ary, M = 2n = 4 or QPSK)


source codes dibits bi-1bi as a symbol with one possible
protocol as:

bi-1bi = 11 A sin(2π fC t + 45°)


bi-1bi = 10 A sin(2π fC t + 135°)

bi-1bi = 00 A sin(2π fC t + 225°)
bi-1bi = 01 A sin(2π fC t + 315°)

The Gray code is used as


for M-ary PAM to improve +
the BER performance by
mitigating adjacent symbol
error. The symbols are best
displayed as a constellation plot S&M Figure 5-36 modified
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Quaternary phase shift


keying (QPSK) displayed
as a constellation plot

Note the signs on the
sine reference axes.

cos

constellation points sin


Constellation
Gemini S&M Figure 5-36 modified
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
• Multilevel (M-ary) Phase Shift
Keying
• Pages 117-123
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The QPSK signal can be simulated in Simulink using


Subsystems to simplify the design.
QPSK I-Q correlation
receiver

4-level Gray coded 4-level Gray coded


bit to symbol symbol to bit

MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The random binary data source is converted to an M = 4


level Gray encoded symbol by a Simulink Subsystem.

MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray encoded by


a Lookup Table Block from the Simulink Blockset.

MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The M = 4 level symbol


(0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray
encoded by a Lookup
Table Block from the
Simulink Blockset.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2, and 3) is Gray encoded by


a Lookup Table Block by mapping [0, 1, 2, 3] to [0, 1, 3, 2]

Gray coding 00 → 00
01 → 01
10 → 11
11 → 10
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The M = 4 level symbol


is inputted to the Phase
Modulator block with a
carrier frequency fC =
20 kHz, initial phase
φo = π/4 and a phase
deviation factor
kp = π/2 / V
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2, 3) and the carrier


frequency fC = 20 kHz, initial phase φo = π/4 and a phase
deviation factor kp = π/2 / V produces the phase shifts:

di = 0 φ = π/4 + 0(π/2) = π/4


di = 1 φ = π/4 + 1(π/2) = 3π/4
di = 2 φ = π/4 + 2(π/2) = 5π/4
di = 3 φ = π/4 + 3(π/2) = 7π/4
MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The modulation phase shifts are the phase angle φ of the


sinusoidal carrier A sin (2π fC t + φ) in QPSK.

di = 0 φ = π/4 + 0(π/2) = π/4 45°


di = 1 φ = π/4 + 1(π/2) = 3π/4 135°
di = 2 φ = π/4 + 2(π/2) = 5π/4 225°
di = 3 φ = π/4 + 3(π/2) = 7π/4 315°
MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The QPSK signal can be resolved into In-phase (I, cosine)


and Quadrature (Q, sine)
constellation
components. For example,
Plot Quadrature
if φ = π/4 = 45°:

s1(t) = A sin(2π fC t + 45°) =


cos

A /√2 [ I sin (2π fC t)


+ Q cos (2π fC t) ] = +

A /√2 [ sin (2π fC t)


sin In-phase
+ cos (2π fC t) ]
S&M Figure 5-36 modified
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The QPSK signal is derived from Gray coded dibits with


00 → 00 (0), 01 → 01 (1), 10 → 11 (3) and 11 → 10 (2).

10 11 11 01 01 11 rb = 1 kb/sec

00 00

M=4 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2
Delay

± 5 V, fC = 2 kHz, rS = 500 Hz QPSK signal

TS = 2 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The QPSK signal can be decomposed into I and Q BPSK


signals which are orthogonal to each other.
±5V QPSK signal, fC = 2 kHz, rS = 500 b/sec

± 5 / √2 = 3.536 V Binary PSK signal, sine carrier (I)

± 5 / √2 = 3.536 V Binary PSK signal, cosine carrier (Q)

TS = 2 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The orthogonality of the I and Q components of the QPSK


signal can be exploited by the universal coherent receiver.
The orthogonal I and Q components actually occupy the
same spectrum without interference. The coherent
reference signals are:
Quadrature In-phase
s1(t) = cos (2π fC t + θ) s2(t) = sin (2π fC t + θ)

S&M Figure 5-40


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The orthogonality of the QPSK signals can be shown by


observing the output of the quadrature correlator to the I
and Q signal.
iTS
γA
z1(nTS ) = ∫
2 (i-1)TS
dI sin(2π fC t) + dQ cos(2π fC t) cos (2π fC t) dt
0
iTS
γA
z1(nTS ) = ∫
2 (i-1)TS
dI sin(2π fC t) cos (2π fC t) dt +

iTS
S&M Eq. 5.109
γA

2
dQ cos (2π fC t) dt
2 (i-1)TS
z1(nTS)
γ A TS
z1(nTS ) = dQ
2 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The probability of bit error Pb and the energy per bit Eb for a
QPSK signal is the same as that as for a BPSK signal but
with a I and Q carrier amplitude of A / √2 .
 2 Eb, PSK   γ 2 A 2Tb 
Pb, BPSK = Q  = Q 
 No   No 
    note TS
 2 Eb, QPSK   γ 2 A 2TS 
Pb, QPSK = Q  = Q  S&M Eq. 5.117
 No   2 No 
   

γ 2 A 2Tb z1(nTS)
Eb, BPSK =
2 note TS
γ 2 A 2TS
Eb, QPSK =
4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Since TS = 2 Tb BPSK and QPSK have the same Pb but


QPSK can have twice the data rate rb = 2 rS within the same
bandwidth because of the orthogonal I and Q components.
 2 Eb   γ 2 A 2Tb 
Pb, BPSK = Pb, QPSK = Q
  = Q  
No  No 
   
γ 2 A 2Tb
Eb, BPSK = Eb, QPSK =
2

z1(nTS)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QPSK coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis:

4-Level Gray coded 4-Level Gray coded


bit to symbol symbol to bit
MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QPSK coherent digital communication system uses a


4-level Gray coded bit to symbol converter Simulink
Subsystem.

MS Figure 2.43
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QPSK coherent receiver uses an I-Q correlator Simulink


Subsystem
MS Figure 3.24
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The I-Q correlation receiver is the universal structure with


an integration time equal to the symbol time TS.

MS Figure 3.24

correlation receiver
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The output of the I-Q correlation receiver is a dibit and


converted to an M = 2n = 4 level symbols (0, 1, 2, and 3).

dibits M-ary scaling


MS Figure 3.24
correlation receiver
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BER and Pb comparison for 4-PSK (QPSK):

Table 3.11 Observed BER and Theoretical Upper-Bound


of Pb as a Function of Eb / No in a Gray coded 4-PSK
(QPSK) Digital Communication System with Optimum
Receiver

Ed/No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
12 0 ≈10-8
10 0 ≈10-6
8 2 × 10-4 ≈10-4
6 2.3 × 10-3 2.4 × 10-3
4 1.20 × 10-2 1.25 × 10-2
2 3.62 × 10-2 3.75 × 10-2
0 7.65 × 10-2 7.85 × 10-2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The single-sided power spectral density PSD of the QPSK


signal uses rs = rb /2 and is:

GQPSK(f) = 1/2 GPAM(f - fC)


GPAM(f) = A2 / rs sinc2 (π f / rs)

No carrier rs = 500 s/sec, rb = 1 kb/sec


Sinc2

MS Figure 3.25
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The single-sided power spectral density PSD of BPSK has


double the bandwidth than that for QPSK for the same bit
rate rb = 1/Tb,

No carrier rb = 1 kHz
Sinc2

MS Figure 3.14
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The bandwidth of a QPSK signal as a percentage of total


power is half that for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb BPSK
signal since rs = rb /2 or Ts = 2Tb (MS Table 3.9).

Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2/Ts 1/Tb 90%


3/Ts 1.5/Tb 93%
4/Ts 2/Tb 95%
6/Ts 3/Tb 96.5%
8/Ts 4/Tb 97.5%
10/Ts 5/Tb 98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• M-ary Bandpass Techniques:
8-Phase Shift Keying
• Pages 286-292
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• M-ary phase shift keying (M = 8 or 8PSK) source codes


tribits bi-2bi-1bi as a symbol with one possible protocol as:

bi-2bi-1bi = 000 A sin(2π fC t + 0°) Constellation Plot


bi-2bi-1bi = 001 A sin(2π fC t + 45°)
bi-2bi-1bi = 011 A sin(2π fC t + 90°)
Quadrature
bi-2bi-1bi = 010 A sin(2π fC t + 135°)
bi-2bi-1bi = 110 A sin(2π fC t + 180°)
bi-2bi-1bi = 111 A sin(2π fC t + 225°) cos
bi-2bi-1bi = 101 A sin(2π fC t + 270°)
bi-2bi-1bi = 100 A sin(2π fC t + 315°)
θ
I, Q = 0, ± 1/√2, ± 1
s(t) = A [ I sin (2π fC t) + sin In-phase

Q cos (2π fC t) ] S&M Figure 5-43


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The correlation receiver


for 8-PSK uses four
reference signals:

sref n(t) =
sin (2π fC t +
n 45° + 22.5°)
φ

n = 0, 1, 2, 3
φ = 22.5°, 67.5°,
112.5°, 157.5°

S&M Eq. 5.124


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The output from any one of the four correlators is:


iTS

z1(nTS ) = γ A ∫
(i-1)TS
sin (2π fC t + θ) sin (2π fC t + φ)dt
0
iT iT
γA S S

z1(nTS ) = ∫
2 (i-1)TS
cos (θ − φ) dt − ∫ cos (4π fC t + θ + φ) dt
(i-1)TS

γ A TS
z1(nTS ) = cos (θ − φ)
2
S&M Eq. 5.125
z
1
(
n
T
S
)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The correlator output is > 0 if | θ – φ | < 90° and < 0 if not


because of the cos (θ – φ) term. For example, if s6(t) is
received, the ABCD correlator sign output is: – – – +. The
patterns of signs are unique and can be decoded to bi-2bi-1bi
(S&M Tables 5-7 and 5-8)
D: sref 4(t)

C: sref 3(t)

z
1
(
B: sref 2(t) n
T
A: sref 1(t) S
)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The probability of symbol error PS for coherently


demodulated M-ary PSK is:
 A 2T 2 π

PS coherent M -ary PSK ≈ 2Q  S
sin  M ≥ 4
 No M 

  Eb  2 π 
PS coherent M -ary PSK ≈ 2Q  2 log2 M   sin  M ≥ 4
  No  M
Ps  
S&M Eq. 5.126

S&M Figure 5-46

Eb / No dB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The probability of symbol error PS for coherently


demodulated M-ary PSK is:
Ps S&M Figure 5-46

Eb/No dB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The probability of symbol error PS must be related to


probability of bit error Pb for consistency. If Gray coding is
used, assume that errors will only be due to adjacent
symbols. Thus each symbol error produces only one bit in
error and log2 (M – 1) correct bits or:
1
Pb errors due to adjacent symbols = PS S&M Eq. 5.127
log2 M
However for M-ary PSK with M > 4 the assumption of errors
being due to only adjacent symbols is invalid. For the
worst case there are M – 1 incorrect symbols and in M / 2 of
these a bit will different from the correct bit so that:
1 M
PS ≤ Pb ≤ PS S&M Eq. 5.129
log2 M 2 (M − 1)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• M-ary Bandpass Techniques:
Quaternary Frequency Shift Keying
• Pages 292-298
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The analytical signal for quaternary (M-ary, M = 2n = 4)


frequency shift keying (QFSK or 4-FSK) is:

s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC + 3∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 11


s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC + ∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 10
s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 00
s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – 3∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 01
MS Figure 3.19

fC + 3∆f fC – ∆f fC – 3∆f fC + ∆f fC + 3∆f


11 00 01 10 11
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• Chose fC and ∆f so that if there are a whole number of half


cycles of a sinusoid within a symbol time TS for M = 4 for
orthogonality of the signals so that a correlation receiver
can be utilized.

s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC + 3∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 11


s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC + ∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 10
s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – ∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 00
s4-FSK(t) = A sin (2π (fC – 3∆f) t + θ) if bi-1bi = 01
MS Figure 3.19
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The correlation receiver


for 4-FSK uses four
reference signals:

sref n(t) =
sin (2π (fC + n ∆f) t)

n = ±1, ±3

S&M Figure 5-49


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The probability of symbol error PS for coherently


demodulated M-ary FSK is:
 A 2T 
PS coherent M-ary FSK ≤ (M − 1) Q  s
 M ≥ 4
 2 No 
Ps  
PS coherent M-ary FSK =
  Eb  
(M − 1) Q  log2 M    M ≥ 4
  No  

S&M Eq. 5.132

S&M Figure 5-51


Eb/No dB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The probability of symbol error PS for coherently


demodulated M-ary FSK is:
Ps S&M Figure 5-51

Eb/NodB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
• Multilevel (M-ary) Frequency
Shift Keying
• Pages 110-116
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• 4-FSK coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis:

MS Figure 3.18
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The dibits are converted to a symbol and scaled. The data


is not Gray encoded. For M-ary FSK symbol errors are
equally likely among the M – 1 correlators and there is no
advantage to Gray encoding.

MS Figure 3.18
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• 4-FSK coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis:

4-FSK correlation receiver

MS Figure 3.18
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• 4-FSK coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis: 4-FSK correlation receiver

MS Figure 3.20
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The 4-FSK correlation


receiver has four
correlators with an
integration time equal
to the symbol time TS.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The symbols are converted to dibits. The original data is


not Gray encoded and is therefore not Gray decoded.

MS Figure 3.18
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The BER and Pb comparison for 4-FSK:

Table 3.10 Observed BER and Theoretical Upper Bound


of Pb as a Function of Eb / No in 4-level FSK Digital
Communication System with Optimum Receiver

Ed/No dB BER Pb
∞ 0 0
12 0 ≈10-8
10 0 ≈10-6
8 1 × 10-4 ≈10-4
6 5.1 × 10-3 4.8 × 10-3
4 2.26 × 10-2 2.52 × 10-2
2 5.97 × 10-2 7.54 × 10-2
0 1.209 × 10-1 1.586 × 10-1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The single-sided power spectral density PSD with a


minimum carrier frequency deviation (MFSK) for M-ary
FSK is ∆f = 1/2TS = rS/2. For MFSK the carriers should be
spaced at multiples of 2∆f = 1/TS = rS (S&M Eq. 5.131 is
incorrect). Here ∆f = 2 rS = 1 kHz

M=4 rs = 500 s/sec, rb = 1 kb/sec


∆f = 1 kHz Sinc2

MS Figure 3.21
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The bandwidth of a M-ary FSK signal as a percentage of


total power (MS Table 3.9).

Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2( M – 1) ∆f + 4/Ts 95%
2 (M – 1) ∆f + 6/Ts 96.5%
2 (M – 1) ∆f + 8/Ts 97.5%
2 (M – 1) ∆f + 10/Ts 98%

For MFSK: ∆f = 1/2TS = rS/2


M = 2n and rS = rb/n
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
• M-ary Bandpass Techniques:
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
• Pages 298-301
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The analytical signal for quadrature amplitude modulation


(QAM) has I-Q components:

sQAM(t) = I sin (2π fCt) + Q cos (2π fCt)

A QAM signal has both


16-ary
amplitude and phase QAM
components which can be
shown in the constellation Q
plot.

S&M Figure 5-53


I
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• An M-ary PSK signal also has I-Q components but the


amplitude is constant and only the phase varies:

sQAM(t) = I sin (2π fCt) + Q cos (2π fCt)

S&M Figure 5-54


16-ary 16-ary
PSK QAM

Q Q

I I
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The orthogonality of the I and Q components of the QAM


signal can be exploited by the universal coherent receiver.
The orthogonal I and Q components actually occupy the
same spectrum without interference. The coherent
reference signals are:
Quadrature In-phase
s1(t) = cos (2π fCt) s2(t) = sin (2π fCt)

S&M Figure 5-55


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• An upper-bound for the probability of symbol error PS for


coherently demodulated M-ary QAM is:
 3 Es 
PS coherent M-ary QAM ≤ 4Q   S&M Eq. 5.135
 (M − 1) No
 

QAM BER curve M = 256

M=4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• An M-ary QAM constellation plot shows the stability of the


signaling and the transition from one signal to another:

256-ary QAM
16-ary QAM
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
• Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation
• Pages 123-130
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QAM coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis:
4 bit to I,Q symbol
16-QAM correlation
QAM receiver

16-level symbol to bit


MS Figure 3.26
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QAM coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis: 4 bit to I-Q symbol Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.27
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QAM coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis: Table 3.12 I and Q output amplitudes

Input I Q Input I Q Input I Q


0 –1 1 5 1 3 10 –3 –1
1 –3 1 6 3 1 11 –3 –3
2 –1 –3 7 3 3 12 1 –1
3 –3 3 8 –1 –1 13 3 –1
4 1 1 9 –1 –3 14 1 –3
15 3 –2
I LUT ± 1 to ± 3
Q LUT

MS Figure 3.27
symbol 0 to 15
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QAM coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis: QAM modulator Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.27
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QAM coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis: 16-QAM correlation receiver Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.30
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QAM coherent digital


communication system
with BER analysis:
Table 3.14 I, Q Symbol LUT
16-level output amplitudes

I Q Output I Q Output
1 1 11 3 1 1
1 2 9 3 2 0
1 3 14 3 3 4
1 4 15 3 4 6
2 1 10 4 1 3
2 2 8 4 2 2
2 3 12 4 3 5
2 4 13 4 4 7
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QAM coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis: 16 level symbol to 4 bit Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.31
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• QAM coherent digital communication system with BER


analysis: 16 level symbol to 4 bit Simulink subsystem.

MS Figure 3.31
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The single-sided power spectral density PSD of the 16-ary


QAM has a bandwidth of 1/M that of a PSK signal with the
same data rate rb.
rs = 250 s/sec, rb = 1 kb/sec

Sinc2

no discrete MS Figure 3.32


component at fC =
20 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

1 kHz BPSK PSD


rb = 1 kb/sec

16-ary QAM PSD

250 Hz rb = 1 kb/sec M = 4
rS = 250 s/sec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The bandwidth of an M-ary QAM signal as a percentage of


total power is 1/n that for the same bit rate rb = 1/Tb BPSK
signal since rs = rb/n or Ts = nTb where M = 2n (MS Table
3.14).
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power

2/Ts 2/nTb 90%


3/Ts 3/nTb 93%
4/Ts 4/nTb 95%
6/Ts 6/nTb 96.5%
8/Ts 8/nTb 97.5%
10/Ts 10/nTb 98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• 16-QAM coherent digital communication system received


I-Q components can be displayed on as a signal trajectory
or constellation plot .
real-imaginary (a + b j)
conversion to complex
polar (M exp(jθ)) conversion

Figure 3.42
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The Real-Imaginary to
Complex conversion block
is in the Math Operations,
Simulink Blockset

Figure 3.42
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The constellation plot


(scatter plot) and
signal trajectory are
Comm Sinks blocks
from the
Communications
Blockset

Figure 3.42
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The 16-ary QAM I-Q component constellation plot with


Eb/No → ∞ (MS Figures 3.43, 3.45). signal transitions

signal points decision boundaries


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The 16-ary QAM I-Q component constellation plot with


Eb/No = 12 dB, Pb ≈ 10-4 (MS Figures 3.44, 3.46 (top))
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The 16-ary QAM I-Q component constellation plot with


Eb/No = 6 dB, Pb = 3.67 x 10-4 (MS Figures 3.44, 3.46 (bot))
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

End of Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6
Analog Modulation
and Demodulation
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6
Analog Modulation
and Demodulation
• Amplitude Modulation
• Pages 306-309
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The analytical signal for double sideband, large carrier


amplitude modulation (DSB-LC AM) is:

sDSB-LC AM(t) = AC (c + s(t)) cos (2π fC t)

where c is the DC bias or offset and AC is the carrier


amplitude. The continuous analog signal s(t) is a baseband
signal with the information content (voice or music) to be
transmitted.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The baseband power spectral density (PSD) spectrum of


the information signal s(t) or S(f) for voice has significant
components below 500 Hz and a bandwidth of < 8 kHz:
S(f) = F(s(t))
The single-sided spectrum of the modulated signal is:
F(AC (c + s(t)) cos (2π fC t)) = S(f – fC)
500 Hz Power Spectral Density of s(t) 8 kHz

dB
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The single-sided (positive frequency axis) spectrum of the


modulated signal replicates the baseband spectrum as a
double-sided spectrum about the carrier frequency.

Double-sided spectrum Carrier 25 kHz

Baseband spectrum
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The double-sided modulated spectrum about the carrier


frequency has an lower (LSB) and upper (USB) sideband.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The modulated DSB-LC AM signal shows an outer envelope


that follows the polar baseband signal s(t).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The analytical signal for double sideband, suppressed


carrier amplitude modulation (DSB-SC AM) is:

sDSB-SC AM(t) = AC s(t) cos (2π fC t)

where AC is the carrier amplitude. The single-sided


spectrum of the modulated signal replicates the baseband
spectrum as a double-sided spectrum about the carrier
frequency but without a carrier component.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The analytical signal for double sideband, suppressed


carrier amplitude modulation (DSB-SC AM) is:

sDSB-SC AM(t) = AC s(t) cos (2π fC t)

where AC is the carrier amplitude. The modulated signal


sDSB-SC AM(t) looks similar to s(t) but has a temporal but not
spectral carrier component.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The DSB-LC AM and the DSB-SC AM modulated signals


have the same sidebands.

DSB-LC AM Carrier 25 kHz

DSB-SC AM No carrier
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The modulated DSB-LC AM and the DSC-SC AM signals


are different.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The modulated DSB-SC AM signal has an envelope that


follows the polar baseband signal s(t) but not an outer
envelope.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6
Analog Modulation
and Demodulation
• Coherent Demodulation
of AM Signals
• Pages 309-315
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The DSB-SC AM coherent receiver has a bandpass filter


centered at fC and with a bandwidth of twice the bandwidth
of s(t) because of the LSB and USB. The output of the
multiplier is lowpass filtered with a bandwidth equal to
the bandwidth of s(t).
r(t) = γ sDSB-SC(t) + n(t)
• The DSB-SC AM received signal is r(t) = γ sDSB-SC(t) + n(t).
The bandpass filter passes the modulated signal but filters
the noise:

z(t) = γ sDSB-SC(t) + no(t) S&M Eq. 6.3

no(t) has a Gaussian distribution. The bandpass filter has a


center frequency of fC = 25 kHz and a -3 dB bandwidth of 8
kHz (25 ± 4 kHz).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The filter noise no(t) has a flat power spectral density


within the bandwidth of the bandpass filter:

no(t)

PSD 21 kHz 29 kHz

fC = 25 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The filter noise no(t) can be described as a quadrature


representation:

no(t) = W(t) cos (2π fCt) + Z(t) sin (2π fCt) S&M Eq. 5.62R

In the coherent receiver the noise is processed:

no(t) cos (2π fCt) = W(t) cos2 (2π fCt) + S&M Eq. 6.5
Z(t) cos (2π fCt) sin (2π fCt)

PSD 21 kHz 29 kHz

fC = 25 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Applying the trignometric identity the filter noise no(t) is:

no(t) cos (2π fCt) = ½ W(t) + ½ W(t) cos (4π fCt) +


½ Z(t) sin (4π fCt) S&M Eq. 6.5

After the lowpass filter in the receiver the demodulated


signal is:

sdemod(t) = ½ γ AC s(t) + ½ W(t) S&M Eq. 6.7

PSD 21 kHz 29 kHz

fC = 25 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The transmitted DSB-SC AM signal is:

sDSB-SC AM(t) = AC s(t) cos (2π fC t)

The average normalized bi-sided power of sDSB-SC(t) is


found in the spectral domain with S(f) = F (s(t)):
2
1
Ptrans = A 2 ∫ [S(f − fC ) + S(f + fC )] df S&M Eq. 6.8
2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The dual-sided spectral do not overlap (at zero frequency)


and the cross terms are zero so that:
2
1
Ptrans = A 2 ∫ [SDSB-SC (f − fC ) + SDSB-SC (f + fC )] df
2
A2 S&M Eq. 6.9
Ptrans = Ps
2
where Ps is the average normalized power of s(t).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The average normalized power of s(t) is found in the


spectral domain:
2 2
Ps = ∫ S(f) df = ∫ S(f + fC ) df
S&M Eq. 6.10
In a noiseless channel the power in the demodulated
DSB-SC AM signal is:
1 2 2 γ2
Pdemod, noiseless = γ A Ps = Ptrans S&M Eq. 6.11
4 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The average normalized power of the processed noise is:


1
Pprocessed noise = No (2 B)
4
The signal-to-noise power ratio then is:
γ2
Ptrans 2
2 γ Ptrans
SNRcoherent DSB-SC = = S&M Eq. 6.12
1 No B
No (2 B)
4
2B
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The DSB-SC AM coherent receiver requires a phase


and frequency synchronous reference signal. If the
reference signal has a phase error φ then:
SNRcoherent DSB-SC phase error =
S&M Eq. 6.17
γ 2 cos2 ϕ Ptrans
No B
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The DSB-SC AM coherent receiver requires a phase


and frequency synchronous reference signal. If the
reference signal has a frequency error ∆f then:

Sdemod frequency error(t) = ½ γ AC s(t) cos (2π ∆f t)


+ ½ X(t) cos (2π ∆f t)
+ ½ Y(t) sin (2π ∆f t) S&M Eq. 6.18

• Although the noise component remains the same, the


amplitude of the demodulated signal varies with ∆f:
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6
Analog Modulation
and Demodulation
• Non-coherent Demodulation
of AM Signals
• Pages 315-326
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The non-coherent AM (DSB-LC) receiver uses an envelope


detector implemented as a semiconductor diode and a low-
pass filter:

The DSB-LC AM analytical signal is:

sDSB-LC AM(t) = AC (c + s(t)) cos (2π fC t)

where c is the DC bias (offset).


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The envelope detector is a half-wave rectifier and


provides a DC bias (c) to the processed DSB-LC AM
signal :

c = DC bias
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

• The output of the half-wave diode rectifier is low-pass


filtered to remove the carrier frequency and outputs the
envelope which is the information:
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The DSB-LC AM signal can be decomposed as:

sDSB-LC AM(t) = s(t) cos (2π fC t) + AC c cos (2π fC t)


S&M Eq. 6.20R

The average normalized power of the information term:


A C2
Pinfo term = PS S&M Eq. 6.23
2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The average normalized transmitted power is:


T
1
∫ [A c cos(2πfC t)] dt
2
Pcarrier term = C
T 0

A C2 c 2
Pcarrier term = S&M Eq. 6.24
2
Since s(t) + c must be >= 0 to avoid distortion in the
DSB-LC AM signal: c ≥ | min [s(t)] | or c2 ≥ s2(t) for all t.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Therefore c2 ≥ Ps and for DSB-LC AM:


Pcarrier term ≥ Pinfo term S&M Eq. 6.28
The power efficiency η of a DSB-LC AM signal is:
Pinfo term Pinfo term
η = = ≤ 0.5
Pcarrier term + Pinfo term Ptrans DSB-LC AM term

S&M Eq. 6.29


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The DSB-LC AM signal wastes at least half the


transmitted power because the power in the carrier term
has no information:
Pcarrier term ≥ Pinfo term η ≤ 0.5
The modulation index m is defined as:
max [ s(t) + c ] − min [ s(t) + c ]
m = S&M Eq. 6.30
max [ s(t) + c ] + min [ s(t) + c ]
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The modulation index m defines the power efficiency but


m must be less than 1. If m > 1 then min [s(t) + c] < 0 and
distortion occurs.
max [ s(t) + c ] − min [ s(t) + c ]
m = S&M Eq. 6.30
max [ s(t) + c ] + min [ s(t) + c ]
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The average normalized power of the demodulation


noiseless DSB-LC AM signal is:
Pdemod, noiseless = 2 γ 2 Pinfo term S&M Eq. 6.39

Then the signal-to-noise power ratio for the DSB-LC AM


signal is:
S&M Eq. 6.40
2 γ 2 Pinfo term γ 2 Ptrans DSB-LC
SNRnoncoherent DSB-LC = = η
No (2 B) No B
2B
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The non-coherent AM (DSB-LC) receiver is the crystal


radio which needs no batteries! Power for the high-
impedance ceramic earphone is obtained directly from the
transmitted signal. For simplicity, the RF BPF is omitted
and the audio frequency filter is a simple RC network.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6
Analog Modulation
and Demodulation
• Frequency Modulation and
Phase Modulation
• Pages 334-343
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The analytical signal for an analog phase modulated (PM)


signal is:
sPM(t) = AC cos [2π fC t + α s(t)] S&M Eq. 6.53

where α is the phase modulation constant rad/V and AC is


the carrier amplitude. The continuous analog signal s(t) is a
baseband signal with the information content (voice or
music) to be transmitted.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The analytical signal for an analog frequency modulated


(FM) signal is:

sFM(t) = AC cos{ 2π [fC + k s(t)] t + φ] S&M Eq. 6.53

where k is the frequency modulation constant Hz / V, AC


is the carrier amplitude and φ is the initial phase angle at
t = 0. The continuous analog signal s(t) is a baseband
signal with the information content.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The instantaneous phase of the PM signal is:

ΨPM(t) = 2π fC t + α s(t) S&M Eq. 6.56

The instantaneous phase of the FM signal is:

ΨFM(t) = 2π [fC + k s(t)] t + φ] S&M Eq. 6.57

The instantaneous phase is also call the angle of the signal.


The instantaneous frequency is the time rate of change of
the angle:

f(t) = (1/2π) dΨ(t) / dt S&M Eq. 6.58


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The instantaneous frequency of the unmodulated carrier


signal is:

fcarrier(t) = dΨcarrier(t) / dt = d/dt {2π fCt + φ} S&M Eq. 6.59

The instantaneous phase is also:


t t
Ψ(t) = ∫ f (λ) dλ = ∫ f (λ) dλ + φ S&M Eq. 6.60
-∞ 0

There are practical limits on instantaneous frequency and


instantaneous phase. To avoid ambiguity and distortion in
FM signals due to phase wrapping:

k s(t) ≤ fC for all t S&M Eq. 6.61


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• To avoid ambiguity and distortion in PM signals due to


phase wrapping:

-π < α s(t) ≤ π radians for all t S&M Eq. 6.61

Since FM and PM are both change the angle of the carrier


signal as a function of the analog information signal s(t), FM
and PM are called angle modulation.

For example, is this signal FM, PM or neither:


t
x(t) = AC cos { 2π fCt + ∫ k s(λ) dλ + φ} S&M Eq. 6.60
-∞
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The instantaneous phase of the signal is:


t
Ψx(t) = 2π fCt + ∫ k s(λ) dλ + φ S&M Eq. p. 336
-∞
which is not a linear function of s(t) so the signal is not PM.
The instantaneous frequency of the signal is:

fx(t) = (1/2π) dΨx(t) / dt = fC + k s(t) / 2π

and the frequency difference fx – fC is a linear function of s(t)


so the signal is FM.

The maximum phase deviation of a PM signal is


max | αs(t) |. The maximum frequency deviation of a FM
signal is ∆f = max | k s(t) |.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The spectrum of a PM or FM signal can be developed as


follows: S&M Eqs. 6.64 through 6.71
v(t) = A C sin(2π fC t + β sin 2π fm t)
v(t) = Re { exp(j 2π fC t + j β sin 2π fm t) }
now exp(j 2π fC t + j β sin 2π fm t) =
cos (2π fC t + β sin 2π fm t) + j sin (2π fC t + β sin 2π fm t)
v(t) = Im { A C exp(2π fC t + jβ sin 2π fm t) }

now exp(j β sin 2π fm t) = ∑ c exp(j 2π n f
n = -∞
n m t)

after further development Bessel function of the first kind



exp(j β sin 2π fm t) = ∑ J (β) exp(j 2π n f
n = -∞
n m t)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Bessel functions of the first kind Jn(β) are tabulated for FM


with single tone fm angle modulation (S&M Table 6.1):
β

n
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• For single tone fm angle modulation the spectrum is periodic


and infinite in extent:

v(t) = A C ∑ J (β) sin[2π (n f
n = -∞
n m + fC ) t] S&M Eq. 6.72

β
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The complexity of the Bessel function solution for the


spectrum of a single tone angle modulation can be
simplified by the Carson’s Rule approximation for the
bandwidth B. Since β = ∆f / fm:
B = 2 (β + 1) fm = 2 (∆f + fm) Hz S&M Eq. 6.74

β
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Carson’s Rule for the approximate bandwidth of an angle


modulated signal was developed by John R. Carson in
1922 while he worked at AT&T. Prior to this in 1915 he
presaged the concept of bandwidth
efficiency in AM by proposing
the suppression of a sideband
(see S&M p. 326-333):
B = 2 (β + 1) fm = 2 (∆f + fm) Hz

1886-1940
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The normalized power within the Carson’s Rule bandwidth


for a single tone angle modulated signals is:
A C2 β+1 2
Pin-band, sinusoid = ∑
2 n = -(β+1)
Jn (β) S&M Eq. 6.75

Note that J-n(β) = ± Jn(β) so that J-n2(β) = Jn2(β) and for the
normalized power calculation the sign of J(β) is not used.

Spectrum of
single tone FM
modulation
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The analog FM power spectral density PSD of the voice


signal has a bandwidth predicted only by Carson’s Rule
since it is not a single tone.

Voice

PSD
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Here fmax = 4 kHz, k = 25 Hz/V and ∆fmax = 40(25) = 1 kHz.


The Carson’s Rule approximate maximum bandwidth
B = 2 (∆f + fm) = 10 kHz or ± 5 kHz (but seems wrong!)

40
Voice

fC

PSD

Bandwidth
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• A 200 Hz single tone FM signal has a PSD with periodic


terms at fC ± n fm = 25 ± 0.2 n kHz.

fC
200 Hz
PSD
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Here fm = 200 Hz, k = 25 Hz/V and ∆fmax = 40(25) = 1


kHz. The Carson’s Rule approximate maximum bandwidth
B = 2 (∆f + fm) = 2.4 kHz or ± 1.2 kHz:

fC
200 Hz
PSD

Bandwidth
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Since β = ∆f / fm = 1 kHz / 0.2 kHz = 5 and the Bessel


function predicts a bandwidth of 2 n fm = 2(12)(200) =
4.8 kHz (since n = 12 for β = 5 from Table 6.1):

fC
200 Hz
PSD

Bandwidth
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

Chapter 6
Analog Modulation
and Demodulation
• Noise in FM and PM Systems
• Pages 347-355
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• A general angle modulated transmitted signal, where Ψ(t)


is the instantaneous phase, is:

sangle-modulated(t) = AC cos [Ψ(t)] S&M Eq. 6.86

The received signals is:

rangle-modulated(t) = γ AC cos [Ψ(t)] + n(t) S&M Eq. 6.87


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The analytical signal for PM is:

sPM(t) = AC cos [Ψ(t)] = AC cos [2π fC t + α s(t)]


S&M Eq. 6.53
After development the SNR for demodulated PM is:

SNRPM = (αγ AC)2 PS / (2 No fmax) S&M Eq. 6.98

where −π < α s(t) ≤ π for all t.


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The analytical signal for FM is:

sFM(t) = AC cos [Ψ(t)] = AC cos [2π fC t + ∫ k s(λ) dλ]


S&M Eq. 6.53
After development the SNR for demodulated FM is:

SNRFM = 1.5 (k γ AC /(2π) )2 PS / (No fmax3) S&M Eq. 6.98

where k s(t) ≤ fC for all t.


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

End of Chapter 6
Analog Modulation
and Demodulation
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

Chapter 7
Multiplexing Techniques
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

Chapter 7
Multiplexing Techniques
• Time Division Multiplexing
• Pages 364-368
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• Time division multiplexing (TDM) combines several low,


fixed and predefined bit rate sources into a single high
speed bit stream for transmission over a single digital
communication channel:

Time slots

Multiplexer Demultiplexer
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• The TDM time slots have to be chosen properly. If the time


slots are too small (for example, 1 bit) then the multiplexer
and demultiplexer must switch rapidly. If the time slots are
too large (for example, 64 Kb) then the data must be
buffered and delay would be produced. TDM is used for
baseband (not bandpass) data transmission.

Time slots

Multiplexer Demultiplexer
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• The T1 TDM system for telephone networks uses a 193 bit


frame where each frame has 24 8-bit slots and 1-bit in each
frame for signaling. The T1 bit rate rb = 1.544 Mb/sec.

S&M Figure 7-3

The duration of each frame Tf = 193 b / 1.544 Mb/sec =


125 µsec or 8 k samples/sec. Here all the data sources
have the same data rate.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• If the data sources have different rates a multiplexer


scheme must reconcile the disparate rates.

S&M Figure 7-4

The data rates are in the lowest possible ratio of 8:16:24 or


1:2:3 for a total of 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 slots. The slots are
apportioned to the channels as: a b b c c c and the channel
data rate is 48 kb/sec.

Another example is data rates of 10, 15, 20, and 30 Kb/sec


which reduces to 2:3:4:6 (the LCD is 5) for 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 =
15 slots and the channel data rate is 45 kb/sec.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• If data arrives asynchronously from variable rate sources, a


statistical multiplexer with input buffers is used. The design
is performed by observation and tested in simulation.

S&M Figure 7-5


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• The statistical TDM packet consists of a start flag, address


field, control field, information bits, error control, and an end
flag. S&M Figure 7-6

TCP/IP data packet


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• TDM with four equal data rate sources rb = 250 b/sec and a
transmission rate rTDM = 1 kb/sec

0110
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• TDM with unequal data rate sources rb = 250, 250 and 500
b/sec and a transmission rate rTDM = 1 kb/sec

rb = 500 b/sec (input)

rTDM = 1 kb/sec

1 msec delay rb = 500 b/sec (output)


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

Chapter 7
Multiplexing Techniques
• Frequency Division Multiplexing
• Pages 368-370
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) divides the total


bandwidth available to the system into non-overlapping
frequency sub-bands for transmission over a single digital
communication channel.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• FDM usually utilizes guard bands to separate the digital


data transmissions. FDM is used for bandpass (not
baseband) data transmission
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• FDM for FM broadcasting over a cable system:

WPTS
Pittsburgh
WQAN
Scranton

WXTU

S&M
Figure 7-7a
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• FDM employs a common shared bandwidth but here with


no apparent guard bands.
S&M Figure 7-7b
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• Optical FDM is usually called wavelength division


multiplexing (WDM) and utilizes separate wavelengths
(λ) of light.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• TDM is used for baseband and FDM for bandpass data


transmission. FDM requires the assignment and
coordination of carrier frequencies which can be
problematic. Code division multiple access (CDMA) utilizes
spread spectrum modulation over the same frequency
band. CDMA is considered in EE4542 Telecommunications
Engineering.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

• FDM PSD with three equal data rate sources rb = 1 kb/sec


and three carrier frequencies of 15.5, 20 and 24.5 kHz.

BFSK (MFSK)

BASK (OOK) BPSK


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 7

End of Chapter 7
Multiplexing Techniques
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital to Analog
Conversion
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Sampling and Quantization
• Pages 390-391
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Traditional analog transmission (AM, FM and PM) are less


complex than digital data transmission have been the basis
of broadcasting and communication for 100 years.
S&M Figure 8-1a

Analog television signal Analog television spectrum


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Digital data transmission (PAM, ASK, PSK, FSK and QAM)


is more complex but (perhaps) offers higher performance
with control of accuracy and easier storage, simpler signal
processing for noise reduction, error detection and
correction and encryption.

S&M Figure 8-1b


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Digital data transmission requires analog-to-digital (ADC)


and digital-to-analog (DAC) converters. The ADC process
utilizes sampling and quantization of the continuous analog
signal.
ADC

DAC

S&M Figure 8-1b


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• ADC sampling occurs at a uniform rate (the sampling rate)


and has a continuous amplitude.
S&M Figure 8-2a,b

Analog signal

Uniform
sampling Continuous
rate amplitude
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The continuous amplitude sample is then quantized to n


bits or resolution for the full scale input or 2n levels.

Uniform Continuous
sampling amplitude
rate

Quantized
Quantized
amplitude

S&M Figure 8-2b,c


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Here n = 4 and there are 24 = 16 levels for a full scale input


of 2 V (± 1 V). The step size = 2 V / 16 = 0.125 V and the
quantized value
is the midpoint
of the voltage
range.

S&M Table 8.1


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Sampling Baseband
Analog Signals
• Pages 392-399
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The analog signal x(t) which is continuously, uniformly


sampled is represented by:

x s (t) = x(t) ∑ δ(t − kTS ) S&M Eq. 8.1
k = −∞

Multiplication in the temporal domain is convolution in the


frequency domain and the frequency domain representation
is:
 ∞ 
F
Xs (f) = X(f) ∗  ∑ δ(t − k TS )
k = −∞ 
 ∞

Xs (f) = X(f) ∗ fS


k = −∞
δ(f − k fS )

S&M Eq. 8.2


Xs (f) = fS ∑
k = −∞
X(f − k fS )
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Temporal and spectral representation of the continuous


sampling process for a sum of three sinusoids.



δ(t − kTS ) ∑ δ(f − k f
k = −∞
S )
k = −∞



x s (t) = x(t) ∑ δ(t − kTS )
Xs (f) = fS ∑
k = −∞
X(f − k fS )
k = −∞

S&M Figure 8-3


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• 2 V, 20° initial
phase, 500 Hz
sinusoid
sampled at
5 k samples/sec

S&M Figure 8-4a,b


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Aliased samples
can be
reconstructed
for a 4500 Hz
and a 5500 Hz
sinusoid that
appears to be
a 500 Hz
sinusoid

S&M
Figure 8-4a,c,d
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The aliasing of
the signal can
be predicted by
the magnitude
spectrum of the
original 500 Hz
sampled signal.

If the 4500 Hz
and 5500 Hz
signals are then
sampled at
S&M Figure 8-4a,b
5 k samples/sec
aliasing at occurs at | 4500 – 5000 | and (5500 – 5000) Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The sum of
three sinusoids
does not have
any aliased
frequencies
since the
S&M Figure 8-4a,c
sampling
frequency fS
is greater than
twice the
highest
frequency fmax

fS > 2 fmax
S&M Figure 8-5
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The frequency
2 fmax is called
the Nyquist
frequency.

Harry Nyquist,
who contributed S&M Figure 8-4a
to the understanding of thermal noise
while at Bell Labs, is also remembered
in electrotechnology for his analysis of
sampled data signals.

Harry Nyquist
1889-1976
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The analog signal is reconstructed from the quantized


samples by a DAC and a low pass filter (LFP).

S&M Figure 8-6


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• For practical signals fS > 2 fmax using a guard band for LPFs

fS = 2 fmax

guard band
fS > 2 fmax

S&M Figure 8-7


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• With out-of-band noise and sample signals, aliases of the


noise now appear in-band and should be filtered before the
sampling process.
S&M Figure 8-8
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Sampling Baseband
Analog Signals
• Pages 149-182
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The periodic baseband


signal consisting of
three sinusoids is
impulse sampled,
sampled-and-held,
processed by an
8-bit ADC-DAC
and a quantizer
in Simulink.

MS Figure 4.1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The periodic baseband signal is the sum of a 1 V 500 Hz, a


0.5 V 1.5 kHz and a 0.2 V 2.5 kHz sinusoid.

MS Figure 4.2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The power spectral density (PSD) of the periodic baseband


signal has the expected peaks at 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 kHz.

Three sinusoids MS Figure 4.3


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The periodic baseband signal is overlaid with the continuous


amplitude sample-and-hold signal with fS = 8 kHz.

MS Figure 4.4

0.125 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The analog signal x(t) here is sampled and held rather than
impulse sampled:
y s-h (t) = ∑ x(nTS ) h(t − nTS ) h(t) = 1 0 ≤ t ≤ TS
n

h(t) = 0 otherwise MS Eq. 4.3


The power spectral density (PSDs-h) of the sample and hold
operation is:

PSDs-h = fS2 ∑
k = −∞
| X(f − k fS ) | 2 TS2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )

PSDs-h = ∑
k = −∞
| X(f − k fS ) | 2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )
MS Eq. 4.4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• However, if the analog signal x(t) is impulse sampled:

x(nTS ) = ∑ x(t) δ(t − nTS ) MS Eq. 4.1


n

Then the power spectral density (PSD) does not have a


sinc2 term:

PSD = fS2 ∑
k = −∞
| X(f − k fS ) | 2 MS Eq. 4.2

The PSDs-h does have the sinc2 term:



PSDs-h = ∑
k = −∞
| X(f − k fS ) | 2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )
MS Eq. 4.4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The PSD of the impulse sampled sum of three sinusoid


signal with fS = 8 kHz is:

8 kHz 16 kHz MS Figure 4.5

No sinc2 term


PSD = fS2 ∑
k = −∞
| X(f − k fS ) | 2 MS Eq. 4.2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The PSD of the continuous amplitude sample and hold


sum of three sinusoid signal with fS = 8 kHz is:

8 kHz 16 kHz MS Figure 4.6

sinc2 term


PSDs-h = fS2 ∑
k = −∞
| X(f − k fS ) | 2 TS2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )
∞ MS Eq. 4.4
PSDs-h = ∑
k = −∞
| X(f − k fS ) | 2 sinc 2 ( 2π f TS )
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Sampling Bandpass
Analog Signals
• Pages 399-400
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• A bandpass signal does not need to be sampled at 2 f2.


Nyquist’s bandpass sampling theory states that the
sampling rate fS > 2(f2 − f1) which is substantially less than
2 f2
S&M Figure 8-9
8 10 kHz

f1 f2
LPF 10 kHz fS = 20 ksamples/sec

BPF 8-10 kHz fS = 7 ksamples/sec


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Sampling Bandpass
Analog Signals
• Pages 180-181
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The Simulink simulation uses the DSB AM modulation


block and the sum of three sinusoids source.

MS Figure 4-32

MS Figure 4-33
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The Simulink simulation initially uses a sampling rate of


5 MHz and results in 4 194 304 = 222 sampling points. The
PSD shows the DSB-LC AM signal with the LSB and USB.
fC

LSB USB

Scaled PSD fmax = 50 kHz MS Figure 4-33


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The bandwidth of the bandpass signal is f2 − f1 = 22.5 −


17.5 = 5 kHz and the Simulink sampling rate is set to
50 kHz and results in only 32 768 = 215 sampling points.
fC

LSB USB

Aliased frequency range > 25 kHz


Scaled PSD fmax = 50 kHz MS Figure 4-34
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Quantizing Process:
Uniform Quantization
• Pages 400-404
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The quantizing process divides the range (± full scale) into


2n (n = 4 here) regions which are assigned an n-bit binary
code.

S&M Figure 8-10


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The error associated with the quantizing process is


assumed to have a uniform probability density function.
The maximum error for uniform quantization is:
 2 Vmax  Vmax
q = ± 0.5  n  = ± 2n
 2 
The quantizer range is ± Vmax
and the uniform quantizer
voltage step size is:
2 Vmax Vmax
∆= = n-1 MS Eq. 4.6
2n
2 S&M Figure 8-11
The mean square quantizing Eq is the normalized
quantizing noise power:
∆/2 2 2
1 ∆2 Vmax Vmax
Eq = ∫ q dq = = =
2
MS Eq. 4.7
∆ −∆ / 2 12 3 2 n
2
( ) ( )
3 22n
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The signal to quantizing noise power (SNRq) is:


12 PS PS
SNRq =
∆2
= 3( )
2 2n
2
Vmax
MS Eq. 4.8
PS is the normalized power of the signal that is quantized.

For the ADC here ∆ = 10 mV and n = 8. The sum of three


sinusoids as the input signal has a peak amplitude of 1.1 V
and the quantizing noise has a peak amplitude of 10 mV.

10 mV

MS Figure 4.7
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Quantizing Process:
Nonuniform Quantization
• Pages 400-404
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Nonuniform quantization divides the dynamic range of an


analog signal into nonuniform quantization regions. Lower
magnitudes have smaller quantization regions than high
magnitudes.

The quantization of speech benefits from nonuniform


quantization since the perception of hearing is logarithmical
rather than linear.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Uniform Uniform quantization


quantization
(top) results in
a large amount
of error for
small sample
amplitude.
Nonuniform quantization
Non-uniform
quantization
(bottom)
reduces the
error for small
sample
amplitudes. S&M Figure 8-13
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Uniform quantization is simpler to implement so a


compressor (a non-linear transfer function) is used before
the quantizer.  Vin 
The µ-Law ln  1+µ 
 Vmax  Vin
compressor Vout = Vmax 0 ≤ ≤1
is used in ln (1+µ) Vmax
telephony
with MS Eq. 4.9
µ = 255. At the receiver
an expander has the
inverse non-linear
transfer function and
results in companding
(COMpressing and
exPANDING).
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Companding
• Pages 157-159
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The µ-Law compander concept can be simulated in


Simulink with the µ-Law Compressor and µ-Law Expander
blocks. The A-Law Compressor and A-Law Expander
blocks are included for comparison.

MS Figure 4.13
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The µ-Law compressor voltage transfer function is


sigmoidal (S-shaped).

MS Figure 4.14
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Pulse Code Modulation
• Pages 171-175
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The pulse code modulator (PCM) transmitter utilizes a


Simulink µ-Law compressor block, an 8-bit ADC subsystem,
an 8-bit DAC subsystem and a µ-Law expander block.

MS Figure 4.21
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The Simulink 8-bit ADC subsystem has a sample-and-hold


block controlled by a sampling pulse generator, an 8-bit
encoder block, an integer-to-bit converter block which
provides an 8-bit vector to a demultiplexer block and a
multiport switch. An 8-level staircase subsystem
sequences the multiport switch to select 1 of the 8 inputs for
bit serial output.

MS Figure 4.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The 8-level staircase Simulink subsystem sequences the


multiport switch with a 3-bit counter and a 3-bit DAC for the
output.

3-bit counter

3-bit DAC

MS Figure 4.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The 8-bit DAC Simulink subsystem for the PCM system


uses a 8-bit shift register and an 8-bit DAC.
8-bit shift
register

8-bit DAC
MS Figure 4.24
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• The 8-bit DAC Simulink subsystem for the PCM system


uses a 8-bit shift register and an 8-bit DAC.
8-bit shift
register

8-bit DAC
MS Figure 4.24
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Analog input signal to the PCM system

MS Figure 4.25

MS Figure 4.21
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• 8-bit DAC output after 8-bit ADC and µ-Law Compressor

MS Figure 4.25

MS Figure 4.21
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• µ-Law Expander block output of the PCM system

MS Figure 4.25

MS Figure 4.21
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• LPF output of the PCM system

MS Figure 4.25

MS Figure 4.21
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Analog input signal to the PCM system

• LPF output of the PCM system MS Figure 4.25

startup
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Differential Pulse Code
Modulation
• Pages 407-411
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Sampled speech data are highly correlated and differential


pulse code modulation (DPCM) exploits this to lower the
overall data
rate.
DPCM
uses a
predictor
to subtract
a predicted S&M Figure 8-15
value from
the input.
The error
difference
is sent.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The predictor is a recursive equation, for example:


S(n) = 0.75 s(n−1) + 0.2 s(n−2) +0.05 s(n−3)

where S(n)
is the
predicted
value of the
n th sample
and s(n-i) S&M Figure 8-15
is the n-i th
sample.
The error
signal is
s(n) − S(n)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• A typical continuous analog signal is sampled and results in


a discrete signal s(n), The discrete predicted signal S(n) is
recursively computed. The discrete error signal is
transmitted and has less quantizing bits than the actual
discrete signal.

S&M Figure 8-16b


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• A DPCM example of actual discrete values, predicted


values and the error terms:

S&M Table 8-3


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Differential Pulse Code
Modulation
• Pages 175-180
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• A 4-bit first order differential pulse code modulator (DPCM)


can be simulated in Simulink.

MS Figure 4.26
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The first order linear predictor MetaSystem determines the


error signal: e(n) = s(n+1) − 2 s(n) + s(n-1)
error signal

input

MS Figure 4.27
ADC conversion command
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The Simulink 4-bit ADC subsystem of the DPCM system is


similar to the 8-bit ADC of the PCM system and illustrates
design reuse.

MS Figure 4.28
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The Simulink 4-bit DAC subsystem of the DPCM system is


also similar to the 8-bit DAC of the PCM system and
again illustrates design reuse.

4-bit shift
register

MS Figure 4.29 4-bit DAC


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The first order linear predictor Simulink subsystem


reconstructs an estimate of the signal se(n) from the error
signal e(n) received and past estimates:
se(n+1) = e(n+1) + 2 se(n) − se(n−1)
input

reconstructed
signal

MS Figure 4.30
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Analog input signal of the DPCM system

MS Figure 4.31

MS Figure 4.31
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Output of the 4-bit first order DPCM system

MS Figure 4.31

MS Figure 4.31
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Analog input signal to the DPCM system

• Output of the 4-bit first order DPCM system MS Figure 4.31

startup
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

• Output of the 8-bit PCM system MS Figure 4.25

startup

• Output of the 4-bit first order DPCM system MS Figure 4.31

startup
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Delta Modulation
• Pages 411-415
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Delta modulation is an extreme example of DPCM using


1-bit data representing ± ∆:
S(n) = S(n−1) + ∆ bi = 1 if S(n−1) ≤ s(n−1)
S(n) = S(n−1) − ∆ bi = 0 if S(n−1) > s(n−1)
S&M Eq. 8.10

DM transmitter

DM receiver

S&M Figure 8-18


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The reconstructed signal increments ± ∆ on each


transmitted bit.
bi = 1 S(n) = S(n−1) + ∆ bi = 0 S(n) = S(n−1) − ∆

4 1s 4 0s S&M Figure 8-19


EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion
• Delta Modulation
• Pages 72-75
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Delta modulation (DM) can be simulated in Simulink. The


DM receiver utilizes a sample and hold token as an
accumulator and the step size ∆ = 20 mV.
fS = 2 kHz
TS = 0.5 msec DM transmitter DM receiver

f = 2 Hz
A=1V MS Figure 2.61
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• DM can be subject to slope overload which occurs when:


∆ / TS < max | d m(t) / dt | SVU Eq. 2.61 modified
Here the sinusoid has A = 1 but f = 10 Hz and:
∆ / TS = 20 mV / 0.5 msec = 40 < max | d m(t) / dt | = 80π
and slope overload occurs.

sinusoidal MS Figure 2.63


input signal
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• Granular noise occurs in DM because if the input m(t) is


constant the received signal oscillates by ± ∆ because there
is no 0 possible. Clocking occurs at the DM symbol interval
TS = 0.5 msec.

± ∆ = ± 20 mV

∆ = 20 mV MS Figure 2.64
TS = 0.5 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• The tradeoff between slope overload and granular noise is


that a large value of ∆ (to avoid slope overload) would
increase granular noise. A decrease in Ts (again to avoid
slope overload) would increase the data rate rS.

• The step size ∆ = 20 mV and TS = 0.5 msec (rS = 2 kb/sec)


here.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• For a 10 Hz sinusoidal input signal to a DM:


m(t) = sin (2π 10t)
max | d m(t) / dt | = 20π

• If step size ∆ = 20 mV and TS = 0.5 msec then


∆ / TS = 40 < max | d m(t) / dt | = 20π so slope overload is
predicted to occur.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• For the 10 Hz sinusoidal input signal to a DM


m(t) = sin (2π 10t)
max | d m(t) / dt | = 20π

and the step size remains ∆ = 20 mV but TS = 0.25 msec


then ∆ / TS = 80 > max | d m(t) / dt | and slope overload is
mitigated but rS = 4 kb/sec.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 6

• In comparison, an 8-bit PCM system sampling a 10 Hz


sinusoid at a reasonable sampling rate of 500 Hz (50
sampling points/period) has rb = 8(500) = 4 kb/sec or rb = rS
but PCM is more complicated than DM.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 8

End of Chapter 8
Analog-to-Digital and
Digital-to-Analog
Conversion