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We must be know U.S.G (Ultrasonography) term in medical world. USG is a

diagnosis method that use ultrasonic wave. Before we talk further about U.S.G,
we shall to know about the definition of Ultrasonic Wave. Ultrasonic wave is a
sound or vibration that has too high frequency to be heard by human, the
human can hear a voice with 20 – 20.000 herzt. In this case, Ultrasonic wave is
higher than sound frequency. Ultrasonic wave can spread in the liquid, solid,
and gas medium. Reflectifity of Ultrasonic wave on liquid surface is almost the
same with the solid surface, but the reflectifity on textil and foam can be
heard, is straightforward and easy to focus. The advantages od ultrasonic wave
that can’t be heard straightforward and easy to focus. The distance of an
object that uses delay reflection wave and incident wave such as radar
systems and motion detection by sensors on the robot or animal

An understanding of the physical properties of ultrasonic waves is needed in

the ultrasound examination, such as:

1. To know the working principles, how to use and inspect the U.S.G tool.

2. To make the interpretation of the ultrasound picture and recognize the

various picture artifacts.

3. To understand about biologic effect and security aspect in the use of

diagnostic ultrasound equipment which is still need to be monitored.

At the first time U.S.G discovery. it begans with the invention of ultrasound
ultrasonic waves. then a few years after that, precisely as much of the 1920s,
the working principle of ultrasonic waves began to be applied in medicine. The
use of ultrasound in medicine was first applied for the benefit of therapy was
not to diagnose a disease
In this case, the ability of ultrasonic waves is used to destroy the “dangerous”
cells or tissues. Later, widely applied also to cure other diseases. For example,
therapy for people with arthritis, haemorrhoids, asthma, thyrotoxicosis,
pepticum ulcer (peptic ulcers), elephanthiasis (elephantiasis), and even therapy
for patients with angina pectoris (chest pain). Only in early 1940, assessed
ultrasonic waves allow to be used as a tool to diagnose a disease, is not just for
therapy. It was concluded thanks to Karl Theodore Dussik experimental results,
a neurologist at the University of Vienna, Austria. Together with his brother,
Freiderich, a physicist, to locate a brain tumor and blood vessels in the brain by
measuring the reflection of ultrasonic wave transmission through the skull. By
using transducers (a combination transmitter and receiver equipment data),
the scan was still a two-dimensional image consisting of rows of low-intensity
spots. Then George Ludwig, American physicist, perfected instrument Dussik

As we all know that ultrasonography is one of theimaging medical technology

product that known until recently. Medical Imaging (MI) is a technic that’s
used to imagine the inner organs or a tissue in the body, without hurt or pain.
Interaction between physic tissue phenomenon and followed with the
detection tecnic as the result of its self to be processed and constructed to be
an image, become a based of the basis for the operation of the equipment MI.

Digital Trandusser Technology at about 1990s might be allowing ultrasonic

wave signal produces the image of a tissue more clearly. Computer discovery
in the mid 1990's obviously very helpful to this technology. Ultrasonic wave
will go through the following process: first, the waves will be accepted
transducer. Then the waves are processed in a computer in such a way that the
form of the image will appear on the monitor screen. Transducers used
consists of transducers producing two-dimensional drawings or three-
dimensional. As this evolved to such an extent that an ultrasound today.
The scheme of the workings of the ultrasound that uses ultrasonic waves are
as follows:

1. Transducer
It’s a component of the ultrasound transducer placed on the body to be
examined, such as the abdominal wall or the wall of the shaft colon
prostate examination. In the crystal transducers are used to capture the
reflection of the waves transmitted by the transducer. The waves were
still in the waveform received akusitik (wave reflection) so that the
function of the crystal here is to transform these waves into electronic
waves that can be read by the computer so it can be translated into an

2. Monitor
Monitor that’s used in the U.S.G
3. USG Machine
Ultrasound machine is a part of the ultrasound where it functions to
process data received in the form of waves. Ultrasound is the ultrasound
machine CPUnya that in it there is the same components such as the
CPU of the PC to change the way ultrasound waves into images.

Four Kinds of USG Machine

1. 2D USG Machine
Displaying images of two fields (lengthwise and crosswise). The picture
quality is good most of the state of the fetus can be displayed.
2. 3D Ultrasound
With ultrasound, there will be an additional field image called coronal.
Images that look much like the original. The surface of an object (in this
case is the body of the fetus) can be seen clearly. Likewise the state of
the fetus from a different position. This is possible because the images
can be rotated (not a fetus is rotated)
3. USG 4 Dimensi
4 Dimensional Ultrasound Actually this is just a term for 3-dimensional
ultrasound can move (live 3D). If a picture taken from a static 3-D
ultrasound, while the ultrasound 4 Dimensions, drawings fetus can
"move". So patients can see more clearly and to imagine the state of the
fetus in the womb.

This is the display of 4D Machine

4. Doppler ultrasound
. Ultrasound examination that promotes blood flow measurement
primarily flows cord. This
tool is used to assess the state / fetal wellbeing. Assessment of fetal
wellbeing include:
- Motion fetal breathing (minimum 2x/10 minutes).
- Tonus (fetal movement).
- Amniotic fluid index (normally 10-20 cm).
- Umbilical artery Doppler.
- Reactivity fetal heart rate.
Here is a picture of digital color Doppler ultrasound results
See the functions and workings of the ultrasound, it can be said that the
performance of ultrasound scanners generally identical to the difference is the
received data, receive data in the form of a wave ultrasound scanner while
receiving data in the form of goods