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MTH 102: Linear Algebra

Department of Mathematics and Statistics Indian Institute of Technology - Kanpur

Problem Set 7

Problems marked (T) are for discussions in Tutorial sessions.


     
1 1 1
1
  1
  1
1. Let T : R3 → R4 be a linear transformation with T (e1 ) =  , T (e2 ) =  , T (e3 ) =  .
1 1 1
1 0 0
Let v ∈ R3 . What is T (v)? Is T one-one, as a function? Is T onto?
 
1
0
2. Change T (e3 ) =   in the above. What is T (v)? Is T one-one? Is T onto?
1
1

3. Can we ever find a linear transformation T : R3 → R4 which is onto?

4. Find out [v]B , where B is an ordered basis:


(" # " # " #) " # " #
1 1 1 1 3
(a) B = 1 , 1 , 0 , v = 2 . Solution: [v]B = −1 .
1 0 0 3 −1
(" # " # " #) " # " #
1 1 0 1 1
(b) B = 0 , 1 , 1 , v = 2 . Solution: [v]B = 0 .
1 0 1 3 2
(" # " # " #) " # " #
1 1 0 1 0
(c) B = 1 , 0 , 1 , v = 2 . Solution: [v]B = 1 .
0 1 1 3 2
        
1 1 1  1 " #

  3
1 1 1 1
(d) B =  ,  ,   , v =  . Solution: [v]B = −1 .
 1
 1 0 
 2
−1
1 0 0 3
" # " #
1 1
(e) B = {e2 , e1 , e3 } , v = 2 . Solution: [v]B = 2 .
3 3

5. Find out v given [v]B , where B is an ordered basis:


(" # " # " #) " # " #
1 1 1 1 6
(a) B = 1 , 1 , 0 , [v]B = 2 . Solution: v = 3 .
1 0 0 3 1
(" # " # " #) " # " #
1 1 0 1 3
(b) B = 0 , 1 , 1 , [v]B = 2 . Solution: v = 5 .
1 0 1 3 4
2

(" # " # " #) " # " #


1 1 0 1 3
(c) B = 1 , 0 , 1 , [v]B = 2 . Solution: v = 4 .
0 1 1 3 5
      
1 1 1  " #

  1
1 1 1
(d) B =  ,  ,   , [v]B = 1 .
 1
 1 0 
 2
1 0 0
" #
1
(e) B = {e2 , e1 , e3 } , [v]B = 2 .
3

6. Give three linear transformations from R3 to W = {w : w1 −w2 +w3 −w4 +w5 = 0}. Give their
(" # " # " #) (" # " # " #)
1 1 1 0 1 1
coordinate matrices w.r.t the ordered bases B1 = 1 , −1 , 0 , B2 = 1 , 1 , 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
on R3 and some ordered basis of W.
" # 
x 
3 2 x−y+z
7. Let T : R → R as T y = . Find
x + 2z
z

(a) a basis of Range (T ),


(b) rank (T ),
(c) a basis for N (T ), and
(d) dim(N (T )).

8. (T) Find all linear transformations from Rn −→ R.

Solution: Let T (ei ) = αi , 1 ≤ i ≤ n. So


n
! n n
X X X
T (x) = T xi ei = xi T (ei ) = αi xi = hx, [α1 , . . . , αn ]t i.
i=1 i=1 i=1

Also, given any T : Rn −→ R, linear, then we know the images of ei , for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, the basis
vectors. That is, there exists βi ∈ R such that T (ei ) = βi , for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Thus,
n
X
T (x) = βi xi = hx, [β1 , . . . , βn ]t i.
i=1

9. Let v ∈ Rn and B = {v1 , . . . , vn } be an ordered basis of Rn . Form a matrix B = [v1 · · · vn ].


Is B[e1 ]B = e1 ? What is B [[e1 ]B , . . . , [en ]B ]? Show that B is invertible and [v]B = B −1 v.
Solution:
   
α1 α1
n
P  α2   α2  Pn
Let e1 = αi vi . Then, [e1 ]B = 
 ... . So, B[e1 ]B = [v1 · · ·
 vn ] . =
 ..  αi vi = e1 .
i=1 i=1
αn αn
3

Hence, we see that B[ei ]B = ei , for all i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Also,

B [[e1 ]B , . . . , [en ]B ] = [B[e1 ]B , . . . , B[en ]B ] = [e1 , . . . , en ] = I.

Thus, B −1 = [[e1 ]B , . . . , [en ]B ]. Further, [ei ]B = B −1 ei , for all i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n implies that


[v]B = B −1 v.

10. Let V, W be vector spaces and let L(V, W ) be the vector space of all linear transformations
from V to W . Show that dimL(V, W ) = dimV.dimW .

Solution: Let dim(V ) = m and dim(W ) = n. Then, there is a one-to-one correspondence


between L(V, W ) and the vector space of n × m matrices. Therefore, dim(L(V, W ) = mn =
dim(V )dim(W ).

11. (T) Show that a linear transformation is one-one if and only if null-space of N (T ) is {0}.

Solution: N (T ) 6= {0} ⇒ there is an x ∈ N (T ), x 6= 0 ⇒ T (x) = T (0) ⇒ T is not one-one.


If N (T ) = {0} then T (x) = T (y) ⇒ T (x − y) = 0 ⇒ x − y ∈ N (T ) ⇒ x = y.

12. Describe all 2×2 orthogonal matrices. Prove that action of any orthogonal matrix on a vector
v ∈ R2 , is either a rotation or a reflection about a line.
   
1 cos θ
Solution: As A preserves length, there is a θ ∈ [0, 2π) such that A =
0 sin θ
         
1 0 1 0 0
(sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1). Since ⊥ , we have, A ⊥A . Therefore, A =
0 1 0 1 1
     
− sin θ 0 sin θ
or A = , which further implies that
cos θ 1 − cos θ
   
cos θ − sin θ cos θ sin θ
A= or A=
sin θ cos θ sin θ − cos θ
| {z } | {z }
rotation by an angle θ, reflection about a line of inclination θ/2.

13. (T) Let v, w ∈ Rn , n ≥ 2, with kvk = kwk = 1. Prove that there exist an orthogonal matrix
A such that A(v) = w. Prove also that A can be chosen such that det(A) = 1.
(This is why orthogonal matrices with determinant one are called rotations.))

Solution: As composition and inverse of orthogonal matrices are orthogonal, it is enough to


choose v = e1 . So we need an orthogonal matrix A such that A(e1 ) = w. Find an orthonormal

basis of Rn , say {w, w2 , . . . , wn } by Gram Schmidt. Let A = w w2 · · · wn , that is,
first column of A is w and so on. Then A is orthogonal and det(A) = ±1. If det(A) = −1,
then multiply the second column with −1.