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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Chapter 5 Lecture Notes: Solids, Liquids, and Gases


Chapter 5 Educational Goals
1. Define, compare, and contrast the terms specific heat, heat of fusion, and heat of
vaporization. Know the equations that involve these concepts and be able to use
them in calculations.
2. Understand the concepts of energy change and free energy change. Know if a
process is spontaneous or not based on the free energy change.
3. Know the definition of pressure, vapor pressure, and atmospheric pressure
and be able to convert between pressure units of atm, torr, and psi.
4. List the variables that describe a gas (P,V,n, and T) and be able to write and use
the equations for the various gas laws.
5. Explain Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures and define partial pressure.
6. Understand the definitions of density and viscosity. Given the density, and either
the mass or volume of a substance, be able to determine the volume or mass
(respectively).
7. Know that a liquid in an open container will boil when its vapor pressure is equal
to the atmospheric pressure.
8. Describe, compare, and contrast amorphous solids and crystalline solids.
9. Describe the makeup of the four classes of crystalline solids.

Why are some molecular compounds solid while others are gaseous and others are liquid
at room temperature?

Competing Powers

• ___________________________forces working to hold particles together as


liquids or solids

• _____________________ _______________= Motion = Temperature, work to


separate particles

One major factor that is responsible for the varied behavior of solids, liquids, and gases is
the nature of the interaction that attracts one particle (atom, ion, or molecule) to another.

What forces hold matter together to make liquids and solids?

The attractive forces that hold molecules together are called intermolecular forces.
3 Types of Intermolecular Forces
• 1) Dipole-Dipole
• 2) Hydrogen Bonding
• 3) London Forces (Induced Dipole Forces)

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Other Noncovalent Interactions


Noncovalent interactions are interactions that do not involve the sharing of valence
electrons (covalent bonding).

Other noncovalent interactions due to the attraction of permanent charges.


• 1) Salt bridges
• 2) Ion-dipole interactions
• A salt bridge is another name for ionic bond.
• Ion-dipole interactions occur between ions with a full charge and atoms with a
partial charge.

Energy meets Matter


Phase Changes

Adding energy
to liquids will
overcome the
forces holding
the molecules
together–
boiling

Adding energy
to solids will
overcome the
forces holding
the molecules
together–
melting

Calculations Involving Heat Energy


Units of Energy

• One __________________________ is the amount of energy needed to raise the


temperature of one gram of water by 1°C
• joule
– 4.184 J = 1 cal
• In nutrition, calories are capitalized
– 1 Cal = 1 kcal
Converting Calories to Joules
Example: Convert 60.1 cal to joules
Equivalence statement: 1 cal = 4.184 J

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Calculations Involving Heat Energy


• One of two things will happen if energy is added or removed from matter (assuming
no chemical change takes place).

– 1) Change the ______________of the substance


– Example: melt, freeze, vaporize (boil)

– 2) Change the _______________of the substance

• You can only do ______________ of these at a time!!!

1) Phase Change Calculations

Energy calculations for phase changes may be carried out using the tabulated values for:

• ____________ ___ ____________ (symbol = Hfus) for a substance (Table 5.2).


• Energy required to melt one gram of a solid
• Change sign to negative for freezing (liquid to solid)

• ____________ ___ ____________ (symbol Hvap) of a substance


• Energy required to vaporize one gram of a liquid
• Change sign to negative for gas going to liquid

Energy Change = (mass) x (heat of fusion or vaporization)

ΔE = (mass) x (Hfus or vap)

Example: Determine the amount of heat needed to melt 155 g of ice at 0°C, we use the
heat of fusion of water (79.7 cal/g) as a conversion factor.
Note: No Temperature Change!
Ice (0oC) → Water (0oC)

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Group Work:
A patient with a fever is sponged with 50.0 g of 2-propanol. How much heat energy is
drawn from the patient when 2-propanol vaporizes?
(heat of vaporization for 2-propanol is 159 cal/g)

2) Calculations for Changing the Temperature of Matter

The amount the temperature of an object increases depends on the amount of _________
added (Q).
– If you double the added heat energy the temperature will increase twice as
much.

The amount the temperature of an object increases depends on its _______________.


– If you double the mass it will take twice as much heat energy to raise the
temperature the same amount.

• Energy calculations may be carried


Substance Specific Heat (cal/g oC)
out using the values for the specific
heat of a substance.
Water 1.000
• Specific heat is the amount of
energy required to raise the Ice 0.500
temperature of one gram of a Steam 0.480
substance by one Celsius degree. Ethanol (l) 0.586
Copper (s) 0.0924
Aluminum (s) 0.0215
Gold (s) 0.0310

Energy required = Specific Heat x Mass x Temperature Change

Q = S x m x ΔT

∆ is always: (final) – (initial)


(∆T) = Tfinal-Tinitial

The table above gives the specific heats of various substances with units of cal/g oC.
Specific heats can also be tabulated with units of J/g oC.
• For example, since 1 cal = 4.184 Joules, the specific heat of water is 4.184 J/g oC
• If you use cal/g oC in your calculation, the energy (Q) will be in calories.
• If you use J/g oC in your calculation, the energy (Q) will be in joules.

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Example:
Calculate the amount of heat energy (in joules) needed to raise the temperature of 7.40 g
of water from 29.0°C to 46.0°C

Group Work
How much energy needs to be removed from 175 g of water to lower the temperature
from 23.0oC to 15.0oC ?

Do this problem, you should get 3.4 x 103 cal for the answer.

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

New Topic: Will a Change Occur?


Spontaneous vs. Nonspontaneous Changes
• An important question to ask is why some changes are:

– ____________________________(continue to occur once they are started)


OR
– ____________ ____________________________(will not run by
themselves unless something keeps them going).

• Energy is the key factor in determining this.

Energy vs. Free Energy


The energy (E) of a sample matter depends on the position (potential energy) and
velocity (kinetic energy) of every molecule in the sample.

E = Epotential + Ekinetic
This is not practical to measure in the lab or to model in calculations!

When working at constant temperature and pressure, it is mathematically


convenient and experimentally practical to look at the:

_________________ ___________________ ____

Just like the energy (E), in nature, given the chance, everything proceeds to
the lowest possible free energy (G)!
• The “free energy” (ΔG) of a process can be thought of as the potential for
change….
∆G = Gf - Gi
A spontaneous process has a negative ∆G and a nonspontaneous process has a
positive ∆G.

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Gases and Pressure


Properties of Gases

Gas molecules or atoms are very ______________ apart from one another.
-different from liquids and solids!!

• Gas particles move in a straight line until they collide with another particle or the
container wall. .

Gases Have _____________________ Density

Because of the relatively large distances between gas particles, most of the volume
occupied by a gas is empty space.

Gases completely ______________their container.

• Except for a few very heavy gases, most gasses will completely fill their container.

Gases Are Highly _________________________________.

Compressibility is the ability to make the space a substance takes up become


smaller.

Gases can____________________________.

• Gaseous molecules travel at high speeds in all directions and mix quickly with
molecules of gases in the air in a process called diffusion.

• ______________________ is the movement of one substance within another


substance until it is evenly distributed.

Gas Pressure
Pressure = total _______________________applied to a certain area
larger force = larger pressure

Gas pressure is caused by gas molecules __________________with container walls or


surfaces.

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Air Pressure
• Constantly present when air present
• Decreases with altitude
– less air
• Measured using a __________________________
– Column of mercury supported by air pressure
– Force of the air on the surface of the mercury balanced by the pull of
gravity on the column of mercury

Various Units for Gas Pressure


• 1) atmosphere (atm)
• 2) height of a column of mercury (mm Hg, in Hg)
• 3) Torr
• 4) Pascal (Pa)
• 6) pounds per square inch (psi, lbs./in2)

Units we will use for pressure:


• Atmospheres (atm)
• Pounds per square inch (psi)
• Millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
– also called torr (1mm Hg = 1 Torr)

Relationships:
1 atm = 760. mmHg
1 atm = 760. Torr
1 atm = 14.7 psi

Pressure Unit Conversions


Example A pressure of 690. Torr is how many atmospheres? (1 atm = 760. Torr)

A pressure of 35.0 psi is how many atm? (1 atm = 14.7 psi)

A pressure of 812 mm Hg is how many atmospheres? (1 atm = 760. mm Hg)

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Gas Laws
Gas Laws Instructional Goals
Understand and be able to use the following gas laws in calculations:
• Boyle’s Law (relationship between pressure and volume)
• Charles’ Law (relationship between volume and temperature)
• Gay-Lussac’s Law (relationship between pressure and temperature)
• Avogadro’s Law (relationship between moles and volume)
• Combined Gas Law (relationship between pressure, volume and temperature)
• Ideal Gas Law (relationship between pressure, volume, number of moles, and
temperature)

The gas laws are the mathematical equations that show the ___________________
between volume, temperature, pressure, and amount of gas.

1) Boyle’s Law
• Boyle studied the relationship between volume and pressure.

• The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known as

_____________ ___________.

When the volume decreases, the pressure increases


When the volume increases, the pressure decreases

• Boyle also noticed that when the pressure and/or volume of a gas is changed the

__________________ of the pressure and volume remains the same.

• PxV = Constant

Boyle’s Law:

• Remember that when using Boyle’s Law, that the _______________is never
changing.
• Only the pressure and volume change.

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Example:

The initial volume of the gas in the piston below is 3.00 liters and the initial pressure is
1.00 atm. The piston compressed (at constant temperature) to a new final volume of 1.00
L. What is the final pressure?

Group Work:
If the syringe shown has an initial volume of 0.50 mL and the gas in the syringe is at a
pressure of 1.0 atm, what is the pressure inside the syringe if your finger is placed over
the opening and the plunger is pulled back to give a final volume of 3.0 mL?
P1 =

V1 =

P2=????

V2 =

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

2) Charles’ Law
• Charles observed that as the temperature increases, the volume increases and vice
versa.
• The direct relationship between temperature and volume is known as

_________________ ___________.

• Charles also noticed that ratio of volume to temperature of a gas is always the
same.

Charles’ Law:
• Remember that when using Charles’ Law, that the ____________________is
never changing.
• Only the temperature and volume change.
• Temperature must be Kelvin (K).
• Kelvin temperature scale is always positive
• K = oC + 273.15
Example:
The initial volume of the gas in the piston below is 1.35 liters. The temperature is
lowered from 373 K to 250. K (at constant pressure). What is the final volume?

Group Work
A balloon is inflated to 665 mL volume at 27°C. It is immersed in a dry-ice bath at
−79°C. What is its volume, assuming the pressure remains constant?

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

3) Gay-Lussac’s Law
• Gay-Lussac’s observed that as the temperature increases, the pressure increases
and vice versa.
The direct relationship between temperature and pressure is known as ____________

_____________.
Gay-Lussac also noticed that ratio of pressure to temperature of a
gas is always the same.

• Remember that when using Gay-Lussac’s Law, that the __________________ is


never changing.
– Only the temperature and pressure change.
• Temperature must be Kelvin (K).
Example:
The initial pressure of the gas in the container below is .870 torr and the initial
temperature is. 300. K. The temperature is raised from 300. K to 1250 K (at constant
volume). What is the final pressure?

Group Work
An aerosol can containing gas at 25 atm and 22°C is heated to 55°C. Calculate the
pressure in the heated can.

K = oC + 273.15

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

4) The Combined Gas Law

Boyle’s, Charles’s, and Gay-Lussac’s Laws can be _________________mathematically.


The relationship between temperature, volume, and pressure is

known as the ______________ ____________ ______ .

Example:
At an ocean depth of 33 ft, where the pressure is 2.0 atm and the temperature is 285K, a
scuba diver releases a bubble of air with a volume of 6.0 mL. What is the volume of the
air bubble when it reaches the surface, where the pressure is 1.0 atm and the temperature
is 298K ?

P1= _______

T1= _______

V1= _______

P2= _______

T2= _______

V2= ?????

Avogadro’s Law
• Avogadro’s observed that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the
number of gas molecules.
• The direct relationship between moles of gas molecules and volume is known as

__________________ ____________.

• When the number of moles of gas increases, the


volume increases.
• Avogadro noticed that ratio of volume to the number of moles
of a gas is always the same.

Remember that when using Avogadro’s Law, that the _______________and

___________________ are never changing.

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

– Only the number of particles and volume change.


Example:
The initial volume of the 3.5 moles of gas in the container below is 1.5 L. Amadeo adds
2.0 moles of gas. (at constant temperature and pressure). What is the final volume?

Group Work
A balloon has a volume of 2.4 L and contains 0.12 moles of air. A child blows
more air into the balloon until it has a final volume of 3.5 L. How many moles of gas are
in the balloon?

Gas Law Summary

Combined Gas Law

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

The Ideal Gas Law


No gas perfectly obeys all four of these laws under all conditions.

These assumptions work well for most gases and most conditions.

One way to model a gas’s behavior is to assume that the gas is an __________ ________
that perfectly follows these laws.

If we combine all these equations, we get the Ideal Gas Law.

The gas constant (R) is a mathematical combination of all the individual gas law
constants (Cb, Cc, Cg, Ca)
The Ideal Gas Law is more commonly written as:

The previous gas laws we studied involved a ________________in either P, V, T, or n.


• The ideal gas law is used for any gas system, any time.
• No changes are involved in the equation

The value of R is:

• When using this equation you must have the following units:
• Pressure = atm
• Volume = liters
• Temperature = K
There are 4 variables in this equation:

In problems, we will always be given 3 of the 4 variables, then solve for the unknown
variable.
Example: How many moles of gas are contained in 11.2 liters at 1.00 atm and 0.0°C?

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Group Work:

What is the volume of 25.0 grams of oxygen gas (O2) at room temperature (22 oC) and
1.00 atm pressure?

P=

T=

n=

V=????

Partial Pressure
Dalton’s law of partial pressure states that the total pressure of a mixture
of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of its components.
• The partial pressure of a gas in a mixture is the pressure that the
gas would exert if alone

When two gases are present, the total pressure is the sum of the partial
pressures of the gases.

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Liquids
Properties of Liquids
Viscosity is the resistance to flow.
- It is related to the strength of the non covalent interactions between the
molecules that make up the liquid - the stronger the attractions, the thicker
the liquid.

- Temperature has an effect on viscosity.

- As temperature rises, the increase in the kinetic energy of the


molecules in the liquid helps the molecules pull away from one
another - higher temperature produces lower viscosity.

Vapor Pressure
Due to collisions that
take place between particles
(atoms or molecules) that
make up a liquid, particles at
the surface are continually
evaporating - being “bounced”
off into the gas phase. At the
same time gas phase
molecules are being trapped
and converted to liquid.

The vapor above the liquid causes “vapor pressure”.

• The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the
liquid equals the atmospheric pressure.

• Liquids boil when their vapor pressure equals the pressure of the air above them.

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Solids
• The atoms, ions, or molecules that make up a solid are held close to one another
and have a limited ability to move around.

• Solids can be classified based on whether or not the arrangement of these particles
is ordered (in crystalline solids) or not (in amorphous solids).

Crystalline Solids
• Ionic
– consist of oppositely charged ions held to one another by ionic bonds
• Molecular
– consist of an ordered arrangement of molecules attracted to one another by
noncovalent interactions
• Covalent Networks
– atoms are held to one another by an arrangement of covalent bonds that
extends through the solids.
• Metallic
– An array of metal cations immersed in a cloud of electrons that spans the
entire crystalline structure.

Metallic Solids

Metallic Bonding
• The valence electrons in metals are free
to move about the entire crystal of metal
nuclei and core electrons.

• We can imagine it like a “sea of electrons”


that are bonding the positive nuclei
together

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

Properties of Metallic Substances

Metallic substances are ___________________at room temperature.

• Except for :_______________________

Metallic substances are malleable (they can be hammered or beaten in thin sheets)

Metallic compounds are ductile (they can be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small
opening to produce wire.

Metallic substances are good conductors of electricity.


Covalent Networks
A few substances exist as: Covalent Networks
• Atoms are covalently bonded as if it was a huge molecule
• Not too many covalent network substances exist
• Examples:
Diamond (carbon) and Silicon

Silicon Dioxide (sand)

Amorphous Solids- no regular repeating pattern of ions or molecules.


Example: rubber

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Chemistry 108 lecture notes Chapter 5: Solids, Liquids, Gases

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