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SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

SEMESTER 2 SESSION 2018

EKC394-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LAB.II)-(UNIT OPERATIONS)

PROPOSAL

TITLE: GAS ABSORPTION

GROUP 1

GROUP MEMBERS:

1) DANNY HARTANTO DJARUM 127320

2) KHAIRUNNISA’ BT MOHD SANI 129081

3) MUHAMAD SYAZWAN BIN MD ARIS 129096

4) JOAN MARY A/P PATRICK GEORGE 129073

DATE OF SUBMISSION : 6 MARCH 2018

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Table of content

NO. CONTENT PagesGE

1 INTRODUCTION 3

2 OBJECTIVES 4

3 THEORY 5

4 PARAMETER OF GAS ABSORPTION 6

5 PROCEDURE 7&8

6 CALCULATION 9&10

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INTRODUCTION

There are 2 types of absorption processes which are physical absorption and chemical

absorption, depending on whether there is any chemical reaction between the solute and the

solvent (absorbent). When water and hydrocarbon oils are used as absorbents, no significant

chemical reactions occur between the absorbent and the solute, and the process is commonly

referred to as physical absorption. When aqueous sodium hydroxide (a strong base) is used as

the absorbent to dissolve an acid gas, absorption is accompanied by a rapid and irreversible

neutralization reaction in the liquid phase and the process is referred to as chemical

absorption or reactive absorption. More complex examples of chemical absorption are

processes for absorbing CO2 and H2S with aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (MEA),

diethanolamine (DEA), diethyleneglycol (DEG) or triethyleneglycol (TEG), where a

reversible chemical reaction takes place in the liquid phase. Chemical reactions can increase

the rate of absorption, increase the absorption capacity of the solvent, increase selectivity to

preferentially dissolve only certain components of the gas, and convert a hazardous chemical

to a safe compound. In addition,when conducting this operation, the packed tower in which

two fluids flowing in opposite directions enable a chemical component to be transferred from

one liquid phase to the other,occurs in almost chemical plants. Thus, a knowledge of the

characteristics of both fluid flow and of mass transfer in such towers is necessary for both

plant operators and designers.

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OBJECTIVES

1. To calculate rate of absorption of carbon dioxide into water from analysis of liquid

solutions flowing down absorption column.

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THEORY

Absorption is a mass transfer process in which a vapour solute in a gas mixture is dissolved

into a liquid phase, which the solute is more or less soluble. Absorption in common with

distillation usually uses special equipment for bringing gas and liquid phases into intimate

contact. The gas absorption unit in this experiment shows the absorption of air into water in a

packed column. The gas and liquid normally flow in a counter-friendly manner and the

packing provides contact and development of interfacial surface through which mass transfer

occurs.

Packed tower is a common apparatus used in gas absorption. The device consists of a tower,

equipped with a gas inlet an distributing space at the bottom; a liquid inlet and distributor at

the top; gas and liquid outlet at the top and the bottom and a supported mass of inert solid

shapes, called tower packing. Examples of the types of packing are Ceramic Ball saddle and

Raschig ring. These packing increase the increase the surface area of contact between the gas

and liquid absorbent.

There is a limit to the rate of gas flow in the packed tower; which is known as flooding

velocity. The tower will be unable to operate if this limit is exceeded. At loading point, which

is the point at which the droplets of liquid are carried up with the gas in the packed column,

the gas starts to prevent the liquid from flowing down, and thus, the pools of liquid start to

appear in the packing.

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PARAMETERS OF GAS ABSORPTION

1) Type of packing

2) Flowrate of air and water

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PROCEDURE

1. Fill the liquid reservoir tank of the Gas Absorption column with water. The total

volume of the water added,Vt must be recorded.

2. The gas flow valve, which is air control valve, CV1 and CO2 gas control valve, CV2

must be closed at the beginning of the experiment, then start the liquid pump and

adjust the water flow to the column to approximately ___ litre/minute on flowmeter,

F1 by adjusting the liquid flow control valve, CV3.

3. Start the compressor and adjust the flow of the air, CV2 to approximately 10% of the

full scale on air flowmeter, F2.

4. Carefully open the pressure regulating of the CO2 cylinder and adjust the

corresponding valve, C3 to give a value approximately half of the air flowmeter (F2)

set before.

a. Ensure the liquid seal at the base of the absorption column is maintained by

the level limit, adjust valve, C4 to control the water level

5. After 15-20 minute of steady operation, take sample at the liquid outlet stream. Every

10 minutes interval after steady operation, take 150 ml samples at known times in

each case. Analyse the sample according to the procedure below.

6. Repeat experiment by manipulating other parameter.

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Preparation for Chemical Solution needed for analysis

1. Phenolphthalein indicator prepared from Carbon Dioxide-free-distilled water.

2. Standard 0.0277M Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH solution, prepared by diluting 27.70 ml

of 1M caustic soda standard solution to 1 litre with Carbon Dioxide-free-distilled

water,

3. Standard 0.01M Sodium Bicarbonate, NaHCO3 solution. Prepared by dissolving

approximately 0.1g of anhydrous sodium bicarbonate in 100ml Carbon Dioxide-free-

distilled water.

Sample Analysis Procedure

1. Withdraw 150ml of sample liquid from the liquid outlet stream.

2. Add the withdrawn sample into graduated cylinder and flick-off any sample that is

over 100 ml mark.

3. Add 5-10 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution. (1) above; if the sample turns

red immediately, no CO2 is present. If the sample remains colourless, titrate with

standard alkali solution. (2) above. Stir gently until a definite pink colour persists for

about 30 second. This colour change is the end point. *Take note the volume, Vb of

alkali solution added.

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CALCULATION

1. Concentration of CO2 in water sample (Discharged):

𝑉𝐵 × 0.0277
𝐶𝐶𝑂2 = (𝑔. 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒/𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑒)
𝑉𝑑

2. Plot Table of VB and CCO2 over period of time:

Time VB CCO2

10

20

30

40

50

60

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3. Absorption rate (CO2) over time period (e.g. 30 mins):

𝐶𝐶𝑂2 (𝑡 = 40) − 𝐶𝐶𝑂2 (𝑡 = 10)


𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 = × 𝑉𝑇 (𝑔. 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒/𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠)
30 × 60

Variables:

CCO2 = Concentration of CO2

VB = Volume of alkali (NaOH) from titration

Vd = Volume of discharge water sample

VT = Total volume of water added into the tank

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