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Dynamic Analysis

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Structures Lab

Experiment-5

Damping Ratio and Natural Frequency of Flexible System

Submitted By:

Shivam Rana

2014CE10381

Objective: To Find the Natural Frequency and Damping ratio of a Flexible System

using Accelerometer by inducing free vibrations in the system.

and 2) Forced Vibrations.

𝑑2𝑦 𝑑𝑦

𝑚 2

+𝑐 + 𝑘𝑦 = 𝐹𝑜

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

The former is based on the characteristics of the structure, and the frequency of

vibration, called Natural Frequency, is given by

𝑘

ω = √𝑚 , where

3𝐸𝐼

k = Stiffness of the structure = (for one end fixed and one end free)

𝐿3

12𝐸𝐼

= (for both ends fixed)

𝐿3

The amplitude of vibration decreases with time due to loss of energy as the structure

vibrates, and the structure ultimately comes to rest. The loss can be attributed to

internal friction in the structure, viscous damping, special dampers etc. The

experiment aims at studying the difference between the theoretical and observed

natural frequencies of the given system and their damping, and subsequently

determine the damping ratio of the two systems provided. The ratio is calculated

using the following formula:

2𝜋𝜉 𝑦

δ= = ln 𝑦1

√1−𝜉 2 2

𝜉 = Damping Ratio

The value of 'δ' is found from the difference of two consecutive peak accelerations

from the Acceleration vs time plot obtained from the readings of Accelerometer and

hence, the damping ratio is calculated.

Calculations:

(MM) (MM) (MM)

Sample 1 100 204 12.35 .78

The following are the undamped time period of the two samples based on the formula:

𝑚

𝑇𝑁 = 2𝜋 √

𝑘

E I Stiffness TN

SAMPLE

(N/mm2) (mm4) (N/m) (sec)

Sample 1 200,000 .488 34.516 .338

1.00E+00

8.00E-01

6.00E-01

4.00E-01

2.00E-01

0.00E+00

0.00E+00 1.00E+00 2.00E+00 3.00E+00 4.00E+00 5.00E+00 6.00E+00

-2.00E-01

-4.00E-01

-6.00E-01

-8.00E-01

Result:

For sample 1, the theoretical time period is .338 seconds but from the experiment, it is about

.625 seconds. There is a lot of variation in the time period. The same can be attributed to a

lot of factors viz.

1. The steel strip used to simulate the spring is made of steel and in the theoretical

calculations it is assumed to be massless but it has a certain density and that

mass would also get excited in the experiment, hence the lumped mass

approach or the ideal SDOF system is not fully achieved.

2. The stiffness of the spring was calculated considering it to be cantilever beam,

which is true assumption but the mass was hung from the steel strip and it is

exerting a gravity load on the steel strip. The gravity load would have caused

some amount of stresses in the steel strip and it can affect the stiffness of the

spring.

3. The initial displacement that were provided to the system could be higher than

the elastic limit of the steel spring and it might have caused the system to have

a different time period.

4. The accelerometer was not calibrated based on any standard and hence the

readings that we took could have an implicit error.

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