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1. What is meant by measurement?

Ans: Measurement is essentially the act, or the result, of a quantitative comparison

between a given quantity and a quantity of the same kind chosen as a standard or a unit. The
result of measurement is expressed by a number representing the ratio of the unknown quantity
to the adopted unit of measurement.

2. Mention the basic requirements of measurement?.

Ans: 1) Standard used for comparison purposes must be accurately defined and should be
commonly accepted.

2) Apparatus used and procedure developed must be provable.

3. What are the two methods of measurement?

Ans: Direct comparison methods and indirect comparison methods.

4. Explain the function of measurement system?

Ans: Measurement system consists of Primary Measuring unit, Conversion and Manipulation
unit and Display unit.

In Primary Sensing Unit, the quantity that is to be measured is connected to the sensing element
where the transducer converts the measurand to suitable electrical quantity.

Variable conversion and manipulation unit: The output from the sensing unit is converted to
other suitable form that retains the original variable, so that the output emf is converted to
corresponding frequency. The data is then scaled to the processing unit if the required signals
are amplified to the suitable level.

Display Unit: The data processed from the data conditioning unit is presented for display. This
unit may be analog or digital.
5. Define Standard deviation.

Ans: Standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of a set of data from its mean. It is
calculated as the square root of variance by determining the variation between each data point
relative to the mean.

6. List out the types of Instruments.

Ans: 1) Active/Passive instruments.

2) Null/deflection type instruments.

3) Analog/Digital instruments.

7. Classify instruments based on their functions.

Ans: 1) Recording instruments

2) Controlling instruments

3) Indicating instruments

8. Differentiate between Resolution and Sensitivity.

Ans: Resolution

It is the smallest change in the measure value to which the instrument will respond. It is
smallest increment in the input value that can be detected by the instrument.


Sensitivity is the ratio of change in output of an instrument to the change in input. The
manufacturers specify sensitivity as the ratio of magnitude of the measured quantity to the
magnitude of the response. This ratio is called as inverse sensitivity or deflection factor

9. Why calibration of instrument is important?

Ans: Calibration of your measuring instruments has two objectives. It checks the accuracy of the
instrument and it determines the traceability of the measurement. In practice, calibration also
includes repair of the device if it is out of calibration. A report is provided by the calibration
expert, which shows the error in measurements with the measuring device before and after the

10. Define Calibration.

Ans: Calibration is a comparison between a known measurement (the standard) and the
measurement using your instrument. Typically, the accuracy of the standard should be ten times
the accuracy of the measuring device being tested. However, accuracy ratio of 3:1 is acceptable
by most standards organizations.

11. Write down the general expression for the bridge to be balanced.

Ans: General Equation for an AC Bridge

The bridges have four arms, two have non-inductive resistance and the other two have
inductances with negligible resistance.

When the bridge is in a balanced condition,

The l1 and R1 are the unknown quantities which are measured in terms of R2, R3, R4 and L2.
From equation (1) and (2) the following points are concluded.

The two balance equation is always obtained from the AC bridges.

The unknown quantities are determined through the balanced equations. The unknown
quantities are usually inductance, capacitance and resistance.
The balance equations are independent of frequency.

12. Name the types of instruments used for making voltmeter and ammeter?

Ans: PMMC type, Moving iron type, Dynamometer type, Hot wire type, Electrostatic type,
Induction type.

13. State the Advantages of PMMC instruments.

Ans: The PMMC has uniformly divided scale. The scale may be very long, over about 250 degree.

It has a very high torque to weight ratio.

The PMMC has consumes low power.

The PMMC has a very high accuracy.

The PMMC is free from hysteresis error.

The PMMC has efficient damping characteristics and is not affected by stray magnetic field.

Extension of instrument range is possible with the help of shunt and series resistances.

14. State the disadvantages of PMMC instruments?

Ans: It has comparatively high cost.

The PMMC has only suitable for d.c. measurements.

Aging of permanent magnets and control springs introduces errors.

15. Classify different types of DC bridges.

Ans: Wheatstone bridgesand Kelvin bridges

16. Mention the limitations of Maxwell Bridge.

Ans: Low Q-Coils

Variable apacitor is required.

Limited measurement.

17. State the advantages of Moving iron type instruments.

Ans: Can be used both in D.C. as well as in A.C. circuits.

Robust and simple in construction.

Possess high operating torque.

Can withstand overload momentarily.

Since the stationary parts and the moving parts of the instrument are simple so they are

Suitable for low frequency and high power circuits.

Capable of giving an accuracy within limits of both precision and industrial grades.

18. Define the term precision.

Ans: Precision is a measure of the reproducibility of the measurement, that is given a fixed value
of variable.

Precision is a measure of the degree to which successive measurements differ from each other.

The precision is composed of two characteristics:


Number of significant figures.

19. What is the difference between accuracy and Precision?

Ans: Accuracy refers to the degree of conformity and correctness of something when compared
to a true or absolute value, while precision refers to a state of strict exactness — how
consistently something is strictly exact. n other words, the precision of an experiment, object,
or value is a measure of the reliability and consistency. The accuracy of an experiment, object, or
value is a measurement of how closely results agree with the true or accepted value.

20. List out the different types of possible errors in the measurement?
Ans: Systematic errors, observational errors, environmental errors, random errors, Instrumental