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PTT 254
MASS TRANSFER FOR
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 4: PSYCHROMENTRY,
HUMIDIFICATION AND DEHUMIDIFICATION
Conducted by:
Hoo Peng Yong (Arthur), PhD, AIChemE, GE
pengyong@unimap.edu.my

4.1 FUNDAMENTALS:
What do all VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER
these lines
mean!?
Vapor Pressure of Water Vapor?
Vapor Pressure of Water?

Relationship
Would the
between
vapor
pressure
pressure of
and
the water
temperature
changes
with phase?
with total
pressure of
the system?

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press,
Appendix A2-9, Steam Table. 24/02/2018
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/Phase_diagram_of_water.svg/700px-Phase_diagram_of_water.svg.png
2/24/2018

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.3-2, Page 568 24/02/2018

4.2 FUNDAMENTALS:
HUMIDITY AND HUMIDITY CHART
− ,

18.02 1
= × ×
− 1 28.97

∗,

18.02 1
= × ×
− 1 28.97

, ,

= × 100%

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.3-2, Page 568 24/02/2018
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4.2 FUNDAMENTALS:
HUMIDITY AND HUMIDITY CHART
Are percentage humidity
and percentage relative
Recall……
humidity the same? So what you mean by
, relative humidity!?

Using
= × 100%
humidity!

Using partial
= × 100%
pressures!

Both are used to described the


amount of saturation of air-
water vapor mixture!

https://images.oceannews.com/images/Blind_Articles/Fig._1_WaterWapor_SupportingGraphics2.jpg 24/02/2018

Example 9.3-1:
The air in a room is at 26.7 0C
and a pressure of 101.325 kPa
contains water vapor with
partial pressure pA = 2.76 kPa.

Calculate:
a) Humidity, H
b) Saturation Humidity, HS
c) Percentage humidity, HP
d) Percentage relative
humidity, HR

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition,
24/02/2018
Prentice Hall Press, Example 9.3-1, Page 566
2/24/2018

4.2 FUNDAMENTALS:
Recall…… HUMIDITY AND HUMIDITY CHART
∗, The temperature at saturation is called:
“Dew point / dew point temperature!”

“But how do we know if it is saturated?”


18.02 1
= × ×
− 1 28.97 “Check the saturation vapor pressure
at the given temperature!”
Illustration of the idea:
In a warm evening (33 0C),
the actual water vapor pressure is measured as 4.50 kPa,
while the saturation water vapor pressure is at 5.034 kPa
Thus, no condensation and hence, the dew point is lower than 33 0C!

At night (24 0C), the air is cooled down,


while the actual water partial pressure is the same as in the evening.
At night, the saturation water vapor pressure is lowered to 2.985 kPa.
Now, the actual water vapor pressure > saturation water pressure!
Condensation must occur!
Dew point is the temperature when the very first dew is condensed!
http://weather.stives-town.info/images/dew.jpg 24/02/2018

http://livedoor.blogimg.jp/clock510/imgs/f/8/f898ccbc.jpg 24/02/2018
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4.2 FUNDAMENTALS:
HUMIDITY AND HUMIDITY CHART
Amount of heat required to raise 1 K of 1 kg of the humid air
(dry air + water vapor in it)

Humid heat of an air- CP for dry air!

water vapor mixture = 1.005 + 1.88


CP for water vapor!

Total volume of 1 kg of the humid air at 101.325 kPa at given


the given temperature.
Humid Volume of an
in kelvin!
air-water vapor mixture 22.41 1 1
= +
273 28.97 18.02

Total enthalpy of 1 kg of the humid air


Total enthalpy of an air-
water vapor mixture Latent heat
@ datum!
= − +

https://usercontent2.hubstatic.com/8375389.gif
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Cloud_forest_mount_kinabalu.jpg/1200px-Cloud_forest_mount_kinabalu.jpg
http://www.seanpatrickcox.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/energy.jpg 24/02/2018

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.3-2, Page 568 24/02/2018
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No heat and mass transfer within of out of the system 11

4.3 ADIABATIC SATURATION TEMPERATURES


(A.K.A. ADIABATIC HUMIDIFICATION)
Consider an adiabatic air-water saturator:
By enthalpy Balance: (Ts as datum)

Total enthalpy of
Total enthalpy of
entering gas = exiting gas mixture
mixture

( ) = ( )

Adiabatic
For H < HS (unsaturated), saturation ∴ − + = − +
TS < T or TS > T? temperature

Rearranging:
Recall……
− 1.005 + 1.88
=− =−

Can be plotted
on Humidity
chart!

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition,
24/02/2018
Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.3-3, Page 570

If the gas mix is contacted


in long enough, new HS1
and TS1 will be reached
(at 100% saturation)

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.3-2, Page 568 24/02/2018
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4.3 ADIABATIC SATURATION TEMPERATURES


(A.K.A. ADIABATIC HUMIDIFICATION)
Example 9.3-3
An air stream at 87.8 0C having a
humidity H = 0.030 kg H2O/kg dry
air is contacted in an adiabatic
saturator with water. It is cooled
and humidified to 90% saturation.

a) What are the final values of H


and T?
b) For 100% saturation, what
would be the values of H and
T?

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition,
24/02/2018
Prentice Hall Press, Example 9.3-3, Page 570

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4.4 WET-BULB TEMPERATURE


Consider a gas humidified by water using a wick:
“… wet-bulb temperature is the steady-state non-
equilibrium temperature reached when a small
amount of water is contacted under adiabatic
conditions by a continuous stream of gas…”

For Wet-bulb temperature,


Water cooled to TW!
ℎ Psychrometric ratio
− (Approx. 0.96-1.005)
= “Quite” similar to

adiabatic saturation
At steady state, Wick cooled to TW! equation!
water evaporates Where: *Only for water!
into the gas stream h = convective heat transfer coefficient
MB = molecular mass of air
ky = mass transfer coefficient
Latent heat of evaporation
Why are the T and H
= convective heat flowing
remained unchanged?
from gas to the wick (T>TW)

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition,
24/02/2018
Prentice Hall Press, Section 9.3D, Figure 9.3-4, Page 571
2/24/2018

If the gas mix is contacted


in long enough, new HS1
and TS1 will be reached
(at 100% saturation)

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.3-2, Page 568 24/02/2018

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ADIABATIC SATURATION VS WET-BULB

Adiabatic Saturation Wet-Bulb Temperature


Large amount Water involved Small, negligible amount
Drop depends on the Gas Mixture Temperature
Remains the same
saturation % Change
Increase depends on the
Humidity Change Remains the same
saturation%

Diagram


− 1.005 + 1.88 Equation − 1.005
=− =− = ≈
− −

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4.4 WET-BULB TEMPERATURE


Example 9.3-4
A water vapor-air mixture having a
dry bulb temperature of 60 0C is
passed over a wet bulb. The wet
bulb temperature obtained is 29.5
0C. What is the humidity of the

mixture?

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition,
24/02/2018
Prentice Hall Press, Example 9.3-4, Page 572

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4.5 CONVENTIONAL DRYERS


Recall……

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition,
Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.2-1, Page 560 24/02/2018
http://www.resinplants.net/images/vacuum-tray-dryer.jpg

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4.5 CONVENTIONAL DRYERS


Recall……

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition,
Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.2-2, Page 561 24/02/2018
http://www.lanjimachinery.com/admin/upfile/Art/2011113049935737.jpg
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4.5 CONVENTIONAL DRYERS


Recall……

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition,
24/02/2018
Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.2-4,5, Page 562,563

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4.5 CONVENTIONAL DRYERS


Recall……

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations). 4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press, Figure 9.2-6, Page 564
http://www.brockmfg.com/uploads/photos/600/BrockMCGArgyle_BCT4700_0711_013.jpg 24/02/2018
http://www.brockmfg.com/uploads/photos/600/Brock_SQ_E_Series_3317.jpg
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4.6 WATER COOLING TOWERS


Warm, humidified
An equipment deployed to: air discharge
• Cool the warm water – by passing cold air
• Humidify the air – by passing the warm water
• Dehumidify the air – by passing the cold water

Contact between
warm water and
cold air

Unsaturated
cold air

http://dailycaller.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/rsz_shutterstock_74053534-e1464016987953.jpg
24/02/2018
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Ybf56xB4KMM/UY3dQWnkzvI/AAAAAAAAAI4/EgtNc-qw8N4/s1600/natural%20draft%20cooling%20tower.jpeg

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4.7 WATER COOLING TOWER


An equipment deployed to:
• Cool the warm water – by passing cold air
• Humidify the air – by passing the warm water
• Dehumidify the air – by passing the cold water

Packing/slats installed
inside the cooling tower
to promote intimate
contact between the air
and water by increasing
the mass and heat
transfers!

https://qph.ec.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-61161c213da944917e45b3f9173d3ed3-c?convert_to_webp=true
http://amchiller.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Picture-of-American-Chillers-and-Cooling-Tower-Systems-Inc-FRP-Cooling-Tower-with-
24/02/2018
access-ladder.jpg
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EXTENDED EXAMPLES (TUTORIAL)

Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations).4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press, Problems, Page 618 24/02/2018
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Geankoplis, C., 2003. Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations).4th Edition, Prentice Hall Press, Problems, Page 619 24/02/2018