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144

Rearranging (l), and (2) we get

(1 - Ujj)Zj

@

(4)

For convenience of representation in matrix form, sampling (*) is shown after the trans- mittance, although actually the productof the variable at the previous node and the trans- mittance (i.e., hik-xior &t.y,,,) issampled, and this fact is automatically taken into account in obtaining data from the matrix to apply the general gain formula2 for the output. Fig. 1 (a) and (b) represents, respectively, (3) and (4). Rewriting (3) and (4),

k

=

1, 2,

, r.

C. is an (n+r)X(n+r) square matrix for an r-sampler system with the variables, corre- sponding to main diagonal elements - 1+ajj and -l+dkk*, respectively, representing the white and black nodes. It can be easily Seen that the matrix in (7)

is generalized, as it includes the signal-flow matrix forcontinuous systems'when the black nodes (i.e., sampled variables) are ab sent (Le., yr=O). Path transmittances to a white node xi from the other nodes are to be remembered [Fig. l(a)] as u,j/(l-ujj)(i#j; i=l, 2,

, r) and the

,

transmittances to a black node yk from the

other nodes are tobe remembered [Fig. I(b)]

as

and

n) and hj/(l-ajj) (k= 1, 2,

hsk*/(l-d'+&),

(i=l,

2,

,

n)

d,,,k*/I-d&*, (m#k; m=l, 2,. , r) As in the case of signal-flow matrlx for continuous systems,' signals leave a main diagonal element (node xi or yk) along the column vertically to the jth row element and then jump horizontally to the main diagonal

element (node xj or yj). Elementary type-1 and type-2 paths and

SX'

(b)

Fig. 1.

loops2 can be systematically written from the matrix in (7) for therequirednonsampled out- pht. In the course of type-2 paths and loops, when an element with sampled transmittance ha* or dd* is touched, the nonsampled trans-

mittance obtained till the previous white node, together with hi^ or d,e as a whole is to be taken as sampled, which is quite obvious. It will account for the simplification made in writing the governing equation (2) for a black node. The nonsampled output C is obtained from the general gain formula:*

where Pi are elementary type-I or type-2 paths. A(l) and A@)are, respectively, the first and

second determinants of the graph; A\$') and Ai(,) are the sub-determinants for a path seg-

ment; obtained, respectively, from A(l)

A@), omitting the loops connected with the corresponding path segment. The symbol @ represents multiplication

of each path segment uj in the numerator and denominator of x;P;.AP)/A(2),by the corresponding A>(l)/A(l). To illustrate the use of the generalized

and

PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, JANUARY

1972

signal-flow matrix, consider a system with equations:

21 =

1

22 = ~1z.21+b12.yl

y1 = hll*'21 +h*1**22

C, = [.~lz-; ,-1".-b1z

(=]output.[(j10)

(9)

From the matrix in (10) it is clear that XI, XZ, represent white nodes and yl represents the black node, with the self loops Qj and dkk* absent. To get the nonsampled output x2, writing the elementary type-1 and type-2 paths and loops, we get the following values. Elementary paths and path transmittances:

Type-1 path: (xl, xz); transmittance:

Pl(l)

=all.

Type-2 paths: (xl,yl, xd; transmittance:

~~(*)=h~~*.b~~;(xl,x2,yl, x3;transmittance:

PZ(~)=(~I~~ZI)*.~I~. Elementary loops and loop transmittances:

Type-1 loops: nil.

Type-2 loop:

(yl, XZ,yl); LI(~)=(~IZ~ZI).*

Hence A(1) = 1, A(*)= 1-LlC2), A(1) = 1, and Ai(%)= 1 for the type-2 paths and It is A(') for the type-1 path, as it is not connected with type-2 loop. From the general gain formula we get :

zz=

1/1 @ (Pl(1).A(r) + PI(')+ P*('))/A(')

= (112 + [hll*.bl*+(uIz~z~)**~~z]/

[I - (blzhzd*I.

(11)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The author wishes to thank Dr. V. V. Chalam for his valuable discussions.

T.NAGARAJA

Dept. Elec. Eng. Inst. Technol. B.H.U.

Varanasi, India

Microstrip Dispersion

Abstract-Microstrip transmission lines used in microwave integrated circuits are dispersive. The dispersion of the lines is fully characterized by the frequency-dependent normalized phase velocity Fp which is equal to the ratio of guide

wavelength h, to free-space

approximate equation is given for the normal- ized phase velocity VP and for the frequency- dependent line impedance Z for standard mi- crostriptransmissionlines.Comparison with available experimental data and computed data shows that the error of the approximation is less than 3 percent for microstrip transmission lines commonly used in engineering applications.

The dispersion characteristics of shielded and open microstrip transmission lines have been investigated experimentally and theo- retically by many authors (11-[19]. The results obtained by both methods are as follows.

wavelength )io. An

Manuscript

September 10. 1971.

1971;

revised

PROCEEDINGS LETIZRS

r-----l

00

w=O.I27crn

10

I

20

FREQUENCY f GHz

I

I

30

1

Fig. 1.

Microstrip dispersion for standard microstrip transmission line in rectangular channel forw =h =0.127 cm.

a function of frequency for cI =2.65, 4.20, 8.875, and 20.0. Theoretical curves (dotted curves)

5p is plotted as

0

I

2

MEASURED (HARTWIG. MASSE a PUCEL*)

3

FREQUENCY f

GHZ

4

S

6

145

1 I,,,,;0246810

FREOUENCY f GHz

Fig. 2. Normalized phase velocity sp plotted as a func- tion of frequency for standard microstrip transmis- sion line with a relative dielectric constant of the substrate +=15.87. Experimental points by Den- linger 131.

Equations (1x5) are fulfilled by the ra- tional function

1

Bp = --

.\/€+eft

E/sttbP

+6

fa* +1

(6)

where the normalized frequency f is defined bY

with h as the substrate thickness. The cutoff

frequency fc of the TE1 surface wave

is

where co= 3.10'0 cm/s is the velocity of light in free space, and the effective dielectric con- stant teff is given by [21]

4ff

€,+I

= -

2

+

€7-1

1

10h

(9)

 Fig. 3. Normalized phase velocity itp plotted as a function of frequency for standard microstrip transmission line with a relative dielectric constant of the substrate eI = 104. Experimental points by Hartwig, W, and Puce1

[4]; static approximation based on work by Wheeler

1) The normalized phase velocity Bp is a monotonically decreasing function of the fre- quency f. 2) The normalized phase velocity and its first-order derivative at f=O are given by

acp

(1)

(2)

The effective dielectric constant is defined by Gff= C/Co,where C is the static capacitance per unit length of the microstrip transmission linewith thedielectricand Cois the capacitance per unit length without the dielectric. 3) The normalized phase velocity and its

[22].

first-order derivative for f-

are given by

where w is the width of the strip. It should be noted that (6) is an engineer- ing approximation because it satisfies only

1 (1~5).

(31

f*P .\/z

A plot of the normalized phase velocity

from (6); the measured

versus frequency for various microstrip trans- mission lines with different geometrical line parameters and different relative dielectric constants is shown in Figs. 1-3. The solid

lines are computed

points and the dotted lines are based on ex- perimental and computed data published by Mittra and Itoh [2], Denlinger [3], and Hart- wig, Masse, and Puce1 [4]. Comparison with these data shows that the error of the approx- imation is less than 3 percent. The wave impedance of dispersive lines is defined as the ratio of the transverse electric

field to the transverse magnetic field at some

(4)

where E, is the relative dielectric constant of the substrate. 4) The second-order derivative of Ep with respect to f is zero in the vicinity of the cutoff frequency of the lowest order transverse elec- tric surface wave (TE1 surface wave [20]):

146

specified point of the transmission line. The computation of the wave impedance of stan- dard microstrip transmission lines is compli- cated and thevalue of the impedance depends upon the choice of the field point.

A different definition of the wave im-

pedance has been proposed by Denlinger [3]. The impedance is defined by Z= l/oC, where D is the velocity of the propagating wave and C is the static capacitance of the microstrip transmission line per unit length. One obtains for the ratio Z/Zofor f = 0

and for the wave impedance

where Zois the static characteristic impedance of the microstrip transmission line with the dielectric removed (e,= 1). Equation (11) can be extended to f>O by using the frequency- dependent ratio 5p = X,/Ao given by (6).Equa- tion (11) has some similarities with the equa- tion for the TE-wave impedance of a rec- tangular waveguide. This can be explained by

that the first-order perturbation of

the fact

the hybrid microstrip mode can be described by transverse electric currents on the strip, that means transverse electric fields in the cross-sectional plane of the microstrip. The

wave impedance of a rectangular waveguide with dimensions a and b for the fundamental TElo modeis defined by

Since a = 26 for most

engineering applications, one obtains

waveguide sizes used in

where d&=

impedance of free space.

1%

ohm

is

the

intrinsic

MARTINV. SCHNEIDER

Crawford Hill Lab. Bell Telephone Labs., Inc. Holmdel, N.J. 07733

REFERENCES

[l] 1. Zysman and D. Varon, “Wave

propagation in

microstrip tines,” in I%9 G-MlT Int. Microwave

Symp. Dig.

(Dallas, Tex

May

1969).pp.3-9

(IEEE Cat. 69c6).

(21 R. Wttra and T. Itoh, “A new technique for the analysis of the dispersion characteristic of micro- strip lina,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-19, pp. 47-54 Jan. 1971.

[3] E. J. Denlinger, “A frequency dependent solution

for microstrip transmission lines,” IEEE Trans.

 Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MlT-19, pp. 30-39, Jan. 1971.

[4] C. P. Hartwig, D. Mad, and R. A. Pucel, “Fre- quency dependent behavior of microstrip.” in I968 G-MlTInt. Microwace Syrnp. Dig. (Detroit, Mich., May 1968). pp. 110-116 (IEEE Cat. 68C38).

analysis of microstrip by

[S] P. Daly, “Hybrid-mode

finite-element methods,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-19. pp. 19-25. Jan. 1971. [q P. Troughton, “Measurement techniques in micro-

strip,’’ Elecfron. Left., vol. 5, pp. 25-26, Jan. 23,

[7]

R. E. Cooke. “Dispersion characteristics of micro- strip transmission lines,” in Proc. I969 European Microwave Conf. (London, England, Sept. 1969).

1969.

p. 2

(Inst. Elec. Eng. Conf. Publ. 58).

[8] J. S. Homby and A. Gopinath, “Fourier analysk

a dielectric-loaded waveguide with a microstrip

line.” Electron. Lefr., vol. 5. pp. 265-267, June 12,

waveguide with a microstrip line-Finite-difference methods,” IEEE Trans. Microwace Theory Tech., vol. MTT-17, pp. 684-690, Sept. 1969. [IO] -, “Numerical solutions of inhomogeneously filled guides with symmetrical microstrip line,” in Proc. 1969 European Microwave Conf. (London, England, Sept. 1969). pp. 114-117 (Inst. Elec. Eng. Conf. Publ. 58).

G. Kowalewski and R. Regla, “Dispersion charac- teristics of shielded microstrips with finite thick- ness,” Arch. Elek. Vberfragung., vol. 25, pp. 193- 196, Apr. 1971.

[12] J. C. Minor and D. M. Bolle, “Modes in the shielded microstrip on a ferrite substrate trans- versely magnetized in the plane of the substrate,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT- 19, pp. 570-577, July 1971.

[I31 S. Arnold, “Dispersive effects in microstrip on alumina substrates,” Electron. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 673-674. k.27, 1969. [I41 P. Troughton. “The evaluation of alumina sub- strates foruse in microwave integrated arcuits.” in Proc. I969 European Microwace Con5 (London,

1969). pp. 49-52 (Inst. Elec. Eng.

Conf. Publ. 58). [I51 W.J. Chudobiak. 0.P. Jain, and V. Makios, “Dis- persion in microstrip,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (Corresp.), vol. MTT-19. pp.783- 784, Sept. 1971. [la] 0.P. Jain, V. Makios, and W. J. Chudobiak, “The dispersive behavior of microstrip transmission lines.” in Proc. I971 European Microwaoe Conf. (Stockholm, Sweden,Aug.1971).pp. C3/5:1-

[I 11

of

1969.

(91 -,

England, Sept.

c3/5:4.

[I71 A. Laloux and A. Vander Vorst. “The dispersive

character of microstrip lines,” in Proc. I971 Euro.

peon Microwace Conf. (Stockholm. Sweden, Aug.

1971). pp. C3/6: I-C3/6:3.

[18] G. Gruneberger and H. H. Meinke. “A theory of

the mrcrostrip line including longitudinal wmpo- nents,” in Proc. I971 European Microwace Conf. (Stockholm, Sweden, Aug.1971). pp. C4/2:1- C4/2 :4. 1191 T. Itoh and R. Mittra, “Dispersion characterintics

of microstrip lines,” in Proc. I971 European Micro- wace Conf. (Stockholm, Sweden,Aug.1971),p.

c4/3.

 [zo] R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Warns. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960, pp. 470-477. [ZI] M. V. Schadder, “Microstrip lines for microwave integrated arcuits,” &I1 Sysr. Tech. 1 vol. 48, pp. 1421-1444, May-Ju~1969. [U] H. A. Wheeler, “Transmission-line propeniea of parallel strips separated by a didearic sheet,” IEEE Trans. MicrowaveTheory Tech., vol. MTT-13. pp. 172-185. Mar. 1965.

El€ects of FFT .Coefficient Quantiza- tion on Bin Frequency Response

Abstract-A method is presented for anal-

yzing the effcts of quantization of coefficients on the frequency response of any frequency bin of the fast Fourier transform IFFTI algorithm. Al- though more detail is easily obtained, we con- centrateonpredictingthelocations and sizes of all spurioussidelobes in the frequency re- sponse which are above any specified level.

Certain

ticular window or weighting function that .is being used. Spurious sidelobes or artifacts are extra ridelobes which are introduced if the FFT

Coefficients are quantized.

sidelobes are present due to the par-

PROCEEDINGS OF THE BEE, JANUARY 1972

INTRODU~ONAND ASSUMPTIONS

The effects of coefficient quantization on the frequency response of a fast Fourier trans- form (FFT) frequency bin have not been well characterized. This is in contrast to the effects of quantization of the inputdata elements and rounding or truncation of the results of multi- ples and additions, which have been treated

11 I-WI.

Our analysis is based on the assumption

that, even though the FFT coefficients are quantized, the arithmetic of the FFTaIgorithm is carried out exactly. In addition to making the results of our analysis exact, this assump tion is motivated as follows:

1) The case of exact arithmetic provides a

useful performance bound. 2) Our method of analyzing the effects of quantization of FFT coefficients can be used to reduce the number of bits per coefficient (or, perhaps better, the coefficient complexity [5]) to the minimum possible amount for a given level of performance. Hence it is feasi- ble and probably efficient to utilize “double- precision” accumulation [6]to realizethe pre- dicted performance exactly. 3) We wish to focus our attention on the part of the FFT design procedure which is presently in worst shape. The effects of input quantization and arithmetic roundoff can be treated separately. By performance we mean the level of spuri- ous sidelobes in the frequency response. of the FFT frequency bins. Spurious sidelobes are those due to coefficient quantization, not those sidelobes due to the particular window or weighting function being used.

STEPS OF THE ANALYSIS

If the arithmetic is carried out exactly with the quantized coefficients, then each FFT bin output is a linear functional of its N input data elements. And, therefore, we can represent the output of any FFT bin as an inner product of two wctors-the data Dector anda reference Dector [7].

The value of the reference vector is that one canuse it to convert the FFT problem to an equivalent narrow-band digital filtering

P roblem which has already been investigated 51. Specifically, if the complex-valued refer-

ence vector (ro, rl

bin is used as the reference sequence for a cross-correlation narrow-band digital filter [SI, then the digital filter (again using exact arithmetic) would produce the same complex- valued outputs as the nth bin of the FFT prcr

cessor. Hence the frequency response of the digital filter can be determined by the meth- ods of [5] for example, and this frequency response is the frequency response of the nth FFT bin.

CALCULATION OF THE REFERENCE VECrOR

The above method for determining the fre- quency response of the nth FlT bin requires that we have the reference vector of that bin. We find the reference vector by simply finding how each input data element separately influ- ence the complex output of the nth FFT bin. Using the desired version of the FFT algo- rithm on a general purpose digital computer, with the coeficients quantized in themanner of interest (and making sure that the word lengths are such that exact arithmetic is car-

TN-~) of the nth FFT